Published on October 17, 2007
AS-75.1101 – Median lajityypit: AS-75.1101 – Median lajityypit User-Generated Content in Broadcast and Social Media Agenda: Agenda User-Generated Content Phenomenon, Issues & Examples Social Media Applications based on User-Generated Content Conclusions What does this mean for traditional media? Slide3: User-Generated Content Phenomenon, Issues & Examples User-Generated ContentDefinition: User-Generated Content Definition Refers to various kinds of media content that is produced or primarily influenced by end-users opposition to traditional media producers, licensed broadcasters, and production companies User-generated content has also been characterized as 'Conversational Media' ( Two way process) as opposed to 'Packaged Goods Media' ( One-way distribution) User-Generated ContentCharacteristics: User-Generated Content Characteristics Conversational or two-way media is a key characteristic of the so-called Web 2.0, which encourages the publishing of one's own content and the commenting on other people's Content Enrichment: enriching existing content via Additional content Additional media forms (pictures, videos, animations, …) Descriptive information: metadata, bookmarks Structural reorganization … Professional-Generated ContentCharacteristics: Professional-Generated Content Characteristics Professional-Generated Content (engineered content) Is created by established knowledge experts content owners both are part of a business organization Is usually expert-edited Control of quality More reliable and credible due to oversight (Chin 2006) Professional-Generated Content vs. User-Generated Content: Professional-Generated Content vs. User-Generated Content Professional-Generated Content Periodically created Created by professionals Edited by professionals Structure Quality control Objective in nature Facts Explanations User-Generated Content Created at will Created by amateurs Rarely edited Free form Rarely quality control Subjective in nature Opinions Questions (Chin 2006) Community control User-Generated ContentIssues: User-Generated Content Issues Ownership Professional-Generated Content is the intellectual property of the organization Who owns UGC (UGC based on corporate resources)? Quality and relevance Any user can create UGC (multiple points of entry) Difficult to control: Quality Relevance Credibility All users can become potential content providers Little is known about their credibility and their content (Chin 2006) User-Generated ContentIssues: User-Generated Content Issues Structure Dependent on the media form (text, audio, video, …) UGC is difficult to Structure Classify Index (Metadata see Folksonomies) Oversight & Control Who has control over development, creation, editing & quality of UGC? Anyone? Everyone? How is the submission governed and moderated (if at all) (Chin 2006) User-Generated ContentPros & Cons: User-Generated Content Pros & Cons (Chin 2006) User-Generated ContentModerating: User-Generated Content Moderating Biggest issue in utilizing UGC in a professional environment is the credibility and oversight of the information being provided Three ways to moderate: Pre-production moderation: Content is submitted (or edited) by users It is NOT made available in the production environment Reviewed and verified by knowledge experts If they deem that the content is relevant and will be useful to users, the content is made live Pre-production moderation will ensure the highest level of quality Delay between the time when content is written and when it is made live (Chin 2006) User-Generated ContentModerating: User-Generated Content Moderating Post-production moderation: Content is submitted (or edited) by users Immediately viewable by everyone the moment it is posted Knowledge experts review the live content and make necessary changes (or delete entire entries) Post-production moderation makes content availability much quicker May contain more errors or irrelevant submissions The integrity of the organization will depend on how quickly questionable or irrelevant content is caught (Chin 2006) User-Generated ContentModerating: User-Generated Content Moderating Peer-based moderation: Content is submitted (or edited) by users Immediately live Is NOT moderated by official knowledge experts Other users govern other users' submissions If they notice errors or questionable content, they report/flag it to official organization owners for action This community driven editing process relies on the conscientiousness of users to ensure the integrity of the content Sometimes there are quality ratings of UGC by other users (e.g., on a scale of 1 to 5) (Chin 2006) User-Generated ContentModerating: User-Generated Content Moderating Some users think that UGC moderation is an oxymoron contradictory by nature They believe that UGC must remain a grassroots initiative Any attempts to police it will go against they spirit of UGC BUT: In an organizational environment, there must be some measure of oversight To ensure the quality and accuracy of content Especially when the posted content might be used in a (the) decision-making process (Chin 2006) User-Generated ContentExample: Channel 4 – FourDocs: User-Generated Content Example: Channel 4 – FourDocs UK (Private Internet Channel) Designed for people to showcase their documentaries Users can upload and download four minutes long documentaries The channel provides a large knowledge base of practical (audiovisual) guides on how to make documentaries (guides & manuals on shooting, editing, directing film, on sound and lighting and on compressing and uploading the films) People who have uploaded a documentary to FourDocs receive comments from the FourDocs’ professional editorial team as well as from other users All reviews are published on the website Currently (October 2006) approximately 200 films have been published on the website (Leurdijk 2007) User-Generated ContentExample: Channel 4 – FourDocs: User-Generated Content Example: Channel 4 – FourDocs The website also contains a library of free, already cleared material that people can use in their own 4 minutes documentaries In contrast to websites like YouTube and MySpace, FourDocs is moderated: Channel4 and the editors of the site want to bring their ideas on good documentary making, quality, decency and public values to the users The video quality on FourDocs is higher than the video quality on Google Video, MySpace or YouTube The editorial team checks the legal aspects of the films (copyrights infringements, libel, infringement on legal procedures, etc.) The aim is to publish all uploaded films within 10 days time (Leurdijk 2007) User-Generated ContentExample: Channel 4 – FourDocs: User-Generated Content Example: Channel 4 – FourDocs All contributors to FourDocs are required to make their work available on a Creative Commons license Everyone can download and use the material on the site Users need to make their own work available on similar conditions, and provided that they use it for their own purposes in a non-commercial, attributive, no-derivatives way Users must give credit and others can not make any money from your film. Neither can they take any clips from your film out of context (Leurdijk 2007) Slide18: Social Media Applications based on User-Generated Content Social MediaDefinition: Social Media Definition A definition of social media created by a social medium Wikipedia: Social media describe the online tools and platforms that people use to share opinions, insights, experiences, and perspectives with each other. Social media can take many different (media) forms, including text, images, audio, and video. It has not yet been determined whether the term "social media" will end referring to charitable works online specifically, or community-driven participatory content sharing generally. Social media represent the real-world applications to assist user generated content creation and publishing Social MediaTypes: Social Media Types Popular social media Blogs Message boards Podcasts Wikis Vlogs Social MediaTypes: Blogs & Vlogs: Social Media Types: Blogs & Vlogs Web logs & Video logs A blog is a user-generated website where entries are made in journal style and displayed in a reverse chronological order “Sometimes viewed as a new, grassroots form of journalism and a way to shape democracy outside the mass media and conventional party politics” (Nardi, 2004) Five major motivations to blog (Nardi, 2004) Blogs to ‘document my life’ (diary) Blogs as commentary (expressing opinions) Blogs as catharsis (emotional reflection of yourself) Blog as muse (idea testing, writing for others) Blogs as community forum (communication with others) Social MediaTypes: Blogs & Vlogs: Social Media Types: Blogs & Vlogs A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, web pages, and other media related to its topic The ability for readers to leave comments in an interactive format is an important part of many blogs Most blogs are primarily textual, some focus Photographs (photoblog), Sketchblog Videos (vlog) Audio (podcasting) Are part of a wider network of social media More than 60 million blogs worldwide (Wikipedia) Social MediaExample: Personal blog: Social Media Example: Personal blog Social MediaTypes: Message boards: Social Media Types: Message boards Internet forum Date back until 1995 Is a facility on the WWW for holding discussions and posting user generated content Similar to newsgroups in 1980s-1990s No additional software required web-based The term "forum" and "board" may refer to the entire community or a specific forum within the community Are administered & moderated Users/Members have an avatar (picture, figure) Anonymity Social MediaTypes: Podcasts & vodcasts: Social Media Types: Podcasts & vodcasts iPod broadcasts & Video iPod broadcasts is a media file that is distributed by subscription (paid or unpaid) over the Internet Uses syndication feeds for playback on mobile devices and personal computers It can mean both the content and the method of syndication (like radio) The idea of broadcasting to a container or pod correctly describes the process of podcasting No streaming – downloaded automatically (push-model) using RSS or Atom Social MediaTypes: Wikis: Social Media Types: Wikis Wikis “Wiki“ – a Hawaiian-language word for fast Is a website that allows the visitors themselves to easily add, remove, and otherwise edit and change available content without the need for registration Effective tool for mass collaborative authoring The term can also refer to the collaborative software itself (wiki engine) that facilitates the operation of such a Web site Enables documents to be written (collaboratively) in a simple markup language using a web browser Moderation by other users: there is generally no review before modifications are accepted Usually server-side, can be client-side or peer-to-peer Social MediaTypes: Wikis: Social Media Types: Wikis Slide28: Conclusions What does this mean for traditional media? ConclusionsTraditional Media Production: Conclusions Traditional Media Production What does that mean for traditional media production? Traditional media companies need to change on many levels (business model, workflow, technology) in order to include UGC and to have profit How could this be done? What do users want? Market change is still underway Companies try to keep old models as long as possible avoiding costs of change Companies are careful in implementing new things biggest obstacle: business models (Leurdijk, 2007) ConclusionsExample: Helsingin Sanomat: Conclusions Example: Helsingin Sanomat User-Generated ContentExample: Vara Comedy: User-Generated Content Example: Vara Comedy Netherlands (Public Broadcaster) is in the process of reorganizing its production process in order to become a cross media organization Vara’s Comedy offer is exploited on different platforms Open channel: broadcast of live and recorded comedy Digital thematic comedy channel: recycles archive content Through the Online magazine (Greinz.nl), that will include (partly user generated) videos, pictures, cartoons, columns and games, published 4 times a year (Leurdijk 2007) User-Generated ContentExample: Vara Comedy: User-Generated Content Example: Vara Comedy On the Comedy web portal (http://variatee.vara.nl/) offers access to over 40 hours archive material 3-5 minutes comedy clips There are a weekly top 10 and listings of the most viewed clips The clips can be rated by viewers and viewers can suggest to include material that is not yet represented on the site Google Video (thumbnails, refreshed daily) Comedy content is also played out on mobile platforms (daily distribution of one clip), radio, pod& vodcasts and in events such as comedy battles between schools organized by the broadcaster (Leurdijk 2007) User-Generated ContentExample: Vara Comedy: User-Generated Content Example: Vara Comedy The digital channels and events are used as a platform for young talents Vara will scout young talents and will invite them to produce low cost short films, for the digital channel and possibly also for the other platforms (web portal, open channel) There will be space for user generated content within Vara’s comedy offer, but this is not yet of strategic importance The content will be moderated, to guarantee certain quality and decency standards (Leurdijk 2007) References: References Chin, P. (2006). The Value of User-Generated Content. Intranet Journal. www.intranetjournal.com/articles/200603/pij_03_07_06a.html Leurdijk, A. (2007). Will Broadcasters Survive in the Online and Digital Domain? Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Interactive Television. Amsterdam, Netherlands. Nardi, B.A. (2004). Why we blog. Communications of the ACM 47(12), 41-46. Thank you!: Thank you! Questions? Comments?