Published on May 2, 2008
How Did Britain Change Between 1750 and 1900?: How Did Britain Change Between 1750 and 1900? 1750–1900 For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. This icon indicates the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. Slide2: What we will learn today What we will learn today: What Britain was like in 1750. A comparison of what Britain was like in 1750 and 1900. Looking comparatively at the social, political and economic ways of life in 1750 and 1900. Slide3: Population Work Transport Politics Health Education Britain What changed between 1750 and 1900? Slide4: Population in 1750 Slide5: Population in 1900 Slide6: Most of us are involved in farming either for ourselves or for a landowner or farmer. All farming is done by hand or horse power. This means that many people are needed to work the land. And we work for them! Working in 1750 – agriculture Slide7: Manufacturing industries were small, and goods were produced in people’s own homes or in small workshops. Any machinery (e.g. spinning wheels, looms) was powered by human, horse or water power. Working in 1750 – industry Slide8: Britain leads the world with our huge coal, iron, steel and textile industries! Working in 1900 – industry By 1900, most of the manufacturing industries operated in large factories using heavy steam powered machinery. Slide9: By 1900 farming has changed too! We have new machines that mean we need less workers for our fields! You may notice I am still working though! Slide10: Think back to what work was like in 1750. What changes were there by 1900? Think! Slide12: Some roads were being improved by Turnpike Trusts, which charged tolls to people using them. Travelling by sea or river was often the quickest way to get from one place to another. Transport – getting about in 1750 Roads were very poor and many were just muddy tracks – it could take two weeks to travel from the north of England to the south. The first canals were built in the 1770s. Slide13: Steam trains made travel to all parts of Britain easy and affordable for most people. Steam ships enabled Britain to export huge quantities of manufactured goods across the world. Many canals were now redundant. Roads were better than they had been in 1750 but travel by road was still slow. The car had been invented but was a very rare sight. Transport – getting about in 1900 The invention of steam power revolutionized transport in the 19th century. By 1900: Slide14: I am George II. I am King but I am afraid I must obey Parliament! They decide the laws. Don’t think the people run this country though, only rich landowners who are male vote – less than 5% of the population! Politics in 1750 Slide15: I have been on the throne for 63 years! Things have changed since George’s day! Now 60% of men who are 21 or older can vote! Parliament is no longer filled with rich landowners, and they have passed health and education laws to improve poor people’s lives! Politics in 1900 Slide16: There were some Sunday schools which taught people the scriptures and how to read them. Education in 1750 Only the sons of the wealthy or the clergy went to school in England. Their sisters were taught at home. Very few ordinary people could read or write. In Scotland, every church had a school and most people could read and write. There were just seven universities in the whole of Britain. Only men were allowed to go to university. Slide17: In 1900, all children between the ages of 5 and 11 had to go to school, by law. Why do you think girls were taught different subjects from boys? Education in 1900 There were now 17 universities in Britain. Some allowed female students to attend, but they were not awarded degrees. Many people could now read and write. Education centred on reading, writing and arithmetic. History, geography and basic science were taught as well, but girls often did sewing and cooking instead. Slide18: Surgery was still very basic and dangerous, and was performed without anaesthetics or antiseptics. Health in 1750 The cause of disease was not understood, so cures were still based on superstition and ‘old wives’ tales’. Few people could afford doctors, and most relied on herbal medicine. No-one knew about germs, or how infection was spread. Slide19: Louis Pasteur had discovered the link between germs and disease. Diseases such as smallpox could be prevented by vaccination. Surgical operations improved with the development of anaesthetics and antiseptics. Public Health Acts forced local authorities to clean up their towns, supply clean water and build proper sewers, making them safer and healthier places to live. Health in 1900 Great advances had been made in medicine and science in the second half of the 19th century: Slide20: Now choose either activity 2 or 3. When would you rather have lived – 1750 or 1900? Explain your answer. Compare life in 1900 with life today. Choose three of the most important changes and explain why you have chosen them. Activities How did life in Britain change between 1750 and 1900?