microorganisms

Information about microorganisms

Published on October 15, 2012

Author: shaurya192

Source: authorstream.com

Content

MICROORGANISMs FRIENDS AND FOE: MICROORGANISM s FRIENDS AND FOE MICROORGANISMS: MICROORGANISMS However other living organisms around us which we normally cannot see. These are called microorganisms or microbes . for example , you mighty observed that during the rainy seasons moist bread gets spoilt and its surface gets covered with greyissh white patches Microorganisms are classified into four groups- Bacteria Fungi Protozoa Algae Viruses : Viruses Viruses : Viruses Viruses are also microscopic . They ,reproduce Only inside the cells of the host organism, which may be a bacterium, plant or animal. Common ailments like cold, influenza(flu) and most cough are caused by viruses. Serious diseases likes. polio and chicken pox are also caused by viruses. Diseases like dysentary and malaria are caused by protozoa ( Protozoans ) whereas typhoid and tuberculosis(TB) are bacterial diseases. Where do organisms live?: Where do organisms live? Microorganisms may be single-celled like bacteria . Some algae and protozoa , or multicellular such as algae and fungi . They can survive under all types of environment , ranging from ice cold to climate to hot springs and desert to marshy lands . They are also found inside bodies of animals including humans . Some microorganisms grow on other organisms while other exist freely . Microorganisms like amoeba can live alone , while fungi and bacteria may live in colonies. Friendly microorganisms: Friendly microorganisms Microorganisms are used for various purposes . They are used in preparation of curd , bread and cakes . They have been used for the production of alcohol since ages . They are also used for cleaning up the environment . For example ; organic wastes (vegetables , peels , remains of animals , faeces , etc;) are broken down into harmless and usable substances by bacteria . Recall that bacteria are also used in preparation of medicines . In agriculture they are used to increase soil fertility by fixing nitrogen . Commercial use of microorganisms: Commercial use of microorganisms Microorganisms are used for the large scale production of alcohol , wine , and acetic acid . Yeast is used for commercial production of alcohol and wine . For this purposes yeast is grown on natural sugars present in grains like barley , wheat , rice , crushed, fruit juice etc; This is the smell of alcohol as sugar has been converted in alcohol by yeast . This conversion of sugar into alcohol is called fermentation . Medicinal use of Microorganisms: Medicinal use of Microorganisms The source like injections and capsules of the medicines is microorganisms . These medicines kill or stop the growth of the disease causing microorganisms . Such medicines are called . antibiotics . Streptomycin are some of the commonly known antibiotics which are made from fungi and bacteria . The antibiotics are manufactured by growing species microorganisms and are used to cure the variety of diseases . Vaccine: Vaccine When a disease carrying microbe enters a body , the body producing antibodies to fight the invader . The antibodies are remain in the body and we are protected the disease causing microbes . This is how vaccine works . Several diseases including cholera , tuberculosis , small pox , hebatitis can be prevented by vaccination . It is also essential to protect all children against diseases . Necessary vaccine are available in nearby hospitals . Polio drops given to children are actually a vaccine . These days are vaccines are made on a large scale from microorganisms to protect humans and other animals from several diseases . PowerPoint Presentation: INCREASING SOIL FERTILITY : Some bacteria and blue green algae are able to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere to enrich soli with nitrogen and increase its fertility . These microbes are commonly called biological nitrogen fixers . Thus , the nitrogen fixing blue green algae increases the soil fertility . CLEANING THE ENVIRONMENT : School gardeners usually make the manure . They collect wastes of plants , vegetables , and fruits from nearby houses and gardens . They put them in a pit meant for waste disposal . After some time , it get decomposed and got converted into manure . Thus , microorganisms can be used to degrade the harmful smelly substances and thereby clean up the environment . Disease causing microorganisms in humans: Disease causing microorganisms in humans Microbial diseases that can spread from an infected person to a healthy person from air , water , food or physical contact are called communicable diseases . Examples of such diseases include cholera , common cold , chicken pox and tuberculosis . The virus may enter the body of a healthy person while breathing . There are some insects and animals which act as carriers of diseases like housefly , anopheles etc; causing microbes and spread dengue viruses. PowerPoint Presentation: FOOD PRESERVATION: When the flies sit on uncovered food they may transfer pathogens . Whoever eats the contaminated food is likely to get sick . So, it is advisable to always keep food covered . Avoid consuming uncovered of food . one should also not let water collect anywhere in coolers , tyres , etc; by keeping the surroundings clean and dry we can prevent mosquitoes from breeding. FOOD POISONING: Food poisoning could be due to the consumption of food spoilt by some microorganisms . Microbes that are grown on our food sometimes produce toxic substances . These causing food poisoning and causing serious illness even death . So, it is very important that we preserve food from preventing it from being spoilt. FOOD POISONING: FOOD POISONING NITROGEN FIXATION : The bacterium rhizobium is involved in the fixation of nitrogen in leguminous plants such as baens and peas , with which it has a symbotic relationship . Sometimes nitrogen gets fixed through the action of lightning . : NITROGEN FIXATION : The bacterium rhizobium is involved in the fixation of nitrogen in leguminous plants such as baens and peas , with which it has a symbotic relationship . S ometimes nitrogen gets fixed through the action of lightning . NITROGEN CYCLE : The atmospheric nitrogen cannot be taken directly by plants and animals . Certain bacteria and blue green algae present in the soil fix nitrogen from the atmosphere and convert it into compounds of nitrogen . As a result , the percentage of nitrogen in the atmosphere remains more or less constant . Thank You: Thank You By- Class 8 E Shaurya Chopra

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