10 Arthropod

Information about 10 Arthropod

Published on January 4, 2008

Author: Chan

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Phylum Arthropoda:  Phylum Arthropoda Slide2:  Similarities between Annelids and Arthropods Arthropods are metameric and their segments have appendages Nervous system with ventral nerve cords Phylum Onychophora Annelid-like Segmented; unjointed appendages; similarity in structure of the body wall; segmentally arranged nephridia; pigment-cup ocelli Arthropod-like Reduced coelom, open circulatory system, tracheal system; soft cuticle composed of chitin Peripatus, a small, nocturnal form found among the leaf-litter of tropical forests of South America. Slide3:  The fossil record indicates that onychophorans have not changed much in 500 million years. The Onychophoran Aysheaia from the Cambrian. A lobe-limbed, segmented animal. Also note the spines on the legs. The head end has a pair of tapering limbs with spines, and three small projections near the mouth. Traces of the digestive tract can also be seen. Slide4:  Annelid-like Unjointed (8) legs; annelid-type nervous system Arthropod-like Presence of a cuticle (nonchitinous) that is periodically molted; similar attachment of muscle fibers to exoskeleton Phylum Tardigrada or “water bears” also have features in common with both annelids and arthropods One of the most interesting features of tardigrads is their ability to undergo cryptobiosis Slide5:  Arthropod Taxonomy: Overview The arthropods evolved along four main lines, which most zoologists recognize as 4 distinct subphyla 1. Trilobita - extinct trilobites 2. Chelicerata - horseshoe crabs, spiders, ticks, mites, and some extinct groups 3. Crustacea - crabs, lobsters, shrimps, barnacles 4. Uniramia - insects, centipedes, millipedes Slide6:  The Arthropod Exoskeleton Epidermis secretes an external skeleton called the exoskeleton Advantages of possessing an exoskeleton: provides strong support provides rigid levers that muscles can attach to and pull against offers protection serves as a barrier to prevent internal tissues from drying out; important because many arthropods live on land serves as a barrier to prevent infection Slide7:  Structure of the Exoskeleton Composed of the polysaccharide chitin and protein - glycoprotein Outer surface called the epicuticle; contains waxes The thicker portion is called the procuticle: exocuticle endocuticle In the exocuticle, the glycoprotein chains are cross linked; process is called tanning epicuticle exocuticle endocuticle epidermis procuticle Slide8:  Molting In order to grow the arthropod must shed its exoskeleton, and secrete a new and larger one - molting or ecdysis. Slide9:  Jointed Appendages Exoskeleton divided into a number of plates and cylinders At the junction point between plates and cylinders, the exoskeleton remains thin and flexible; these are the joints Jointed appendages allows arthropods to move efficiently and quickly Muscles are integral to arthropod movement; they attach to the inner side of the exoskeleton; they often function as a lever system Vertebrate joint Arthropod joint Slide10:  Specialized Arthropod Segments: Reduction in Metamerism The evolution of the arthropods witnessed a reduction in metamerism The arthropods evolved modified groups of segments (e.g., segments became lost, some fused together The fusion of groups of segments into functional groups is called tagmatization In so doing, various appendages on segments became specialized for functions other than locomotion, e.g. prey capture, filter feeding, sensing various kinds of stimuli, gas exchange, copulation, etc. Slide11:  Arthropod Respiratory Advances Special respiratory structures allow the arthropods to metabolize more efficiently and thus move rapidly High metabolic rates require rapid oxygen delivery, and arthropods can accomplish this with respiratory organs that have a large surface area for collecting oxygen quickly Slide12:  Gills Many aquatic arthropods (crabs and lobsters) have gills, which are typically modifications of appendages or outgrowths of the body wall - folds of tissue with a large surface area Slide13:  Tracheae Gas exchange organs among terrestrial arthropods is usually internal; invaginations of the integument Insects have tracheae, branching networks of hollow air conducting tubes such that air is sent to every cell in every tissue Slide14:  Book Lungs Spiders have book lungs, chambers with leaf-like plates for exchanging gases; air flows over the plates and blood flows through them Slide15:  Acute Senses Arthropods have a well-developed nervous system that is of the same overall design as the annelids; anterior brain and a double, ventral hollow nerve cord. The sensory receptors of arthropods are usually associated with modifications of the chitinous exoskeleton The head usually bears various kinds of sense organs (e.g. antennae) with extreme sensitivity Slide16:  Acute Senses cont. Many arthropods have compound eyes - eyes that are composed of many visual units called facets (ommatidia); capable of color vision and detecting the slightest movements of prey or predators Some eyes are simple eyes with only a few photoreceptors; however, they are capable of forming crude images Slide17:  Digestive System Divided into 3 main regions: foregut, midgut, and hindgut Foregut and the hindgut are lined with chitin Foregut is involved with ingestion, mechanical breakdown, and storage Hindgut is involved with water absorption and formation of the feces Midgut is not lined with chitin; involved with digestion and absorption Outpockets (e.g. digestive glands) increase the surface area for digestion and absorption Slide18:  Internal Transport and Excretion Open circulatory system Many crustaceans possess an excretory organ called the green gland (antennal gland), which filters fluid from the blood Most insects and spiders have a excretory system called malpighian tubules Slide19:  Reproduction Sexes are separate; fertilization is external in aquatic forms, internal among the terrestrial forms Arthropod Diversity:  Arthropod Diversity Subphylum Trilobita:  Subphylum Trilobita A group of extinct marine arthropods. Ranged in size from a few millimeters up to 75 centimeters. Body divided into three parts: cephalon (head), a single plate made up of several fused segments thorax, consists of a number of segments hinged together pygidium (tail), also segmented, but like the head, fused together into a single plate. Compound eye, composed of radially arranged visual units Slide22:  Subphylum Chelicerata Lack antennae Body is usually composed of two regions: cephalothorax and abdomen Cephalothorax is usually covered dorsally by the carapace Six pairs of appendages: first pair are modified feeding structures - chelicerae Second pair are called pedipalps Four additional pairs of appendages are walking legs No abdominal appendages Some have compound eyes, usually have simple eyes capable of forming crude images. Slide23:  Class Meristomata (e.g., Horeshoe crabs) Marine chelicerates, common off of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts Large dorsal carapace bearing compound eyes Possess chelicerae, pedipalps, and 4 pair of walking legs (all but the last pair are chelate Abdomen terminates in a long tail called the telson; used to turn the animal right side up Possess a series of gill plates called book gills Slide24:  Class Arachnida Among spiders, the cephalothorax and abdomen shows no external segmentation; tagma are joined by a narrow pedicel Respiration is accomplished via book lungs, tracheae, or both Usually have 8 simple eyes; at the very least they detect motion; for some of the predatory forms, they are capable of forming crude images Many species have evolved poison glands associated with the chelicerae Black widow Brown recluse Slide25:  Class Arachnida cont. Many of the spiders and mites are capable of producing silk; produced by silk glands that open to the exterior part of the abdomen through spinnerets Silk is used to build webs for trapping prey, nests which serve as retreats, and egg cases; it is also used to form a dragline Most spiders are predaceous and have all kinds of sensory hairs and relatively well-developed eyes for motion detection Orb web construction Slide26:  Prey capture among the spiders Some species are cursorial predators, those that stalk and ambush their prey; they usually have well-developed eyes Others are web building spiders, those that construct various kinds of webs made of silk to trap their prey Eyes are not as well developed as cursorial predators, but they have a battery of sensory hairs for detecting vibrations Grass spider Jumping spider Slide27:  SubPhylum Crustacea Possess 2 pair of antennae: First pair is homologous to those of insects; second pair is unique to the crustaceans Second antennae have various functions, including sensory, locomotion or feeding. The head bears a pair of compound eyes and 3 pairs of mouthparts: a pair of mandibles, and 2 pairs of maxillae; used for food handling Trunk varies considerably among classes Primitively, the first three pairs of thoracic segments are maxillipeds; function in handling food Also, there are usually 5 pairs of appendages strengthened for walking (walking legs) and protection (chelipeds, pincer-like claws) Slide28:  SubPhylum Crustacea cont. Abdomen is also highly variable, but it is primitively large Groups with a well-developed abdomen usually possess six pairs of appendages: Five pairs of structures called swimmerets (=pleopods); one pair of structures called uropods, Uropods together with the terminal telson form a tail fan than can serve as rudders during locomotion Slide29:  SubPhylum Crustacea cont. Primitively many of the appendages of the crustaceans are biramous: there is an outer exopod and an inner endopod They usually have an extremely hardened exoskeleton, which is impregnated with calcium carbonate - carapace Slide30:  SubPhylum Crustacea cont. The primitive larva of the crustaceans is called the nauplius larva It has an unsegmented body, a frontal eye, and 3 pairs of appendages, representing the 2 pairs of antennae and the mandibles Crustacean Diversity:  Crustacean Diversity Copepod Ostracod Water flea Fairy shrimp Fish louse Barnacles are Crustaceans!:  Barnacles are Crustaceans! Slide33:  SubPhylum Uniramia Single pair of antennae First pair of feeding appendages are mandibles There are one or 2 pairs of maxillae Number of legs vary from 3 pair to many pairs; they are unbranched or uniramous Slide34:  SubPhylum Uniramia cont. Class Chilopoda (Centipedes) Serial segmented, flattened body and each segment has a pair of jointed appendages Active predators, killing their prey with poison claws, which are modified legs on first segment Slide35:  SubPhylum Uniramia cont. Class Diplopoda (Millipedes) Serially segmented, rounded body with 2 smaller pairs of legs per segment Slow moving; feed on decaying plants Slide36:  Class Insecta Body is divided into 3 parts: the head, thorax and the abdomen. Head has one pair of antennae, a pair of compound eyes and several sets of simple eyes Mouthparts: a pair of mandibles, and two pairs of maxillae One pair of maxillae are fused together to form a lower lip - labium An upper lip - labrum - formed from an extension of the head Slide37:  Class Insecta cont. Mouthparts are highly modified depending on the group you are discussing Mosquitoes have pointed mouthparts for piercing and sucking; grasshoppers have mouthparts that are well adapted for chewing; butterflies for siphoning; flies for sponging Slide38:  Class Insecta con’t Thorax is composed of 3 segments and each one has a pair of legs; the last two segments also have a pair of wings. Wings of insects are modified portions of the exoskeleton 1st pair is usually tough and leathery and fold over the inner pair for protection. Abdomen does not have appendages; terminal portions do harbor the reproductive structures Slide39:  Most insects undergo metamorphosis Incomplete Metamorphosis (Hemimetabolous) Early developmental stages are very similar to the adults; only the wings and the reproductive structures gradually develop The immature stages are called nymphs Thus development is egg----> nymphs ----> adult Slide40:  Complete Metamorphosis (Holometabolous) Each of the developmental stages is structurally and functionally very different The egg develops into an immature larva; eats voraciously Followed by a transitional stage - pupa, contained within cocoon Metamorphosis occurs within the pupal exoskeleton, yielding a sexually mature adult

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