1 2006 parasitology definitions

Information about 1 2006 parasitology definitions

Published on October 24, 2007

Author: Carlton

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Slide2:  Parasitology, 2006? M. Lontie MCH, Leuven Parasitology:  Parasitology Definitions Para = close to:  Para = close to Sitos = food Parasite (smaller, shorter life):  Parasite (smaller, shorter life) Host Endoparasite:  Endoparasite Ectoparasite Hyperparasitism:  Hyperparasitism Parasites hosting other parasites e.g. Plasmodium in a mosquito Obligate parasites e.g. Plasmodium spp.:  Obligate parasites e.g. Plasmodium spp. Facultative (opportunistic) parasites e.g. Naegleria spp. Slide9:  Courtesy Tulane Monoxenous:  Monoxenous Heteroxenous Malaria transmission:  Malaria transmission Mosquito to man Blood transfusion Mother to child Malaria transmission:  Malaria transmission Mosquito to man Blood transfusion Mother to child Malaria transmission:  Malaria transmission Mosquito to man Blood transfusion Mother to child Stenoxenous: e.g. Plasmodium falciparum:  Stenoxenous: e.g. Plasmodium falciparum Euryxenous: e.g. Toxoplasma gondii Host :  Host e.g. Leishmania donovani in Southern France Main: fox Secondary: dog Accidental: man ZOONOSIS:  ZOONOSIS Reservoir: domestic or sylvatic Anthropozoonosis: e.g. Trypanosoma rhodesiense Zooanthroponosis: e.g. Entamoeba histolytica Parasitology:  Parasitology Detection of parasites conventional methods: direct examination, microscopy, serology newer technologies: antigen detection, molecular methods Parasitology:  Parasitology Entomology Helminthology Protozology Entomology:  Entomology Arthropods (one of the largest of the animal phyla) of medical importance. Arthropods:  Arthropods Crustacea Insecta Diptera ... Arachnida Ticks mites Helminthology:  Helminthology Helminth worms belong to the Kingdom Animalia. Helminths: numbers in millions:  Helminths: numbers in millions Ascaris lumbricoides Ancylostoma-Necator Trichuris trichiura Schistosoma haematobium Wuchereria bancrofti Schistosoma mansoni Taenia saginata Hymenolepis nana Strongyloides stercoralis 1472 1298 1049 114 107 83 77 75 70 www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/parasite/estimates.html Bethony J. et al. 2006. Lancet 367:1521-1532.:  Bethony J. et al. 2006. Lancet 367:1521-1532. Ascaris lumbricoides Trichuris trichiura Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale Strongyloides stercoralis Enterobius vermicularis Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati 807-1221 x 106 604-795 x 106 576-740 x 106 30-100 x 106 4-28% of children 2-80% of children Helminths: morbidity (%) mortality (n):  Helminths: morbidity (%) mortality (n) Ascaris lumbricoides Ancylostoma-Necator Onchocerca volvulus Schistosoma spp. Trichuris trichiura 23 60 000 12 65 000 4.2 45 000 10 20 000 21 10 000 www.biosci.ohio-state.edu/parasite/morbidity.html Ascaris lumbricoides: adult male worm, with curved tail (unstained).:  Ascaris lumbricoides: adult male worm, with curved tail (unstained). Toxocara canis Several adult worms, smaller than A. lumbricoides.:  Toxocara canis Several adult worms, smaller than A. lumbricoides. 1 cm Taenia solium: scolex with two rows of hooklets; is absent in orthodox jews and muslims.:  Taenia solium: scolex with two rows of hooklets; is absent in orthodox jews and muslims. Ocular micrometer disk:  Ocular micrometer disk each objective must be calibrated with reference material can be roughly checked with a counting chamber, with RBCs ... Clonorchis sinensis: egg with operculum (Lugol stain).:  Clonorchis sinensis: egg with operculum (Lugol stain). Schistosoma haematobium: egg with terminal spine in urine (unstained).:  Schistosoma haematobium: egg with terminal spine in urine (unstained). Kingdom:  Kingdom Protozoa Antoon van Leeuwenhoek Giardia lamblia 1681 :  Antoon van Leeuwenhoek Giardia lamblia 1681 Slide37:  What are Protozoa? Courtesy Tulane Slide38:  What are Protozoa? proto = first zoa = animals Courtesy Tulane Slide39:  What are Protozoa? proto = first zoa = animals single-celled eukaryotic organisms Courtesy Tulane Slide40:  >200,000 named species ~10,000 parasites ~20 human pathogens Protozoan Diversity Courtesy Tulane Slide41:  Protozoan Motility Courtesy Tulane Slide42:  Protozoan Taxonomy confused, controversial and constantly changing originally based on motility (light microscope) ultrastructural (electron microscope) criteria used since 1960’s molecular data can help with evolutionary relationships monophyletic groups descended from common ancestor kinetoplastids, apicomplexa, ciliates polyphyletic groups multiple ancestors amebas and flagellates Genus + species Courtesy Tulane Protozoa: numbers in millions / year :  Protozoa: numbers in millions / year Entamoeba histolytica: 500; 48 severe; 0.07 deaths. Malaria: 300-500; 2-3 deaths (mainly children). Giardia lamblia: 500. Mandell et al., 2005 - WHO, 2001 Slide44:  M. Wéry, 1995. Slide46:  Eradication of malaria 1934: Hans Andersag at Bayer discovers chloroquine 1939: Paul Müller at Geigy discovers DDT 1951: Sardinia malaria free 1955: WHA (WHAssembly): goal of global eradication 1955-1969: WHO uses DDT and chloroquine 50’s: DDT-resistance 1962-1970: chloroquine-R 1955-1965: expenditure of $ 1.4 billion 1969: WHO back to malaria control 1975: Europe free of malaria for first time in history Courtesy of C.D.C Slide47:  Eradication of malaria 1934: Hans Andersag at Bayer discovers chloroquine 1939: Paul Müller at Geigy discovers DDT 1951: Sardinia malaria free 1955: WHA (WHAssembly): goal of global eradication 1955-1969: WHO uses DDT and chloroquine 50’s: DDT-resistance 1962-1970: chloroquine-R 1955-1965: expenditure of $ 1.4 billion 1969: WHO back to malaria control 1975: Europe free of malaria for first time in history Courtesy of C.D.C Parasitology:  Parasitology Orphan parasites. Orphan drugs. The disaster of the ban of DDT. The Lancet. 2000. 356: 265 and 1189. Orphan reimbursement (B). Threats:  Threats Global warming El Nino (little child in Spanish, arriving around Christmas). Dams Diama dam in Senegal and large outbreak of Schistosoma mansoni infections. 1996. Kongs et al. Trop Med Int Health. 191-8. The Lancet. 2001. 570-1. Iatrogenic Hepatitis C in Egypt and mass treatment of schistosomiasis:  Iatrogenic Hepatitis C in Egypt and mass treatment of schistosomiasis Rao M. et al. 2002. BMC Infect Dis: 29. Nile delta of Egypt: 1950-1980. Injections of tartar emetic (antimony potassium tartrate) with inadequately sterilized needles and syringes. Kovats R. et al. 2003. The Lancet . El Nino and health:  Kovats R. et al. 2003. The Lancet . El Nino and health Kovats R. et al. 2003. The Lancet . El Nino and health:  Kovats R. et al. 2003. The Lancet . El Nino and health

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