Published on March 24, 2008
Empires in East Asia: Empires in East Asia 12.1 Tang and Song China 12.2 & 3 The Mongol Conquests & Empire 12.4 Feudal Japan 12.5 SE Asia & Korea The Sui Dynasty Reunites China(500 years after the Han): The Sui Dynasty Reunites China (500 years after the Han) Lasted from 581-618 Only had 2 emperors Accomplished: Grand Canal- connected 2 rivers to form a trade route between rice fields in the south and the northern cities Rebuilding of the Great Wall of China Fell due to revolts of overworked and overtaxed people Thousands died on both state projects- people resented and assassinated the 2nd Sui emperor The Tang Dynasty: The Tang Dynasty Lasted from 618-907 Empress Wu Zhao named herself emperor and expanded the empire into the rest of China and Korea- regained land lost after the fall of the Han Dynasty She is the only woman in Chinese history to do this! Tang Accomplishments: Tang Accomplishments Strong Central Government Expanded Roads and the Grand Canal Promoted Trade Improvements in agriculture Revived the Confucian Civil Service examination system The Fall of the Tang Dynasty: The Fall of the Tang Dynasty Taxes were increased due to the large government around 700 Invading Muslim Armies Border attacks and internal rebellions China was divided into separate kingdoms ruled by warlords Taizu Reunites China- the Song Dynasty: Taizu Reunites China- the Song Dynasty Lasted about 3 centuries (960 – 1279) Never able to reunite all of China, but set up a government in southern china Accomplishments: Strong economy and large economic growth Prosperity and Innovation During the Tang and Song Dynasties: Prosperity and Innovation During the Tang and Song Dynasties Science & Technology- movable type, gunpowder, magnetic compass, porcelain Agriculture- rice cultivation (two crops each year) Trade and Foreign Contacts- Guarded silk roads, built large port cities, and influenced other groups Poetry & Art- paintings of nature Changes in Society: Changes in Society A new upper class, gentry, emerged who achieved status through education and civil service Status and role of women Were always subservient to men Treatment was worse in cities Custom of foot binding- display of wealth and status The Mongols (Section 2): The Mongols (Section 2) Geography- Steppe region, dry grasslands Skills- horsemen, raising domesticated animals- followed a pattern of movement Way of life pastoralists who traveled in kinship groups (CLANS) The Rise of the Mongols: The Rise of the Mongols United under the leadership of Genghis Kahn After conquering the Russians, Turks, etc…. Set his sites on China Characteristics of Genghis Kahn- Campaign of Terror- and organized: 10,000= Army 1,000= brigades 100= companies 10= squads The Mongol Empire: The Mongol Empire Genghis died due to illness his successors continued to expand the Empire. In less than 50 years they conquered territories from China to Poland The empire was divided into 4 khanates: … of the great Kahn- Mongolia/China … of the Chagatai- Central Asia … of the I khanate- Persia … of the Golden Horde- Russia The Mongols as Rulers: The Mongols as Rulers Ruthless in war: used cruelty as a weapon, trickery, terrifying enemies into surrender Tolerant in peace Pax Mongolica (Mongolian Peace): Safe passage for traders and travelers Active Trade Possibly began to spread the plague Chinese innovations reached the west The Mongol Empire (Section 3): The Mongol Empire (Section 3) A new guy to know…Kublai Khan Grandson of Genghis Kahn Title: Emperor of China (and The Great Khan) Founded the Yuan Dynasty By the time he came to power the empire was split into 4 divisions Know that Kublai Khan wanted to control all of China- legacy of his grandfather The Yuan Dynasty: The Yuan Dynasty Area that it covered- all of Mongolia, Korea, Tibet and all of China Conquering the land of china was Genghis Khan’s greatest achievement Importance- first time a foreign invader controlled China and first to unite all of China after the Tang Dynasty Kublai Khan Breaks Mongol Traditions: Kublai Khan Breaks Mongol Traditions Change in lifestyle- gave up the nomadic life common with Mongolian Rulers Moved the capital to China so he could be the rightful Next goal was to conquer Japan, he never did! Back to China: Back to China Kublai Khan turned his focus back to China Mongol theory on public office: Mongols and Chinese lived apart and obeyed different laws, kept Chinese out of high office, but kept them in local leadership positions Foreigners were more trustworthy due to no local loyalties What Happened Under Kublai Khan’s Empire?: What Happened Under Kublai Khan’s Empire? Trade: foreign trade increased- Mongol Peace by making Central Asia safe for trade and travel- invited foreign merchants to visit. Most Famous Visitor- Marco Polo- traveled to China along the Silk Roads with his father in 1272. They remained there until 1292- Marco told wondrous stories of China- of which no one believed a word. Inventions shared with the West: Inventions shared with the West Some we know- paper, gunpowder, paper currency Others included playing cards and “black stones” burned for fuel… coal! The Fall of the Mongols: The Fall of the Mongols Beginning of the end- Kublai Khan’s renewed interest in expansion led to fruitless wars- loss of life- and taxes. Also, the lavish life style of the rulers added to the high taxes. When- in 1294 after K.K’s death- Family members argued over who would rule and were fueled by famine, flood, disease and economic trouble Mongol governments fell apart- China’s was replaced by the Ming Dynasty Japan : Japan Japan is composed of 4,000 islands , 4 largest are used- or heavily populated. Major Religion- Shinto which means way of the gods- polytheistic This was combined with Buddhism Japanese borrowed a great deal from China They blended these into their own culture Things the Japanese borrowed from China: Things the Japanese borrowed from China Buddhism Writing Landscape paintings Cooking, gardening, tea, hairdressing Attempts to model their civil-service government failed Japan never lost it’s own traditions- eventually ended cultural missions to China The Heian Period: The Heian Period Relatively strong central government Lavish wealth and rituals are associated with this period Rules dictated the expectations of court life including clothing, behaviors, forms of address, and etiquette Soon the Heian were challenged by wealthy land owners Japan Becomes Feudalistic: Japan Becomes Feudalistic Feudalism means that power was based on noble land ownership This weakened the central government of Japan The emperor stayed in place, but only as a figure-head, this continued for many years Japanese Terms: Japanese Terms Samurai- “one who serves”- the band of body guards that protected the interests of their lord. They lived by a code of conduct advocating courage, reverence, fairness, generosity and dying a noble death rather than living a long life. Shogun-”supreme general of the emperor’s army”= military dictator (lasted from the 1200s – 1868!) Southeast Asia’ s Khemer Empire- modern day Cambodia: Southeast Asia’ s Khemer Empire- modern day Cambodia Improved rice cultivation which allowed them to become prosperous. Just like China! Built the Angkor Wat Political= palace Religious= temple Korea: Korea Heavily influenced (and controlled by China) Independence under the Koryu Dynasty Government modeled after China’s but did not allow upward mobility.