Published on January 8, 2008
American HistoryUnit II- U.S. Foreign Affairs : American History Unit II- U.S. Foreign Affairs World War II Chapter 26- Clouds of War Section 1- Foreign Affairs 1933-1939 Reading Quiz: Reading Quiz Conditions in German that paved the way for Hitler.: Conditions in German that paved the way for Hitler. The people had little faith in the weak existing democratic government. A multiparty system hindered the growth of a strong “center” party. Fear of the Communists was widespread (this is very important). Many Germans wanted to avenge the defeat they had suffered in World War I. Germany was plagued by unemployment, severe inflation, and depression- all of which the Nazis promised to remedy. The German middle class hungered for stability, even at the cost of liberty. The police and military high command offered no serious opposition when the Nazis used strong arm methods to gain control. Threats to Peace: Threats to Peace The rise of Hitler Austrian drop out and failed artist WWI- German soldier wounded and gassed. Joins Social Workers party and reshapes it into NAZI. Scapegoat- jews 1923 Beer Hall Putsch in Bavaria- Hitler goes to jail and writes Mein Kampf. 800 page Nazi bible “Big Lie” Third Riech- Germany that would last a thousand years. Japanese-American relations: Japanese-American relations Military leaders had taken over rule in Japan. 1931 Japan seizes Manchuria. 1937 attacks China, the bombing of Shanghai and the Nanjing Massacre. Western Democracies spoke up but did not act for fear of starting war. Japan sinks US gunboat Panay on the Yangtze River in China. Japan apologizes and paid $2 million. Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere- 1940 FDR and neutrality: FDR and neutrality FDR warned America about war and that the US could not be a mere spectator. He wanted quarantine, but did not get it Pacifists- never go to war for any reason. Isolationists- fence off the New World and keep the war out. 5th Columnists- German agents operating inside the United States waiting to become active. Nazi sympathizers- Italian and German immigrants and American Nazi. Defeatists- We can not possible defeat them. (Lindbergh) Hate England Crowd – such as the Irish. Business as usual- businesses profiting from the war. Arms manufacturers and bankers profit either way. Appeasers- Give in to Hitler’s demands U.S. Neutrality Acts: U.S. Neutrality Acts Tydings-McDuffie Act 1934- provided for the independence of the Philippines by 1946. 1935- FDR recommends the US join the World Court- isolationists say no. 1935-1936 Neutrality Acts- US citizens travel at own risk to Belligerent nations, shipment of arms barred to Spain during civil war (this helped the fascists.). 1937- Sales to belligerents, but only on “cash and carry” basis.- law embargoed munitions and possibly other exports the President saw fit. 1937 amendment would have prevented Congress from declaring war without first submitting the question to a popular vote. It was never submitted. These laws did not block the world from going to war. Hitler comes to power: Hitler comes to power Hitler and Nazi’s take over gov’t German parliament with many parties. Split World Depression Government made him chancellor before he could take over on his own. Hitler master of radio. Thugs, SA and SS Propoganda Hitler is a german god. Concentration Camps Other world powers: Other world powers Stalin - USSR Labor camps in Siberia Oppression and purges farm takeovers Japan- army leaders take over control bent on expanding the country. Japan in Korea and Manchuria Italians- Fascist Mussolini want to create a new Roman Empire. 1935- Invasion of Ethiopia Italians and Germans support Spain- Fascist Franco. Germany moves into Rhineland FDR - Good Neighbor Policy: FDR - Good Neighbor Policy A good neighbor is one who respects himself and his neighbors. Our new Latin American policy 1934- Cuba sovereign nation 1938- Mexico expropriates all of the oil fields in Mexico. Settled peacefully. U.S. to treat Latin Americans as equals. SIGNIFICANT EVENTS IN GERMANY: 1933-1945: SIGNIFICANT EVENTS IN GERMANY: 1933-1945 1933: Jan. 30- Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany Apr 1- National boycott of Jewish stores Apr 26- Creation of the Gestapo, secret police. Nov 12- Reichstag elections: 93% vote for Nazis 1934: Aug 19- Hitler's powers extended by vote of people. 1935: Sept 15-Nuremberg Laws deprive Jews of German citizenship. Marriage between Jews and other Germans is made illegal. 1936: Oct 25- Alliance formed with Italy and Japan Dec 1- Law passed making Hitler Youth a State agency Hitler takes the Rhineland. 1938: March - Hitler invades and annexes Austria. Occupies the Sudetenland and Czechoslovakia. Nov 9- "Kristallnacht"-Jewish synagogues and stores Destroyed. Jews fined heavily for damages. Jews expelled from German schools. Dec 6- Non-aggression pact signed with Germany and France 1939: March- Hitler seizes the rest of the Czechoslovakia. Aug 23-Soviet-German non aggression pact signed. Sept 1-Germany invades Poland, start WW II. 1940: German Jews beginning to be taken into custody and deported to concentration camps. Apr 9- Hitler invades Denmark and Norway. June 14- Hitler seizes Paris and controls all of France. 1941: Beginning of the "Final Solution". Jews may not leave their homes without police permission. June 22- Germany invades Russia. 1942: t Jews forbidden to use public transportation. 1943: Feb 2- Soviet army takes Stalingrad. March- Germany loses control of N. Africa. 1944 June 6- D-Day - Allies land in France. Dec 16 Battle of the Bulge, German last try. 1945: Apr 30- Hitler commits suicide. May 8- END OF WW II 1946: Nuremburg Trials Hitler on the march: Hitler on the march Lebensraum- “Living Room”, -all people of German blood in Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Poland. 1938- March- Hitler invades Austria then Sudetenland. The Czech hoped other nations would aid them- did not happen. Munich Conference- Chamberlain of England, Daladier of France met with Hitler and Mussolini at Munich, Germany. Sept. 28, 1938 they agreed to dismember Czechoslovakia and appease Hitler. Chamberlains said, “Peace in our time.” November 1938- Hitler increases brutal treatment of Jews. March 1939- Hitler seizes rest of Czechoslovakia- Appeasement failed. April 7, 1939- Italy invades Albania. Isolationists in Congress still block all of FDR attempts to aid the allies. Problems with Japan: Problems with Japan July 26, 1939- Because of the siezure of Manchuria by Japan in 1931m the attack of China in 1937 and the Panay Incident, the U.S. tells Japan: U.S. would end the Japanese-American Commercial Treaty U.S. will stop sale of war materials to Japan. Japan was invading China with those arms. War Comes to Europe: War Comes to Europe The Munich appeasement made Hitler want more. Signs as Non-aggression pact with Russia- which secretly gave Germany western Poland. Sept. 1, 1939 Hitler invades Poland. Sept. 3, 1939 England and France declare war on Germany. Sept. 17, 1939 Stalin’s armies move into Eastern Poland. U.S. Reaction- Neutrality: U.S. Reaction- Neutrality FDR does not ask the American People to be neutral in thought and deed. He invoked the Neutrality Act of 1937. FDR got Congress to pass the Neutrality Act of 1939 which helped the allies by repealing the arms embargo.