Published on October 10, 2011
Global Environmental Protection- “Kyoto Protocol”: Global Environmental Protection- “Kyoto Protocol” Presentation By, Parth V. Purohit & Vanita Naidu Flow Of Presentation: Flow Of Presentation Introduction Kyoto Protocol Objectives Kyoto Mechanism Criticism Of Kyoto Protocol Member Countries World GHG Emission Climate Change Performance Index 2010 GDP, Purchasing Power Parity, CO 2 Emission (1930-2030) Historical and Projected CO 2 and Sea Level (1900-2030) Top 10 Emitters in 2010 Kyoto Protocol and Asia Indian Policies context to Post Kyoto Protocol 2012 Conclusion Introduction (Till 2005): Introduction (Till 2005) Kyoto Protocol (An Overview): Kyoto Protocol (An Overview) An international treaty designed to limit the amounts of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere. Total Member countries: 184 Duration: 2008 to 2012 The Protocol provided for legally binding limits on greenhouse gas & other emissions which includes flexibility mechanisms for reaching those targets . Flexibility mechanism means Emissions Trading and emissions reductions out of country. Objectives: Objectives Establishing commitments for the reduction of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide (CO2); Methane (CH4); Nitrous oxide (N2O); Hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs); Per fluorocarbons (PFCs); and Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) To assist Annex I Parties in achieving compliance with the targets. To assist non-Annex I Parties in achieving sustainable development. Controlling on already Developed countries. Minimizing Impacts on Developing Countries. Accounting, Reporting and Review in order to ensure the integrity of the Protocol. Keep the world environment clean and safe for long time and avoid negative outcomes. Kyoto Mechanism:: Kyoto Mechanism: Stimulate sustainable development through technology transfer and investment. Help countries with Kyoto commitments to meet their targets by reducing emissions or removing carbon from the atmosphere in other countries in a cost-effective way. Encourage the private sector and developing countries to contribute to emission reduction efforts. Emissions Trading (Assigned Amount Units) are exchanged between Annex I countries The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Annex I investors receive ERUs ( Emission Reduction Units) by investing in a project in another Annex I nation which reduces GHG emissions Joint Implementation (JI) Annex I investors receive CERs (Certified Emission Reductions) by investing in a project in a non-Annex I nation which reduces GHG emissions Member Countries: Member Countries - Signed and ratified the treaty (Annex I and II Countries ), - Not yet decided - No intention of ratifying. Criticism Of Kyoto Protocol: Criticism Of Kyoto Protocol U.S Position. China and India. Protocol “purely political” & “no scientific justification.” Ignorance of population growth and other issues that affect global warming. Planting forests may increase carbon dioxide. Top Ten Emitters (In 2010): Top Ten Emitters (In 2010) 1. China: 7,711 MT 25.4% 2. US: 5,425 MT 17.8% 3. India: 1,602 MT 05.3% 4. Russia: 1,572 MT 05.2% 5. Japan: 1,098 MT 03.6% 6. Germany: 766 MT 02.5% 7. Canada: 541 MT 01.8% 8. S.Korea : 528 MT 01.7% 9. Iran: 527 MT 01.7% 10. UK: 520 MT 01.7% Kyoto Protocol & Asia: Kyoto Protocol & Asia China insists that the emissions level of any country is a multiplication of its per capita emission & its population. China considers the criticism of its energy policy unjust. India signed & ratified the protocol in august 2002. India is exempted from the framework of treaty, thus it is expected to gain from the protocol in terms of transfer of technology & related foreign investments. India maintains the major responsibility of curbing emission rests with the developed countries, which have accumulated emissions over a long period of time. China with about 16% of the worlds population emits about 14% of the GHGs, while India 15% of worlds population contributes about 4% of emissions. Indian Policies Context To Post Kyoto Protocol 2012: Indian Policies Context To Post Kyoto Protocol 2012 India wants the developed world to fulfill its commitments for reduction of Green House, Gases, transfer new and additional financial resources and climate friendly technology to support adaptation and mitigation measures in developing countries. India wants to protect the weak sectors of Society in its sustainable development strategy. Solar Mission to increase the share of this energy for decentralized distribution and to create affordable and convenient solar power systems. Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency to introduce cost effectiveness and shift to energy efficient appliances . Water Mission to conserve water and ensure equitable distribution between States and areas. National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture by developing thermal resistance crops and supported by Bio-technology, geo-spatial technology and IT. CONCLUSION: CONCLUSION Kyoto-ism is the most broad-based, the most intrusive and the most aggressive assault on economic growth, fight against poverty, health, environment, bio-diversity, public safety, science, and one of the key pillars of origin and progress of the human civilization itself. The Kyoto Protocol is not strong enough to control significantly the impact of rising Carbon emissions and concentrations. Even if all the nations of the world had ratified the Kyoto protocol, the Kyoto protocols effectiveness at halting global warming wont be that significant.