12-06-11-091d5

Information about 12-06-11-091d5

Published on March 9, 2014

Author: shanraj

Source: authorstream.com

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Lecture 12: Lecture 12 Recycle, Bypass, Purge 12.1 Recycle: 12.1 Recycle Material is recycled. Recycle stream (Fig. 12.1 & 12.2, p.342-343) The stream containing the recycled material is known as a recycle stream. Some examples in process industries Increased reactant conversion Continuous catalyst regeneration (Fig. 12.4) Circulation of a working fluid (Fig. 12.5) 12.1.1 Recycle without chemical reaction: 12.1.1 Recycle without chemical reaction Some examples: Drying process (Fig. 12.6, p.347) Reflux in distillation column (Fig. 12.7, p.347) Terminology: Terminology (Fig. 12.8) Fresh Feed Recycle Total/Gross Feed (Fresh Feed + Recycle) Gross Product Net/Overall Product (Gross Product – Recycle) Example Lecture 12.1.1: Example Lecture 12.1.1 (E12.1, DMH) A continuous crystallizer involving a recycle stream Figure given is a schematic of a process for the productionof flake NaOH , which is used in households to clear plugged drains in the plumbing. The fresh feed to the process is 10,000 lb / hr of a 40% aqueous NaOH solution. The fresh feed is combined with the recycled filtrate from the crystallizer, and fed to the evaporator where water is removed to produc a 50% NaOH solution, which in turn is fed to the crystallizer. The crystallizer produces a filter cake that is 95% NaOH crystals and 5% solution that itself consists of 45% NaOH . The filtrate contains 45% NaOH . You are asked to determine the flow rate of water removed by the evaporator, and the recycle rate for this process. Assume that the same production rate of NaOH flakes occurs, but the filtrate is not recycled. What would be the total feed rate of 40% NaOH have to be then? Assume that the product solution from the evaporator still contains 50% NaOH . 12.1.2 Recycle with chemical reaction: 12.1.2 Recycle with chemical reaction (Fig. 12.9) PowerPoint Presentation: When the fresh feed consists of more than one reactant, the conversion can be expressed for a single component, usually the limiting reactant, or the most important (expensive) reactant. Example Lecture 12.1.2: Example Lecture 12.1.2 (E12.3, DMH) Cyclohexane (C 6 H 12 ) can be made by the reaction of benzene ( Bz ) (C 6 H 6 ) with hydrogen according to the following reaction: C 6 H 6 + 3H 2 -> C 6 H 12 For the process shown in the figure, determine the ratio of the recycle stream to the fresh feed stream if the overall conversion of benzene is 95%, and the single-pass conversion is 20%. Assume that 20% excess hydrogen is used in the fresh feed, and that the composition of the recycle stream is 22.74 mol % benzene and 78.26 mol % hydrogen. Also calculate the environmental impact of the product gas by calculating an environmental index based on the following threshold limit values (TLV) for the respective components: Benzene (0.5 ppm), Cyclohexane (300 ppm), Hydrogen (1000 ppm). 12.2 Bypass: 12.2 Bypass A stream that skips one or more stages of the process and goes directly to another downstream stage (Fig. 12.10) Example Lecture 12.2: Example Lecture 12.2 (E12.5, p.367) In the feedstock preparation section of a plant manufacturing natural gasoline, isopentane is removed from butane-free gasoline. Assume for purposes of simplification that the process and components are as shown in the figure given. What fraction of the butane-free gasoline is passed through the isopentane tower? Detailed steps will not be listed in the analysis and solution of this problem. The process is in the steady-stage and no reaction occurs. 12.3 Purge: 12.3 Purge A stream bled off from the process to remove an accumulation of inerts or unwanted material that might otherwise build up in the recycle stream (Fig. 12.11) Example Lecture 12.3: Example Lecture 12.3 (E12.6, DMH, p. 369) Considerable interest exists in the conversion of coal into more convenient liquid products for subsequent production of chemicals. Two of the main gases that can be generated under suitable conditions from in situ (in the ground) coal combustion in the presence of steam (as occurs naturally in the presence of groundwater) are H 2 and CO. After clean up, these two gases can be combined to yield methanol according to the following equation CO + 2H 2 -> CH 3 OH Figure given illustrates a steady-state process for the production of methanol. All of the compositions are in mole fractions or percent. The stream flows are in moles. Note that some CH 4 enters the process, but does not participate in the reaction. A purge stream is used in maintain the CH 4 concentration in the exit from the separator at no more than 3.2 mol %, and prevent hydrogen buildup as well. The once-through conversion of the CO in the reactor is 18%. Compute the moles of recycle, CH 3 OH, and purge per mole of feed, and also compute the purge gas composition. Problems Lecture 12: Problems Lecture 12 Section 12.1 : P1, P2 Section 12.2 : P1, P2, P3, P4 Section 12.3 : P1, P2, P3 Section 12.4 : P1, P2 P12.7, P12.10, P12.13, P12.16, P12.23, P12.26

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