Published on November 25, 2008
2.6 Strained Connections: 2.6 Strained Connections By the end of this unit most students should be able to: understand why debt means that Africa has not benefited from global connections explain how African countries got into debt, and the players in this process draw up a table to show the economic, social, and environmental impacts of events in Africa over the past 50 years assess whether a lack of resources, poor quality farmland, and lack of food help to explain Africa’s slow rate of development Before that a little recap: Before that a little recap 1 – the world has become smaller in terms of ease of connections – globalisation has occurred ‘Shrinking world’: ‘Shrinking world’ Internet and Satellite: financial flows, business decisions. Falling cost of communication Containerisation Cheap air travel, and air freight Cross-border road and rail networks English: international language of business MONEY, GOODS and PEOPLE move more easily than ever before. HoweverSome places are switched ON and some are switched OFF: However Some places are switched ON and some are switched OFF Global hubs: Global hubs Global hubs are switched-on places possessing qualities that make other places want to connect with them. In some cases, these are the obvious world cities, e.g. London and Tokyo. In other cases, they may possess a particular attribute that others wish to connect with, rather than displaying a full range of connections, e.g. Bangalore. Many of the global hubs host the major TNCs. They tend to be places of increasingly diverse culture as flows of people, finance, trade and ideas converge on them. What is Dubai’s position as a global hub Note this all relates to the idea of CORE and PERIPHERY Aircraft Departures2006Territory size shows the distribution of aircraft take-offs, measured by the aircraft’s territory of registration. : Aircraft Departures 2006 Territory size shows the distribution of aircraft take-offs, measured by the aircraft’s territory of registration. Switched On = WINNERS?Switched Off = LOSERS?: Switched On = WINNERS? Switched Off = LOSERS? Homework: 1. Using examples, explain how some countries have been affected by debt, and the impacts it has had on them. (10)Timed essay in class:2. Suggest why most of Africa is in darkness, switched off from development.: Homework: 1. Using examples, explain how some countries have been affected by debt, and the impacts it has had on them. (10) Timed essay in class: 2. Suggest why most of Africa is in darkness, switched off from development. We Will be working towards answering the following questions Africa’s debt: Africa’s debt In 1996 For every $1 dollar received in aid, sub saharan countries paid $1.30 on debt repayments. Why has Africa failed to benefit from Global Connections?: Why has Africa failed to benefit from Global Connections? Modernists would say that all countries can develop with investment to allow it to reach the take of stage. This can be in the form of loans, direct investment or foreign Aid. However in the 50 years since many have become independent Africa has gone backwards. It has had $500 billiion in aid spend upon it but HDI has continued to fall and economic growth negligable. Dependency theorists point to the problems of debt, unfair trading relations for this. A lack of resources?: A lack of resources? Zambia as a case study of the problems of relyiing on one major export. Zambia is rich in copper deposits. Why then has its HDI fallen in recent years and its debt reached two and a quarter times its GDP? Poor – Quality farmland?: Poor – Quality farmland? Tanzania: This has good quality fertile volcanic soils. Why then has Tanzania had to cut spending on education and health Too little food?: Too little food? Africa has more than enough land to be able to feed itself. Why is it that in Kenya and other countries of Arica severe food shortages followed drought, when at the same time they were exporting $350 million worth of flowers to Europe? Slide20: Should African countries be given debt relief? How the worlds poorest got into debt?: How the worlds poorest got into debt? Task 1. Look at page 79 – draw a timeline to show how this occurred Task 2. Africa’s Global disconnection. Read through the box on page 79 and complete qu 5 on page 81. Identify the S,E,E impacts of events in Africa over the past 50 years. Extended Tasks:: Extended Tasks: Exam question: Using examples, explain how some countries have been affected by debt, and the impacts that this has had on them. (10 marks) Sharing: Choose a sub-saharan African country and complete a fact file on it to share on Moodle with the rest of the group. Find out about its debt, its exports and some of its indicators of development. Slide23: The other question will be in the mock at the beginning of next term!!!!!!!!!!!!!