Published on April 22, 2008
1. Active Learning: 1. Active Learning Dr. Curtis J. Bonk President, CourseShare.com Associate Professor, Indiana University http://php.indiana.edu/~cjbonk, [email protected] Expectations List: Expectations List Preliminary Action Plan…: Preliminary Action Plan… Traditional Teachers: Traditional Teachers Supposed sage, manager, conveyer King of the mountain Sets the agenda Learner is a sponge Passive learning & discrete knowledge Objectively assess, competitive Text- or teacher-centered Transmission model Lack interconnections & inert Squash student ideas Slide5: Anyone? Anyone? Consultative Teachers: Consultative Teachers Colearner, mentor, tour guide, facilitator Student and problem-centered Learner is a growing tree and on a journey Knowledge is constructed and intertwined Many resources (including texts & teachers) Authentic, collaborative, real-world tasks Subjective, continual, less formal assess Display student ideas--proud and motivated Build CT, CR, CL skills Consultative Teachers: Consultative Teachers Colearner, mentor, tour guide, facilitator Student and problem-centered Learner is a growing tree and on a journey Knowledge is constructed and intertwined Many resources (including texts & teachers) Authentic, collaborative, real-world tasks Subjective, continual, less formal assess Display student ideas--proud and motivated Build CT, CR, CL skills And also a sense of humor!!!: And also a sense of humor!!! Active Learning Principles:: Active Learning Principles: 1. Authentic/Raw Data 2. Student Autonomy/Inquiry 3. Relevant/Meaningful/Interests 4. Link to Prior Knowledge 5. Choice and Challenge 6. Teacher as Facilitator and Co-Learner 7. Social Interaction and Dialogue 8. Problem-Based & Student Gen Learning 9. Multiple Viewpoints/Perspectives 10. Collab, Negotiation, & Reflection Resources in a Learning Environment:: Resources in a Learning Environment: Teachers Peers Curriculum/Textbooks Technology/Tools Experts/Community Assessment/Testing Self Reflection Parents Sociocultural Ideas: Sociocultural Ideas Shared Space and Intersubjectivity Social Dialogue on Authentic Problems Mentoring and Teleapprenticeships Scaffolding and Electronic Assistance Group Processing and Reflection Collaboration and Negotiation in ZPD Choice and Challenge Community of Learning with Experts and Peers Portfolio Assessment and Feedback Assisted Learning (e.g., task structuring) Teacher Self-Assessment for active learning. (Bonk, 1995): Teacher Self-Assessment for active learning. (Bonk, 1995) In my classes... ___ 1. students have a say in class activities and tests. ___ 2. I help students to explore, build, and connect their ideas. ___ 3. students share their ideas and views with each other and me. ___ 4. students can relate new terms and concepts to events in their lives ___ 5. students work in small groups or teams when solving problems. ___ 6. students use computers to help them organize and try out their ideas. ___ 7. I give hints and clues for solving problems but do not give away the answers. Teacher Self-Assessment for active learning. (Bonk, 1995): Teacher Self-Assessment for active learning. (Bonk, 1995) In my classes... ___ 8. I relate new information or problems to what students have already learned. ___ 9. students prepare answers with a partner or team b/4 sharing ideas with the class. ___ 10. I ask questions that have more than one answer. ___ 11. students take sides and debate issues and viewpoints. ___ 12. students develop ideas from a variety of library and electronic resources. ___ 13. students bring in information that extends across subject areas or links topics. ___ 14. students suggest possible problems and tasks. ___ 15. I provide diagrams or pictures of main ideas to make confusing info clearer. Connections New Theories: Connections New Theories Situated Learning--asserts that learning is most effective in authentic, or real world, contexts with problems that allow students to generate their own solution paths (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989). Constructivism--concerned with learner's actual act of creating meaning (Brooks, 1990). The constructivist argues that the child's mind actively constructs relationships and ideas; hence, meaning is derived from negotiating, generating, and linking concepts within a community of peers (Harel & Papert, 1991). 1. Motivational Techniques: 1. Motivational Techniques Motivation Research Highlights (Brophy): Motivation Research Highlights (Brophy) 1. Supportive, appropriate challenge, meaningful, moderation/optimal. 2. Teach goal setting and self-reinforcement. 3. Offer rewards for good/improved performance. 4. Novelty, variety, choice, adaptable to interests. 5. Gamelike, fun, fantasy, curiosity, suspense, active. 6. Higher levels, divergence, dissonance, interact with peers. 7. Allow to create finished products. 8. Provide immediate feedback, advance organizers. 9. Show intensity, enthusiasm, interest, minimize anxiety. 10. Make content personal, concrete, familiar. Classroom Motivation Tips (Alexander, class notes, Pintrinch & Schunk, 1996; Reeve, 1996; Stipek, 1998):: Classroom Motivation Tips (Alexander, class notes, Pintrinch & Schunk, 1996; Reeve, 1996; Stipek, 1998): 1. Include positive before negative comments. 2. Wish students “good effort” not “good luck”. 3. Give flexibility in assignments and due dates. 4. Communicate respect via tasks select and control. 5. Design interactive and interesting activities. 6. Use coop learning, debates, group discussions. 7. Minimize social comparisons and public evaluations. 8. Use relevant, authentic learning tasks. More Classroom Motivation Tips (Alexander, class notes, Pintrinch & Schunk, 1996; Reeve, 1996; Stipek, 1998):: More Classroom Motivation Tips (Alexander, class notes, Pintrinch & Schunk, 1996; Reeve, 1996; Stipek, 1998): 9. Use optimal difficulty and novelty. 10. Use challenge, curiosity, control, and fantasy. 11. Give challenging but achievable tasks. 12. Create short term/proximal goals & vary goals. 13. Give students diff ways to demo what they know. 14. Encourage students to give and get help. 15. Attrib failure to low effort or ineffective strategy. (Attrib success to effort or competence) 16. Give poor performing student the role of expert. 150 To Motivate Your Lover(Raffini, 1996): 150 To Motivate Your Lover (Raffini, 1996) Ice Breakers Goal Cards, Goal Notebooks, Expectations Floating A, Escape Clauses, Volunteer Assignments Self Report Cards, Self Evaluation Discussion Questions, Issues, Problems Team Competitions, Challenges, Puzzles Positive Statements, Self Reinforcements (“I think I can”) Celebrations, Thank Yous, Acknowledgements Class Web Site or Portal or Online Forum Class Opinion Poll, Interest Surveys, Voting Activities—Motivational Ice Breakers: Activities—Motivational Ice Breakers Expectations (flip chart) Self-Disclosures Talking String Visuals Index Card Treasure Hunt Accomplishment Hunt Psychic Massage Have You Ever Been? CR, CT, CL Web 1. Expectations Charts: 1. Expectations Charts What do you expect from this workshop, what are your goals, what could you contribute? a. Write short and long terms goals down on goal cards that can be referenced later on. b. Write 4-5 expectations for this workshop/retreat c. Expectations Flip Chart: share of 1-2 of these... 2. Self-Disclosure Introductions... : 2. Self-Disclosure Introductions... Round I: Self-disclosure introductions Who are you Job Interests Hobbies 2. Self-Disclosure Introductions... : 2. Self-Disclosure Introductions... Round II. Self-disclosure introductions... a. Treasured Objects--Take out two items out of your wallet and describe how they best represent you (e.g., family pictures, credit cards, rabbits' feet) and share. c. State name with an adjective starting with 1st letter of 1st name (e.g., Marvelous Mary. d. Now intro self & also by a nickname current, past, or potential nickname. e. Brainstorm a list of questions you would like to ask the others...(e.g., My person I most admire is? The best book I ever read?) F. Middle name game (state what middle name is and how you got it). 3. Talking String : 3. Talking String state what hope to gain from retreat (or discuss some other issue) as wrap string around finger; next ones state names of previous people and then state their reasons. 4. Communication/Learning Visuals: 4. Communication/Learning Visuals Draw one or more of the following: Gun, cannon, noose, high fives, thumbs up, watch, toilet, smiley face, etc. 5. Index Cards: 5. Index Cards a. Favorite Sports/hobbies/past times (upper left) b. Birthplace and Favorite cities to visit (upper right) c. Current Job and Classes Taught (lower left) d. 2 comments, things, or traits about yourself (e.g., team player, personable, talkative, opinionated, hate Purdue, like movies, move a lot, hate sports) (lower right) e. Teaching strategies you are proud of (in the middle) 6. Treasure Hunts: 6. Treasure Hunts After completing card with interests, where born, would like to live, strengths, job role, hobbies, etc. and find a match (find one thing in common and one thing different with everyone) 7. Accomplishment Hunt: 7. Accomplishment Hunt a. Turn in 2-3 accomplishments (e.g., past summer, during college, during life); b. Workshop leader lists 1-2 of those for each student on a sheet without names. c. Participants have to ask "Is this you?" If yes, get a signature. 8. Psychic Massage (a closer activity) : 8. Psychic Massage (a closer activity) a. Divide in teams of 3-5. b. In alphabetical order of first names have someone turn his or back to the group c. Team members must make positive, uplifting statements about that person behind his or her back but loud enough for others to hear them. d. One minute per person. 9. Have you ever questions: : 9. Have you ever questions: Performed the Heimlich maneuver Tried on a straight jacket Laid down inside a casket, Drunk more than 25 imported beers during your life, Ditched a blind date (or any date), Been a Boy Scout or Girl Scout Shaved your head, Flown a plane, Sky dived, bungee jumped, or whitewater rafted a dangerous river, Been in a play, Milked a goat or a cow, Done back-to-back all-nighters, Completed a marathon, Made an obscene gesture at someone when driving your car, Cheated on your income tax, Run a toll booth, Been above the Arctic circle or below the Antarctic Circle. 10. Positive Strokes : 10. Positive Strokes a. 2-3 times during the session, each person fills out a 3 x 5 card about other participants. b. They must complete sentences like: “the thing I like best about (name) is” and “the biggest improvement I saw in (name) is.” c. At the end of the day, the folded cards are passed out and read aloud and then given to the named person. 11. Disclosure Interviews: 11. Disclosure Interviews Divide into small groups of about six people and then hand out prepared list of 5 questions in increasing order of disclosure for participants to ask each other and then have someone stand and their group must describe him or her. 12. Community Building: 12. Community Building Create common t-shirts, take photo of group, have online interest groups, etc., and perhaps put up on the Web. Put announcement of retreat on Web or newsletter. 13. It’ll Never Fly Wilbur: 13. It’ll Never Fly Wilbur a. Introduce a new idea or concept or plan. b. Everyone writes 4-5 problems they see in it. c. Divide into groups of 3-4 and discuss concerns. d. Each group writes down 3 roadblocks on a 3 X 5 card. e. Facilitator redistributes so each group gets a different card. f. Subgroups think creatively of how to solve those problems and share with group. 14. Coat of Arms--fill in. : 14. Coat of Arms--fill in. #1: a recent Peak Performance; #2: something very few people know; #3: draw a symbol of how you spend your free time; #4: fill in something you are really good at; #5: write in something that epitomizes your personal motto. 15. Team Brainteasers: 15. Team Brainteasers IQ tests Scrambled cities Crossword puzzles Competitions Dilemmas or Situations Unscrambled sayings. 16. Issues and Discussion Questions: 16. Issues and Discussion Questions a. Make a list of issues people would like to discuss. b. Perhaps everyone brings 2-3 questions or issues to the meeting. c. Partner off and create a list and then collect question cards, and, d. Then distribute and your group must answer questions of the other groups. The 3 C’s:1. Critical2. Creative3. Cooperative: The 3 C’s: 1. Critical 2. Creative 3. Cooperative Pedagogical Strategies:A. Creative Thinking: Pedagogical Strategies: A. Creative Thinking 1. Brainstorm, Reverse BS: Top Ten Lists 2. Simulations, Creativity License Cards, Six Hats 3. Wet Inking, Freewriting, or Diaries 4. Role Plays & Assigning Thinking Roles 5. Forced Wrap Arounds 6. Semantic Webbing or Mapping 7. Idea-Spurring Questions, Think Sheets 8. Metaphors, What Ifs, Analogies 9. Checkerboarding, Attribute Listing 10. Exploration and Web Link Suggestions Activities—Creativity Tasks: Activities—Creativity Tasks Metaphorical Thinking New Perspectives Webbing Just Suppose Creativity Awareness Creative Dramatics Creative Writing and Story Telling Wet Ink or Freewriting Brainstorming Reverse Brainstorming 1. Metaphorical thinking : 1. Metaphorical thinking how is my school like: a prison, a beehive, an orchestra, ghetto, expedition, garden, family, herd, artist's palette, machine, military camp, Olympic games, hospital, theater, etc. 1. Metaphorical thinking, Analogies, and Synectics : 1. Metaphorical thinking, Analogies, and Synectics 1. Creativity is like ____. 2. Being Creative is like ____. 3. Creativity is to ___ as... Combining 2 dissimilar ideas. The joining together of unrelated elementes (William J. J. Gordon). One brings strange concepts into familiar areas. Putting yourself in a situation. Thinking of how others might solve the problem. 2. Breaking Mental Set and Shifting Perspectives: 2. Breaking Mental Set and Shifting Perspectives The process of creation frequently involves a dramatic and usually instantaneous change in perception. Sometimes we all need a whack in the side of the head! Have students assume roles of other people, cultures, economies, genders, etc. Word games; Which one is different; Nine dot problem; Flying Pig; Concealed colors. Analogies, Synectics, Breaking Set, Imagery, Aesthetics, etc. 3. Webbing: 3. Webbing Directions: write the topic in the center and link closely related ideas or questions in the first ring of ideas. As new ideas are suggested, they are connected by a line to the related item or items. Webbing can be used to determine: all the possible directions and activities a student or class can explore as a result of interest in a specific topic or subject all that is presently known, and knowledge interrelationships. This technique expands awareness for relating, integrating, and organizing brainstormed ideas. 3. Webbing: 3. Webbing a. Part I: What is creativity, critical thinking, cooperative learning? b. Part II: What is active learning (i.e., students:) (discover, drawn upon, break free from, use, take ownership, talk, write, relate) 4. Just Suppose or What If : 4. Just Suppose or What If Imagine a situation or scenario and reflect on the consequences. “Just suppose students were exposed to active learning throughout their K-12 years, what would teaching be like? What would learning be like?” “Just suppose you have six weeks of paid professional development each summer for workshops like this, what would teaching be like? What would learning be like?” 5. Creativity Awareness: Creativity Scales: 5. Creativity Awareness: Creativity Scales Self-awareness of creative traits is important in promoting creativity. Rate yourself for creativity. What is creativity here? How did you do? 5. Creativity Awareness: Creativity Models: 5. Creativity Awareness: Creativity Models von Oech's Explorer Artist Judge Warrior 6. Creative Dramatics : 6. Creative Dramatics Biggest/smallest thing; Holding up the roof; Favorite animal; Mirror effect; Imagine taste/smell... More Creative Dramatics (Davis book) Imagine taste/smell... Ice Cubes, Puppets, Mirror effect, Ridiculous Poses, Favorite animal, People Machines, Invisible Balls. Imagine hear, touch, smell, tastes, stiffest/most rubbery, Angriest/happiest. 7. Creative Writing or Story Telling: 7. Creative Writing or Story Telling Tell a Tall Tale: One person starts a story and everyone adds something to it. You might throw a ball to the person who is to add to it or the instructor might decide or the next person could just jump in. Could be done via e-mail. Forced Wrap Arounds: One person tells a story and it is repeated until it gets through a group or classroom (teaches generative and constructive psychology principles) Object Obituary: Write a fictional obituary for some object that you own or were close to. 8. Wet Ink or Freewriting: 8. Wet Ink or Freewriting Writing without reflecting or lifting your pen for a set period of time. Just imagine: imagine you have created a highly active teaching situation...What do you see? Can students wonder, question, speculate, take risks, active listening, respect for ideas, withhold judgment, seek justification??? How is creativity fostered here? Describe environment. Physically, mentally, emotionally, etc... 9. Brainstorming : 9. Brainstorming Generating ideas to solve a particular problem, issue, situation, or concern. Here more is better and the wilder the better. The hitchhiking or piggybacking as well as combination of ideas is encouraged. However, there is no evaluation of ideas allowed. For example, How can we increase the use of active learning ideas in college settings? 10. Reverse Brainstorming : 10. Reverse Brainstorming Generating ideas to solve the reverse of a particular problem, issue, situation, or concern. Once again, more is better and the wilder the better. The hitchhiking or piggybacking as well as combination of ideas is encouraged. However, there is no evaluation of ideas allowed. For example, How can we decrease the use of active learning ideas in college settings? 11. Attribute Listing, Modification, and Transformation : 11. Attribute Listing, Modification, and Transformation a. Attribute Webbing/Listing: "XYZ" shapes, colors, sizes, purpose, numbering. b. Attribute Modification: "XYZ"--after listing attributes, think of ways to improve each. c. Alternative Uses: Uses for "XYZ" for this class or for teaching in general. (find the second best or third best suggestion) d. Attribute Transferring: "XYZ"--transfer ideas from one context to the next. (with idea spurring questions: What else is this like? What have others done? What else is this like? What could we copy? What has worked before?) (What can we borrow from a carnival, funeral parlor, track meet, wild west) 12. Idea Spurring Questions: 12. Idea Spurring Questions how can we: MAXimize, MAGnify, arrangeRE, combine-adapt, subtutesti, EEEXXXAAGGGERRRRATTEE 13. Future Problem Solving: 13. Future Problem Solving Pose futuristic problem. Have students solve in teams. Present to class. 14. Checkerboarding (done in Lone Ranger series): 14. Checkerboarding (done in Lone Ranger series) Analyze problems with 2 key variables or components. Write features of one item down the horizontal column (plots). Write features of another item down the vertical (characters). Randomly check off items and a new create story. 15. Morphological Synthesis: 15. Morphological Synthesis Write features of one item down the horizontal column. Write features of another item down the vertical. Look at intersection for new item or concept. Pedagogical Strategies: B. Critical Thinking: Pedagogical Strategies: B. Critical Thinking 1. Graphic Orgs: Venn Diagrams, Flowcharts 2. Voting, Ranking, Nominal Group Process 3. PMI, Pros and Cons, Force Field Analysis 4. Minute/Muddiest Point Papers 5. K-W-L and K-W-H-L 6. Compare/Contrasts, Timelines, Taxonomies 7. Critiques, Replies, Reflections, Rebuttals 8. Case-Based Reasoning* 9. Working Backwards, Pruning the Tree 10. Summing Up, Abstracts, Nutshells What does one mean by critical thinking?Compare to Creative Thinking in a Venn Diagram…: What does one mean by critical thinking? Compare to Creative Thinking in a Venn Diagram… 1. Venn Diagram: 1. Venn Diagram Draw two or more circles with overlapping parts to represent different topics, theories, or concepts. Name features, components, principles, or ideas that make each concept or topic unique and put in parts that do not overlap. Name overlapping features, principles, or ideas that link each concept or topic and put in parts that do overlap. 2. Evaluative Questions: 2. Evaluative Questions Give students a think sheet or list of evaluative questions to pose for their readings, projects, etc. Perhaps have them check off questions use as they go through their lists. 3. Cost/Benefit Analysis (CBA): 3. Cost/Benefit Analysis (CBA) In effect, CBA asks how does the sum of the benefits compare to the sum of the costs. Yet, it often leads to or supports ROI and other more quantitatively-oriented calculations. Reddy, A. (2002, January). E-learning ROI calculations: Is a cost/benefit analysis a better approach? e-learning. 3(1), 30-32. 4. Fat and Skinny Questions : 4. Fat and Skinny Questions Have students write down fat (big, deep, controversial, etc.) and skinny (factual, surface level, etc.) questions while completing their readings, watching a video, completing group projects. Share with partner or class and discuss. Or-give your students the fat or skinny questions before watch a video and then share answers (this helps to focus them). 5. PMI : 5. PMI After completing a lecture, unit, video, expert presentation, etc. ask students what where the pluses, minuses, and interesting aspects of that activity. 6. APC: Alternatives, Possibilities, & Choices : 6. APC: Alternatives, Possibilities, & Choices a. Rush hour traffic problems in large cities. b. Packaging of chocolate bars. c. Competitor cuts the price of toilet paper. d. A young man is seen pouring beer in his car's gas tank. What happened? 7. FIP: First Important Priorities : 7. FIP: First Important Priorities a. What should the priorities be in spending money on faculty development? b. If you were organizing the next workshop like this, what would your priorities be? c. How should a career as a college instructor be chosen? 8. AGO: Aims, Goals, Objectives: 8. AGO: Aims, Goals, Objectives a. What are your objectives when sign up for a workshop like this? b. What are your objectives when teaching your most recent classes? c. If you were close to getting tenure, what would you be doing this summer? 9. OPV: Other People's Views : 9. OPV: Other People's Views a. If there was a teaching strike at this college, how many points of view are involved? b. When you choose speakers like me, what points of view are involved? c. Success of your classes will come from what points of view? 10. C&S: Consequence & Sequel (of an action or decision): 10. C&S: Consequence & Sequel (of an action or decision) (immediate; ST (1-5 yrs), medium (5-20 yrs), LT (over 20 yrs) (e.g., this class) a. A boy is on vacation and his best friend steals his girlfriend. b. The invention of a harmless happiness pill. c. All office work can be done at home via a computer. 11. Force Field Analysis on Problem : 11. Force Field Analysis on Problem Have students list on left side of a paper, the forces that might help them solve a problem (the allies!). Have them list on the right, the forces that are working against them. What are the forces operating against the solution of the problem? Perhaps assign some value related to difficulty or importance and compare columns and make decisions. 12. Exploring Situations with Questions : 12. Exploring Situations with Questions Have students analyze situations according to all six levels of Bloom’s taxonomy Factual Interpretive or comprehension Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Application Or assign people to different levels of the taxonomy. 13. Socratic Questioning : 13. Socratic Questioning Select both positive and negative examples to illustrate a point. Vary cases to help focus on facts or issues. Employ counter examples. Generate hypothetical cases or examples to encourage what if reasoning. Promote identification of alternative predictions or the nonobvious Employ entrapment strategies. Encourage the questioning of answers provided by authorities. 13. Summing Up/Nutshell/Review : 13. Summing Up/Nutshell/Review Have students write for 3-5 minutes what learned for a class, presentation, or chapter. Optional: Share with a peer before sharing with instructor or a class. 14. One minute papers or muddiest point papers: 14. One minute papers or muddiest point papers Have students write for 3-5 minutes what was the most difficult concept from a class, presentation, or chapter. What could the instructor clarify better. Perhaps send to the instructor via email. Optional: Share with a peer before sharing with instructor or a class. 15. K-W-L or K-W-H-L: 15. K-W-L or K-W-H-L At the end of a unit, student presentation, videotape, expert presentation, etc., have student write down: What did you know? What do you want to know? What did you learn? H = How will we learn it? 16. Visual Thinking Exercises: Graphic Organizers: 16. Visual Thinking Exercises: Graphic Organizers Have students organize information in sequences, chains, cause and effect, main ideas, similarities and differences, story maps, etc. 17. Visual Thinking Exercises: Semantic Feature Analysis: 17. Visual Thinking Exercises: Semantic Feature Analysis Have students note if an element or feature is present or absent. (evaluate with a + or – or ? on a grid) 18. Visual Thinking Exercises: Classification Schemes: 18. Visual Thinking Exercises: Classification Schemes Have students create taxonomies, timelines, comparisons and contrasts, advance organizers, epitomies, etc. 19. Visual Thinking Exercises: Mnemonics: 19. Visual Thinking Exercises: Mnemonics Have students create mnemonics based on stories, acronyms, acrostics, links, rhymes, or bizarre images. 20. Nominal Group Process: 20. Nominal Group Process Give statement of the problem. Silent generation of ideas to solve it. Round robin sharing of ideas and piggy backing of them. Classification & grouping of ideas. Straw vote ranking of ideas. Secret ballots. Further clarification of ideas and emerging concepts. Can change wording. Final priority weighting. Public vote. Which of these critical thinking techniques might you use?: Which of these critical thinking techniques might you use? Web Writing Tasks: Web Writing Tasks Freewriting or Wet Inking Reflections and Journaling Chapter Role Play Minute Papers on E-mail Case Creations Article Discussions Cafes and Coffee Shops Personal Portfolios Summarizations Pedagogical Strategies:C. Cooperative Learning : Pedagogical Strategies: C. Cooperative Learning 1. Starter-Wrapper Discussions (with roles) 2. Turn to Your Partner: Quizzes, Top Tens 3. Value Line and Graphs 4. Roundrobins and Roundtables 5. Synchronous Guest Conferencing 6. Structured Controversy 7. Jigsaw, Group Investigation, PBL 8. Gallery Tours of Student Work 9. Panel Discussions/Symposia 10. Case Creation and Replies Cooperative Learning Principles: Cooperative Learning Principles Positive Interdependence Individual Accountability Group Processing Social Skills and Trust Face-to-Face Interaction 1. Structured Controversy Task : 1. Structured Controversy Task Assign 2 to pro side and 2 to con side Read, research, and produce different materials Hold debate (present conflicting positions) Argue strengths and weaknesses Switch sides and continue debate Come to compromise 2. Reciprocal Teaching Scripts : 2. Reciprocal Teaching Scripts Instructor gives purpose of the method (e.g., summarization, prediction, clarification, and questioning skills) He/she models the method Student takes over as the teacher Student teacher models skills requested 3. Cooperative Learning Scripts : 3. Cooperative Learning Scripts Read same passage Put out of sight One person is summarizes and the other tries to correct any errors Both work together to learn the information Read 2nd passage and change roles 4. Cooperative Teaching Scripts : 4. Cooperative Teaching Scripts Read different passages Put out of sight One person summarizes the content of first passage and the other asks clarifying questions Work together to develop analogies, images, etc. to learn Repeat steps for other article Read passage that did not read 5. READERS : 5. READERS Review why you are about to read. Explore passage for main ideas. Ask questions about the main ideas. Draw conclusions. Evaluate your responses. Read for answers and summarize main ideas. Other similar strategies include paired repeated reading, paired reading, Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) Program, reciprocal teaching, cooperative scripts. 6. Numbered Heads Together: 6. Numbered Heads Together Count off 1, 2, 3, 4 in each group. Instructor can call on a number within a group to respond or all people with a certain number to respond. Increases accountability. 7. Human Graph: 7. Human Graph Class lines up: (1-5) 1 = Strongly agree, 3 = neutral, 5 = strongly disagree e.g., this workshop is great! 8. Value Lines: 8. Value Lines Pose question or issue Students mark down their feelings or votes Share votes and rationale with class Recast votes 9. Think-Pair-Share or Turn To Your Partner and Share: 9. Think-Pair-Share or Turn To Your Partner and Share Pose a question, issue, activity, etc. Students reflect on it. Then they share views with assigned partner. Share with class. 10. Phillips 66: 10. Phillips 66 Assign topic (e.g., review readings for this week). Students work in groups of 6 for 6 minutes on a particular problem. After 6 minutes, stop discussion. Share with class. 11. Buzz Groups: 11. Buzz Groups Meet in small groups for a set period of time followed by group discussion. (perhaps discuss assigned readings) 12. Stand and Share: 12. Stand and Share Present a question. When know the answer, stand up to indicate to the instructor that you have an answer. Wait until all are standing. Call on one at a time. When you give an answer or hear you answer given, you can sit down (unless you have an additional answer). 13. Inside and Outside or Fishbowl: 13. Inside and Outside or Fishbowl Situate students in two circles; an outer & inner circle. Present a problem, situation, or discussion topic. Have students immediately behind each other discuss their solutions, ideas, or answers. Only those on the inner circle can talk or discuss. Those behind have to listen. After 5-10-15 minutes, have them share with person behind them what they did not get a chance to say and discuss the conversation so far. Change seats between inner and outer circles. Now discussion resumes with those on the inside. After 5-10-15 minutes, continue with rotation or come to compromise. Alternative version: Outer circle people can tap inner circle person on shoulder as replacement. 14. Role Play or Debate Panel or Symposia: 14. Role Play or Debate Panel or Symposia Find controversial topic(s) in the readings. Hand students slips of paper with different persona or roles (i.e., authors) that form into 2-3 different groups or factions. Have students meet in their respective groups to form a plan of action. Role play perhaps with alternating views being presented with 4-6 students. Tap students in the audience on the shoulder to take the place of someone on panel or have them decide when to replace someone. 15a. One Stray-Three Stay15b. One Stay-Three Stray: 15a. One Stray-Three Stay 15b. One Stay-Three Stray Give a task to small groups of students. Assign one person as spy or pirate to see the answers of other students (one stray-three stay method) and share with group. or Group assigns one person from their group to stay behind and share product or ideas with others who visit their poster or station (one stay-three stray method). 16. Group Investigation or Coop-Coop: 16. Group Investigation or Coop-Coop Divide a general topic into sub-topics. Groups divide sub-topics into mini-topics. Each student investigates their mini-topic. Students present findings within groups. Integration is made of all the material in each group. Presentation is made to the class. Evaluation is made of team as well as individual efforts. 17. Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD): 17. Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD) Students are divided up into heterogeneous groups of four-5 student groups. Lesson is presented by instructor. Students help each other learn the material. Students take a test or quiz or perform some other task. Team scores are determined based on improvement scores of all students. Teams with highest scores are recognized. 18. Teams-Games Tournaments Divisions (TGT): 18. Teams-Games Tournaments Divisions (TGT) Same basic idea as STAD except that quizzes or tests are replaced by competitions between groups. 19a. Jigsaw I: 19a. Jigsaw I Form home or base groups of 4-6 students. Student move to expert groups. Share knowledge in expert groups and help each other master the material. Come back to base group to share or teach teammates. Students are individually tested; there are no group grades. 19b. Jigsaw II: 19b. Jigsaw II Same as Jigsaw I except that total team scores on the quizzes or assignments are published or used in grading purposes. 20. Problem-Based Learning (Savery & Duffy, 1996): 20. Problem-Based Learning (Savery & Duffy, 1996) Instructor lays out the problem situation. Students work on a major problem for a unit, semester, or year. Presentation is made at the end of the unit or semester. Evaluation is made by experts and/or the instructor What have you learned so far?: What have you learned so far? Solid and Fuzzy in groups of four One Stray-Three Stay--Buzz Groups--Roundtable. Low Risk <-------> High RiskStrategy Continuum: Low Risk <-------> High Risk Strategy Continuum Phillips 66 Turn to Your Partner & Think-Pair-Share PMI, KWL Ranking, Categorizing Muddy/Minute Papers Cases Summing Up Brainstorming, Rev BS Wet Inks Mock trials 6 Hats Metaphorical Thinking Creative Dramatics Human Graphs Debates Concept Maps, Timelines Jigsaw, # Heads Together Electronic Conferences PBL Low Time <-------> High TimeStrategy Continuum: Low Time/Risk Idea: ______________________ High Time/Risk Idea: ______________________ Low Time <-------> High Time Strategy Continuum Voting, Polling Web Links/Comments Case Discuss/Create Starter-Wrapper, Q&A Summing Up Pros & Cons Ranking, Categorizing E-mail Pal, Critical Friend Brainstorming, Rev BS Minute Papers Mock Trials, Role Play Guest Experts & Lectures Debates, Controversies Symposia, Panel Discuss Electronic Roundtables Concept Maps, Webs Taxonomies, Timelines Thoughtful Exams Jigsaw Problem-Based Learning My Concerns: My Concerns Time, time, time... Coverage Feedback: Timely and complete Student responsiveness Evaluation and grading Institutional expectations & politics Costs vs. pragmatic benefits What learning models??? Time, time, time Planning Advice: Planning Advice Make an action plan. Write a paper. Do some rapid prototyping. Share, share, share! Present to dept. colleagues. Questions?Comments?Concerns?: Questions? Comments? Concerns?