1 VLSI DB 05

Information about 1 VLSI DB 05

Published on August 14, 2007

Author: Lilly

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Slide1:  Dependability Benchmarking of VLSI Circuits Cristian Constantinescu [email protected] Intel Corporation Outline:  Outline Neutron SER characterization of microprocessors SER scaling trends Experimental set-up Experimental Results Other sources of errors Memory intermittent faults Front side bus intermittent faults Using environmental tests as dependability benchmarking tools Temperature and Voltage Operating Test ESD Operating Test Summary Backup Linpack benchmark References Acknowledgement Neutron SER characterization: Bruce Takala, Steve Wander (LANSCE), Nelson Tam, Pat Armstrong (Intel Corp.) Environmental testing: John Blair, Scott Scheuneman (Intel Corp.) Neutron SER Characterization of Microprocessors:  Neutron SER Characterization of Microprocessors Single Event Upsets:  Single Event Upsets Single event upsets (SEU) are induced by Alpha particles – generated during radioactive decay of the package and interconnect materials Neutrons, protons, pions – generated by cosmic rays penetrating the atmosphere SEU may induce errors both in storage elements and combinational logic Frequency of occurrence of the particle induced induced errors: soft error rate (SER) SER Scaling Trends:  SER Scaling Trends SRAM SER per bit and chip Latch SER per bit and chip Assumption: SRAM/latch count increases ~2x per generation Hadron Cascades:  Hadron Cascades Neutrons represent 94% of the hadrons reaching sea level For terrestrial applications it makes sense to benchmark the impact of neutron SER Main constituents of atmospheric hadron cascades LANSCE Neutron Beam:  LANSCE Neutron Beam Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) Generates high-energy neutrons by spallation: a linear accelerator generates a pulsed proton beam that strikes a tungsten target Energy dependence of the natural cosmic-ray neutron flux and the LANSCE neutron flux Experimental Set Up:  Experimental Set Up Itanium processor based server Windows NT 4.0 operating system Linpack benchmark Performs matrix computations Derives residues – can detect silent data corruption (SDC) Fission ion chamber to determine neutron fluence Deriving MTTF:  Deriving MTTF MTTF = Tua/U Tua – duration of an equivalent experiment, taking place in unaccelerated conditions [h] U – total number of upsets (failures) over the duration of the experiment Tua = (Fcp * Nc)/ Nf Fcp – total number of fission chamber pulses, over the duration of the experiment Nc – average neutron conversion factor [neutrons/fission pulse/cm2] Nf – cosmic-ray induced neutron flux at the desired geographical location and altitude [neutrons/cm2/h] Experimental Results:  Experimental Results Run Linpack benchmark for square matrixes of size 800 and 1000 Completed 40 runs Duration of one run: 10 s – 5 min Failure types Blue screen Hang Silent data corruption (SDC) Experimental Results:  Experimental Results Itanium processor MTTF due to neutrons, as a function of number of runs Experimental Results:  MTTF confidence intervals Experimental Results SDC – one event Insufficient for statistical analysis Practical Considerations:  Practical Considerations Error handling techniques differ greatly from one manufacturer to another HW error detection and correction, e.g. ECC, is faster FW/SW implemented recovery may be overwhelmed by an accelerated test (near coincident faults scenario) Acceleration factor is an important variable Failure prediction and automatic deconfiguration may lead to misleading results Multiple experiments Beam divergence Beam attenuation Other Sources of Errors:  Other Sources of Errors Memory Intermittent Faults:  Memory Intermittent Faults Intermittent faults are induced by unstable or marginal hardware Intermittent shorts/opens Manufacturing residuals Timing faults Number of memory single-bit errors reported by 193 systems over 16 months Daily number of memory single-bit errors reported by one system over 16 months Front Side Bus Intermittent Faults:  Front Side Bus Intermittent Faults Front side bus (FSB) errors Bursts of single-bit errors (SBE) on data path SBE detected and corrected (data path protected by ECC) Failure analysis results Intermittent contacts at solder joints Fault injection showed that similar faults experienced by control signals induce SDC Using Environmental Tests as Dependability Benchmarking Tools:  Using Environmental Tests as Dependability Benchmarking Tools Temperature and Voltage Operating Test:  Temperature and Voltage Operating Test Profile of the test 9 systems experienced SDC SDC events: 134 (90.5%) Detected errors: 14 (9.5%) SDC preceded detected errors 70o C 25o C -10o C Ten systems were tested Workload: Linpack benchmark Temperature and Voltage Operating Test:  Temperature and Voltage Operating Test Distribution of the SDC events Failure analysis results Memory controller setup and hold-time violations ESD Operating Test:  ESD Operating Test 4 servers from 2 manufacturers Workload: Linpack benchmark 30 test points per server 20 positive and 20 negative discharges per test point Air discharge 4 kV – 15 kV Contact discharge 8 kV One server experienced SDC 8% of the discharges targeted to the disk bay area (15 kV, air) First ESD operating test to reveal SDC in a commercially available server Summary:  Summary The need for dependability benchmarking is increasing Wider use of COTS components in critical applications Technology is a two edge sword Higher performance Higher rates of occurrence of the transient and intermittent faults SDC is a real threat We take for granted the correctness of the computer data Dependability benchmarks should determine whether the circuits/systems under evaluation experience SDC Fault injection techniques require in depth knowledge of the evaluated system Appropriate for designers and manufacturers Accelerated neutron tests and environmental tests are a 'black box approach' Capable of unveiling SDC In depth knowledge of the system under test is not required Linpack benchmark is available for free Can be used both by manufacturers and independent evaluators Backup:  Backup Linpack Benchmark:  Linpack Benchmark Example of Linpack output: large residues indicate SDC References:  References 'Neutron SER characterization of microprocessors', Proc. of the International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks, Yokohama, Japan, June 2005, pp. 754-759. 'Dependability benchmarking using environmental test tools', Proc. of the Reliability and Maintainability Symposium, Alexandria, VA, USA, January 2005, pp. 567 – 571. 'Impact of deep submicron technology on dependability of VLSI circuits', Proc. of the International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks, Washington, DC, USA, June 2002, pp. 205-209.

Related presentations


Other presentations created by Lilly

Beautiful thoughts
14. 08. 2007
0 views

Beautiful thoughts

Mobile Phones
14. 08. 2007
0 views

Mobile Phones

Russia TIKHONOV pcb
27. 09. 2007
0 views

Russia TIKHONOV pcb

Tornado
07. 10. 2007
0 views

Tornado

black psychology
10. 10. 2007
0 views

black psychology

mjo evol status fcsts 05 15 06
12. 10. 2007
0 views

mjo evol status fcsts 05 15 06

quovadis
12. 10. 2007
0 views

quovadis

Wireline Access Technology
28. 11. 2007
0 views

Wireline Access Technology

Overview of Webinar
28. 11. 2007
0 views

Overview of Webinar

powerpt
02. 11. 2007
0 views

powerpt

Garth Nye 1
08. 11. 2007
0 views

Garth Nye 1

PB ELT20020424 kemkes
16. 11. 2007
0 views

PB ELT20020424 kemkes

Entry Skills
19. 11. 2007
0 views

Entry Skills

gli intrusi
14. 08. 2007
0 views

gli intrusi

Wiled
14. 08. 2007
0 views

Wiled

Tibetan Astrology
14. 08. 2007
0 views

Tibetan Astrology

MPC PTA Presentation
14. 08. 2007
0 views

MPC PTA Presentation

why men die young
14. 08. 2007
0 views

why men die young

Hot lips
14. 08. 2007
0 views

Hot lips

optical illusions
14. 08. 2007
0 views

optical illusions

gender and us
02. 01. 2008
0 views

gender and us

Celebrate Life
14. 08. 2007
0 views

Celebrate Life

Enhancing Relationships
14. 08. 2007
0 views

Enhancing Relationships

seasonal beds
14. 08. 2007
0 views

seasonal beds

6 Politics
29. 12. 2007
0 views

6 Politics

hidden images
14. 08. 2007
0 views

hidden images

esriuc99
03. 01. 2008
0 views

esriuc99

c8 CPM
28. 09. 2007
0 views

c8 CPM

2007 apiii obx
06. 12. 2007
0 views

2007 apiii obx

GROUP 1 Universal SW for PRA
20. 11. 2007
0 views

GROUP 1 Universal SW for PRA

fp7 Agriculture
15. 11. 2007
0 views

fp7 Agriculture

stm30
19. 02. 2008
0 views

stm30

2081
07. 01. 2008
0 views

2081

George Washington
28. 02. 2008
0 views

George Washington

c4
30. 12. 2007
0 views

c4

J P NEGI 10 20
14. 08. 2007
0 views

J P NEGI 10 20

se12
26. 03. 2008
0 views

se12

Nertun2007
27. 03. 2008
0 views

Nertun2007

GM Overview Burnett
23. 12. 2007
0 views

GM Overview Burnett

Sam
28. 03. 2008
0 views

Sam

2007 ussc 6
10. 04. 2008
0 views

2007 ussc 6

SOER World environment day
13. 04. 2008
0 views

SOER World environment day

Miami Sunshine Statement
14. 08. 2007
0 views

Miami Sunshine Statement

CS173Workshop
29. 09. 2007
0 views

CS173Workshop

Lordos Faiz Presentation
21. 11. 2007
0 views

Lordos Faiz Presentation

Young05102004
17. 04. 2008
0 views

Young05102004

CheckPoint VPN Presentation
22. 04. 2008
0 views

CheckPoint VPN Presentation

SRM AK
03. 10. 2007
0 views

SRM AK

The Colorful Friends
14. 08. 2007
0 views

The Colorful Friends

Chang Eric Faculty Summit 071607
10. 10. 2007
0 views

Chang Eric Faculty Summit 071607

citrix
10. 12. 2007
0 views

citrix

indian humor
17. 06. 2007
0 views

indian humor

incomplete dominance
17. 06. 2007
0 views

incomplete dominance

humor and wellness
17. 06. 2007
0 views

humor and wellness

hsex 07
17. 06. 2007
0 views

hsex 07

PPT TS 3 1 Gareth Hughes
18. 03. 2008
0 views

PPT TS 3 1 Gareth Hughes

Just One More Game Standalone
17. 06. 2007
0 views

Just One More Game Standalone

jokes
17. 06. 2007
0 views

jokes

john mayer
17. 06. 2007
0 views

john mayer

jb proto imp
17. 06. 2007
0 views

jb proto imp

jb i2vm
17. 06. 2007
0 views

jb i2vm

It was fun
17. 06. 2007
0 views

It was fun

Is This Your Ministry
17. 06. 2007
0 views

Is This Your Ministry

ISCh10r
17. 06. 2007
0 views

ISCh10r

ir4p 240
17. 06. 2007
0 views

ir4p 240

Into the Weirdness
17. 06. 2007
0 views

Into the Weirdness

Interferences SES
17. 06. 2007
0 views

Interferences SES

Katrina Devastation
14. 08. 2007
0 views

Katrina Devastation

HVW Presentation Generic 21Oct04
17. 06. 2007
0 views

HVW Presentation Generic 21Oct04

PRESENT122
24. 02. 2008
0 views

PRESENT122

Kirk patrick
17. 06. 2007
0 views

Kirk patrick

NWA 2006 PDS
05. 10. 2007
0 views

NWA 2006 PDS

629
11. 10. 2007
0 views

629

zusatzchartsein heit
16. 11. 2007
0 views

zusatzchartsein heit

UNPAN 021038
14. 08. 2007
0 views

UNPAN 021038

fall02dudas
04. 12. 2007
0 views

fall02dudas

BOS NBERPrody R1 070309
11. 12. 2007
0 views

BOS NBERPrody R1 070309

Lifes Tug Of War
14. 08. 2007
0 views

Lifes Tug Of War

Karlsruhe 290104
04. 01. 2008
0 views

Karlsruhe 290104