Information about 133556451-Chapter-10-chemotaxonomy-ppt

Published on July 14, 2014

Author: bhaveshnayak56

Source: authorstream.com


Taxonomy: Taxonomy Science of Classification, Nomenclature, Identification Organisms are named and arranged into taxa Provides: universal names reference facilitates research, scholarship and communication Taxonomy: Taxonomy Systematics or phylogeny Provides tools for clarifying evolution of organisms as well as their interrelationships All Species Inventory (2001-2025) Scientific Nomenclature: Scientific Nomenclature Scientific binomial Source of Genus name Source of Specific epithet Kbebsiella pneumoniae Honors Edwin Klebs The disease Pfiesteria piscicida Honors Lois Pfiester Disease in fish Salmonella typhimurium Honors Daniel Salmon Stupor (typh-) in mice (muri-) Streptococcus pyogenes Chains of cells (strepto-) Forms pus (pyo-) Penicillium notatum Tuftlike (penicill-) Spores spread in wind (nota) Trypanosoma cruzi Corkscrew-like (trypano-, borer; soma-body) Honors Oswaldo Cruz History of Taxonomy: History of Taxonomy 1735 Carlous Linnaeus: 2 Kingdoms 1857 Bacteria & fungi put in the Plant Kingdom 1866 Ernst Haeckel: 3 Kingdoms 1937 "Prokaryote" term introduced 1959 Kingdom Fungi History of Taxonomy: History of Taxonomy 1961 Current definition of prokaryote introduced 1969 Robert Whittaker: 5 kingdoms Plantae; Animalia; Fungi; Protista; Monera 1978 Carl Woese: 3 Domains Eukarya, Bacteria and Archaea Based on variation in cellular composition Primary evidence to support comes from differences in rRNA sequences The Three-Domain System: The Three-Domain System Figure 10.1 Three Domains: Three Domains Table 10.1 Nested Taxonomical Hierarchy: Nested Taxonomical Hierarchy Figure 10.5 Species Definition: Species Definition Eukaryotic species: Prokaryotic species: Clone Strain Viral species: References for Prokaryote Identification : References for Prokaryote Identification • Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology Provides identification schemes for identifying bacteria and archaea Morphology, differential staining, biochemical tests • Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Provides phylogenetic information on bacteria and archaea Based on rRNA sequencing • Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Lists species of known prokaryotes Based on published articles Methods of Identifying Microorganisms: Methods of Identifying Microorganisms Morphological characteristics Differential and structural stains Biochemical tests Serology – based on antigenic nature of microbes Phage typing –determines to which phages a bacteria is susceptible Analysis of nucleic acids PowerPoint Presentation: Acid fast bacilli and non-acid fast cocci Gram - bacilli and Gram + cocci Flagella stain Endospore stain PowerPoint Presentation: Dichotomous key for biochemical tests based on enzyme activity Rapid Identification Tests : Rapid Identification Tests Figure 10.9 PowerPoint Presentation: Microbes are antigenic Combine known antiserum + unknown bacterium Slide agglutination ELISA Western blot Figure 10.10 Phage Typing: Phage Typing Figure 10.13 Analysis of nucleic acids : Analysis of nucleic acids DNA base composition DNA fingerprinting Electrophoresis of RFLPs Nucleic acid hybridization rRNA sequencing PCR

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