04 Livestock Contributions

Information about 04 Livestock Contributions

Published on November 26, 2007

Author: Columbia

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Agricultural “Development”, Sustainability, and The Roles of Livestock:  Agricultural “Development”, Sustainability, and The Roles of Livestock Objectives:  Objectives 1- What are Some of the Major Differences Between Temperate and Tropical Conditions? 2- What Does Sustainable Agriculture Mean? 3- What is a “Resource-Poor” Farm? 4- How do Livestock Contribute to Economic, Social and Environmental “Sustainability”? 5- Does Livestock Agriculture “Burden” the Community and Contribute to Environmental Problems? What are Some of the Major Differences Between Temperate and Tropical Conditions?:  What are Some of the Major Differences Between Temperate and Tropical Conditions? Just About Everything Is Unique:  Just About Everything Is Unique “Carrying Capacity” of the Environment (African Example):  “Carrying Capacity” of the Environment (African Example) Livestock Adaptation to Agroecological Zones (Africa Example):  Livestock Adaptation to Agroecological Zones (Africa Example) Arid Semiarid Subhumid Humid Highlands* < 90 90 - 180 180 - 270 > 270 < 20°C * Defined as areas within semiarid, subhumid, and humid zones where the mean daily temperature during the growing period is less than 20°C. < 500 500 - 1000 1000 - 1500 > 1500 n.a. Agro- ecological zones Length Growing Period (days) Rainfall (mm) Resistance to Diseases (Parasite Infestations):  Resistance to Diseases (Parasite Infestations) Forage Quality:  Forage Quality 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 5 10 15 20 25 30 Dry matter digestibility, % Plant (i.e., Forage) Relative frequency, % Van Soest, 1994 Response to Genetic Selection (Example of U.S. Holstein Sires in Latin America):  Response to Genetic Selection (Example of U.S. Holstein Sires in Latin America) Stanton et al., 1991 JDS 74:651 Class of standard deviation for milk yield 625 812.5 937.5 1062.5 1187.5 1375 1625 1875 2125 3866 7832 4175 5415 4906 6751 20 20 21 14 11 11 2 <1 0 Colombia 0 3 6 11 18 39 17 5 2 Mexico 6 12 25 27 19 10 2 0 0 Puerto-Rico % of the herds Expected Response What Does Sustainable Agriculture mean?:  What Does Sustainable Agriculture mean? A Definition of Sustainable Agriculture:  … that are organized to satisfy multiple goals: Provide fiber and food Sustain the economic viability of farm operation Enhance the quality of life for the farmers, their families, and communities in socially acceptable ways. Make the most efficient use of nonrenewable resources and on-farm resources (including when appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls) to enhance environmental quality and the natural resource base upon which the agricultural economy depends. A Definition of Sustainable Agriculture An integrated system including: natural resources: Land/soil; crops; animals; climate, etc. economic resources: capital, labor, management, etc…. Dairy production systems:  Dairy production systems What is a Resource-Poor Farm?:  What is a Resource-Poor Farm? A Resource Poor Farm:  A Resource Poor Farm A unit operated by a single family A few acreage Production used primarily for family subsistence Sales of animal related products vary from 40 to 70% of gross farm income Little or no savings capital investment reliance on external (market) inputs Significant dependence on livestock for survival Slide15:  Mexico Autlan, Jaliso, Mexico:  Autlan, Jaliso, Mexico Slide17:  Mexico Slide18:  Bolivia Bolivia Total Mixed Ration:  Total Mixed Ration Bolivia How do livestock contribute to economic, social and environmental “sustainability”?:  How do livestock contribute to economic, social and environmental “sustainability”? Milk:  Milk Cambodia China Ethiopia Slide22:  Thailand Nepal Ethiopia Traction / draught power Ploughing Irrigation pumping water lifting Nepal Slide23:  Nepal China Nepal Traction / draught power Hauling farm inputs (feeds) Hauling farm output (milk) Human locomotion Animal vs. Tractor Power in Agriculture:  Animal vs. Tractor Power in Agriculture Region / Country Animal Mechanical Total % from Animal Africa 2,095 449 2,544 82 Far East* 19,591 282 19,873 99 Near East 3,320 436 3,756 88 Latin America 6,731 2,289 9,020 75 U.S. 28 21,238 21,266 1 India 15,481 119 15,600 99 Turkey 1,480 192 1,672 88 Brazil 2,604 326 2,930 89 South Africa 24 535 559 4 Germany 378 3,453 3,831 12 France 902 2,883 3,785 24 Spain 536 520 1,056 51 Thousands of Megacalories per year * Excluding china Threshing:  Threshing “Labor” in a Brick Factory:  “Labor” in a Brick Factory China China Slide27:  China Manure Intensification of crops Source of income Fuel Construction material Nutrient (N and P) transfer through the landscape China Does Livestock Agriculture “burden” the Community and Contribute to Environmental Problems?:  Does Livestock Agriculture “burden” the Community and Contribute to Environmental Problems? Livestock Manure Improves Crop Yields (Example of Sorghum Crops in Burkina Faso):  Livestock Manure Improves Crop Yields (Example of Sorghum Crops in Burkina Faso) Years 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 500 1000 2000 1500 2500 Sorghum grain yield (kg/ha) (Sédoga, 1993) Livestock Manure Improves Soils (Example of Savanna Soils in Nigeria over 45 years):  Livestock Manure Improves Soils (Example of Savanna Soils in Nigeria over 45 years) 0 10 20 30 Cation exchange capacity (centimol per kg soi)l No input NPK Manure Manure + NPK 40 0 2 4 6 Carbon content (g per kg of soil) Improving Soil Fertility on Crop Land: “Precision” Manuring:  Improving Soil Fertility on Crop Land: “Precision” Manuring Nutrient Redistribution on the Landscape:  Nutrient Redistribution on the Landscape Mexico “Limitations” due to Livestock:  “Limitations” due to Livestock Livestock may compete for land, labor and capital resources on the farm: Livestock compete with crop land and increase the risk of damage to crops Livestock requires daily labor, care and management Livestock may be tethered for extended periods of time during the cropping season leading to low productivity and increase exposure to diseases (internal parasites) If mishandled animal products may cause health problems “Limitations” due to Livestock:  “Limitations” due to Livestock If mismanaged, livestock may also contribute to environmental degradation Soil erosion Methane production? Forest clearing for grazing ? Deforestation and Cattle Production In The Tropics:  Animal production systems are often perceived to be a major force in the problem of resource degradation Deforestation and Cattle Production In The Tropics Deforestation and degradation of undisturbed ecosystems are often driven by: A growing population (demand for wood for construction, road construction, etc.) Need to increase agricultural export to pay for external debt Cycles of cropping followed by declining soil fertility and crop failure occur before the introduction of animals to an environment which is already degraded Ruminants livestock usually follows the opening up of new areas and are only one aspect of a series of interrelated actions that convert a forest or savannah to other uses for short-term economic gain Contribution of Livestock, a partial list:  Contribution of Livestock, a partial list Food security Insurance against crop failure (drought, etc.) High quality protein, minerals, and vitamins Income from the sale of products Milk, meat Hides, skins, manure, other Manure Intensification of food production without cultivating marginal land Source of income (fuel or construction material) Critical in nutrient recycling (N and P) allowing intensification Traction / draught power Ploughing Irrigation pumping (water lifting) Threshing grains Hauling farm inputs (feeds) and output (milk) Human locomotion Contribution of livestock, a partial list (cont’d):  Contribution of livestock, a partial list (cont’d) Capital storage / savings Buffer food shortages Buffer cash shortages Socioeconomic status Efficient feed resource utilization to serve human needs Rangelands Fallow land and communal land Crop residues (straw, stover, etc.) Agricultural by-products (brewer’s grain, wheat bran, etc.) Biodiversity conservation plant population (grazing, seed distribution, multipurpose trees) soils (erosion control) Agro-sylvo-pastoralism Religious obligations

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