Published on March 10, 2008
Fostering Creativity: Fostering Creativity Week 07 Fostering Creativity: Fostering Creativity Requisite Conditions For Creativity Creativity: Can It Be Taught? Teaching Creativity Techniques The Educational System And Creativity Requisite Conditions For Creativity: Requisite Conditions For Creativity “Did he do it?” The Big Three: “Did he do it?” The Big Three “Did he have… Motive Means Opportunity Motive: Motive What motivates the creative person? Been suggested it is… Fame (Recognition) Artist over-compensating for failure elsewhere Exhibitionist Fortune ($) While these may be factors, it is certain that intrinsic motivation is more important, for the chance of achieving fame or fortune is small… Motive: Motive What motivates the creative person? Intrinsic motivation: - Extrinsic motivation damages creativity (Hennessey et al) Self-satisfaction, achievement of self-determined goals important Goal orientation intense Determination Monomania Motive: Effort: Motive: Effort “Genius is one per cent inspiration and ninety-nine per cent perspiration.” -- Thomas Edison Perspiration vs. Inspiration Motive: Effort Clearly Matters: Motive: Effort Clearly Matters The eminently creative work extremely hard. Four examples from various fields: Balzac Picasso Mozart Descartes Reference To Art Reading: Reference To Art Reading Major Points This is a close look at what actually goes into writing a poem. Spender clearly takes a different approach to his art and craft than the ‘inspired’ teen-ager writing his first love poem. Discussion Questions Is what distinguishes the real, accomplished artist or scientist talent -- or simply effort and commitment? But is effort and commitment enough? Spender’s “The Making of a Poem” Means: Means Requisite skills other than general creativity Intelligence Specific skills Training Knowledge of the past, and of what matters Opportunity: Opportunity Field must be ripe for innovation Consider Einstein Consider Cezanne Freedom in terms of time to work Need to eat: the ‘day job’ Artists with families Freedom in terms of access to facilities Consider plight of contemporary composers Consider plight of those in the ‘Third World’ “Mute Inglorious Miltons”: “Mute Inglorious Miltons” “Elegy Written In A Country Church-yard” Thomas Gray Full many a gem of purest ray serene The dark unfathom'd caves of ocean bear: Full many a flower is born to blush unseen, And waste its sweetness on the desert air. Some village-Hampden, that with dauntless breast The little tyrant of his fields withstood, Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest, Some Cromwell, guiltless of his country's blood. Creativity: Can It Be Taught?: Creativity: Can It Be Taught? Fostering: Possible or Futile?: Fostering: Possible or Futile? Does everyone really have great creative potential? Creativity: Can It Be Taught?: Creativity: Can It Be Taught? Creativity can be fostered versus ‘Ya got it or ya don’t!’ Much depends on the definition of creativity Silliness of ‘creative’ this and that (e.g., dieting, divorce, dying, etc.) Much depends on whether one takes creativity as a dichotomy or a continuum Important distinction between skills and creative use of those skills Nature/Nurture Debate: Nature/Nurture Debate Galton to Jensen Political implications confounds Recurring problem of definition They breed horses, don’t they? Or consider dogs… Arguments For Nature: Arguments For Nature Great families evidence (Bachs, Huxleys, etc.) Early interest evidence Creativity’s appearance in the most unlikely of family environments Arguments for Nurture: Arguments for Nurture Commonality in childhoods (Based on case studies, anecdotal and psychometric evidence) Often unhappy childhoods Even more often unusual childhoods ‘Lonely’ childhoods Caveat: the biographical fallacy! Adler’s sibling order hypothesis (only-child evidence) Pinker’s The Blank Slate: Pinker’s The Blank Slate History of the ‘Blank Slate’ idea (Locke, et al) Where the data is most meaningful Twin studies Stephen Pinker’s analysis Nature 50 % Nurture 10 % Environmental ‘accidents’ 40 % Relate this to studies just considered Untutored Artist: Henri Rousseau: Untutored Artist: Henri Rousseau Visual Art Interlude: The Art Of Henri Rousseau A “Sunday Painter”, a “naïve artist”, “a primitive”, an untutored artist considered one of the greats. Slide show runs by itself after click Music: Discussion Issue: Discussion Issue Rousseau What does he tell us about inherent creativity and skill and training? Creativity: Can It Be Taught?: Creativity: Can It Be Taught? Why is the distribution of creativity so skewed (Walberg et al)? 15% of scientists responsible for 85% of publications and citations 15% of rock and opera singers account for 85% of sales 15% of authors account for 85% of book sales Creativity: Can It Be Taught?: Creativity: Can It Be Taught? Is creativity just a part of intelligence? Remember that creativity as separate entity is a fairly recent idea If different, how related? IQ necessary but not sufficient (Chambers’ floor) 2x2 intelligence/creativity matrix (Getzels & Jackson) Teacher ratings: liked most HI-LC; liked least LI-HC Happiness with school: most happy HI-LC; least happy LI-HC Creativity: Can It Be Taught?: Creativity: Can It Be Taught? Intelligence and creativity. “He’s a great actor, but he’s stupid as a stick!” Creativity: Can It Be Taught?: Creativity: Can It Be Taught? Perhaps it’s reasonable to consider creativity as a special problem solving skill Some people good at math problems Some people good at design problems Some people good at writing and others at drawing Teaching Creativity: Teaching Creativity Teaching Creativity: Teaching Creativity Key Question: Why do we assume we cannot increase intelligence (at least in adults), but we can increase creativity? Two Who Have Claimed They Can Osborn De Bono Teaching Creativity: Osborn: Teaching Creativity: Osborn Osborn’s “Brainstorming” Group problem solving Osborn’s ground rules Allow no criticism Be freewheeling Aim for quantity, not quality Use ideas as stepping stones Does it work? Apparently not! Reasons Teaching Creativity: De Bono: Teaching Creativity: De Bono De Bono’s Enterprise Teaching Creativity: De Bono: Teaching Creativity: De Bono DeBono’s “Lateral Thinking” Break mental set Whole set of techniques to do so Does it work Not really fully tested Although the idea is sensible Ultimate question remains… Can you make an uncreative individual creative in any meaningful sense of the word? Debate: Debate Pro: Creativity is teachable. Con: Creativity is not teachable. Teaching Creativity: Teaching Creativity Radio Show On The Topic 28 m The Educational System: The Educational System The Educational System: The Educational System Those who can, do. Those who can't, teach. Those who can't teach, train teachers. “It is the supreme art of the teacher to awaken joy in creative expression and knowledge.” (Albert Einstein) Fosters or Stifles Creativity? Education: Fostering Creativity?: Education: Fostering Creativity? Fostering techniques Unstructured teaching: open classrooms Suppression of teacher criticism Promotion of so-called ‘self-esteem’ Greater freedom in choosing and doing learning projects But do they work? Is it just lip service being paid to the promotion of creativity? Education: Stifling Creativity?: Education: Stifling Creativity? What may stifle creativity Disruptive and threatening behaviour still frowned upon – and has to be! The possible destructive effects of extrinsic motivation on intrinsic motivation Must be remembered that criticism is a kind of encouragement (‘always tell ‘em they don’t have it’) The self-satisfied never accomplish anything The emphasis of cooperation and group work may be counter-productive to creativity Education: Stifling Creativity?: Education: Stifling Creativity? “Our entire school system is based on the notion of passive students that must be ‘taught’ if they are to learn. . . . Our country spends tens of billions of dollars each year not just giving students a second-rate education, but at the same time actively preventing them from getting an education on their own. And I'm angry at how school produces submissive students with battered egos. Most students have no idea of the true joys of learning, and of how much they can actually achieve on their own.” Adam Robinson, co-founder of The Princeton Review Education: Stifling Creativity?: Education: Stifling Creativity? “The function of education has never been to free the mind and spirit of man, but to bind them; and to the end that the mind and spirit of his children should never escape Homo sapiens has employed praise, ridicule, admonition, accusation, mutilation, and even torture to chain them to the culture pattern . . . for where every man is unique there is no society, and where there is no society there can be no man. Contemporary American educators think they want creative children, yet it is an open question as to what they expect these children to create. And certainly the classrooms -- from kindergarten to graduate school -- in which they expect it to happen are not crucibles of creative activity and thought. It stands to reason that were young people truly creative the culture would fall apart, for originality, by definition, is different from what is given, and what is given is the culture itself. From the endless, pathetic, "creative hours" of kindergarten to the most abstruse problems in sociology and anthropology, the function of education is to prevent the truly creative intellect from getting out of hand.” Jules Henry, Culture Against Man Education and Creativity: Education and Creativity It is worth noting that very few creative individuals (in the arts, at least) were good students or felt their formal education did anything to promote or support their creative endeavors. Reference To Critical Reading: Reference To Critical Reading Major Points “Formal education fails to develop latent ability to think along divergent lines among the most able children.” Informal schooling is preferable. Discussion Question Is the school system, because of the necessity to teach groups, simply the wrong place to teach creativity? Should they not just stick to teaching information and skills? Haddon’s “Teaching Approach…” Final Thought: Final Thought Slide52: End of this section……….