20071017940010

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Published on December 7, 2007

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Unit 2 The Freedom Givers:  Unit 2 The Freedom Givers I. Cultural Knowledge II. Reading Strategy III. Text Analysis 1) Detailed Text Explanation 2) Text Organization 3) Features of writing IV. Language Study II. Cultural Background:  II. Cultural Background When we learn a foreign language, we must also learn the culture of the speakers of that language. Text A in this unit is a good case in point. Readers need some basic knowledge of Christianity. Some terms in this text are markedly Christian, like “Methodist Minister”, “'Bible”, “Quaker”. Others refer to characters or places from Biblical stories, such as Moses who led the Jewish people out of slavery in Egypt, or Bethlehem, a holy city for Christians. Slide3:  Bible and Christianity----Words with religious connotations: the Creator Moses Mission Bethlehem Quaker Bible Methodist Salvation the Lord, the all Mighty, God, He the religious leader in Exodus A religious task The town on the west bank of River Jordan, near Jerusalem, thought to be where Jesus was born A member of the society of Friends, a Christian religious group that meets without any formal ceremony or priests and that is opposed to violence The holy book of Christian religion A member of a Christian group that follows the idea of John Wesley In the Christian religion, the state of being saved from evil The Deep South:  The Deep South This refers to the southernmost states of the south-eastern US: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina and eastern Texas. They are among the states that once had slaves and left the Union during the Civil War. They still have racial problems and the people there are mostly conservative in their politics and religion. Slavery:  Slavery Slavery played a particularly important role in the history of the US. The first slaves were brought into North America from Africa by the Dutch in 1619. By the time of the American Revolution (1775) there were 500,000 slaves, mostly in the south. After the Revolution the northern states made slavery illegal but the southern states needed cheap labor for the cotton plantations. Gradually the South’s economy became dependent on slaves and by 1860, the year before the Civil War, there were about 4 million slaves. Slide8:  The conflict between the North and the South increased, and it became clear that supporters and opponents of slavery could not continue to be part of the same country. In 1861 the slave states left the US Federal government ( during the war called Union), and formed their own government (called Confederate). This was the beginning of the Civil War. After the North won the Civil War and brought the southern states back into the Union, slavery was ended. But little changed for former slaves. Some moved to the North but there were not enough job vacancies available there and many Slide9:  Suffered prejudice from whites. Those that stayed in the South often worked on the plantations where they had been slaves. They were paid for their work, but had to buy food and clothes. Many had to stay there trying to pay off debts which became larger each year. Time Line:  Time Line 1501—African Slaves in the New World Spanish settlers bring slaves from Africa to Santo Domingo (now the capital of the Dominican Republic). 1522—Slave Revolt: the Caribbean Slaves rebel on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola, which now comprises Haiti and the Dominican Republic. 1562—Britain Joins Slave Trade John Hawkins, the first Briton to take part in the slave trade, makes a huge profit hauling human cargo from Africa to Hispaniola. Slide11:  1581—Slaves in Florida Spanish residents in St. Augustine, the first permanent settlement in Florida, import African slaves. 1619—Slaves in Virginia Africans brought to Jamestown are the first slaves imported into Britain’s North American colonies. Like indentured servants, they were probably freed after a fixed period of service. 1662—Hereditary Slavery Virginia law decrees that children of black mothers “shall be bond or free according to the condition of the mother.” Slide12:  1705—Slaves as Property Describing slaves as real estate, Virginia lawmakers allow owners to bequeath their slaves. The same law allowed masters to “kill and destroy” runaways. 1712—Slave Revolt: New York Slaves in New York City kill whites during an uprising, later squelched by the militia. Nineteen rebels are executed. 1739—Slave Revolt: South Carolina Crying “Liberty!” some 75 slaves in South Carolina steal weapons and flee toward freedom in Florida (then under Spanish rule). Crushed by the South Carolina militia, the revolt results in the deaths of 40 blacks and 20 whites. Slide13:  1775—American Revolution Begins Battles at the Massachusetts towns of Lexington and Concord on April 19 spark the war for American independence from Britain. 1775—Abolitionist Society Anthony Benezet of Philadelphia founds the world’s first abolitionist society. Benjamin Franklin becomes its president in 1787. 1776—Declaration of Independence The Continental Congress asserts “that these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States”. Slide14:  1783—American Revolution Ends Britain and the infant United States sign the Peace of Paris treaty. 1784—Abolition Effort Congress narrowly defeats Thomas Jefferson’s proposal to ban slavery in new territories after 1800. 1790—First United States Census Nearly 700,000 slaves live and toil in a nation of 3.9 million people. 1793—Fugitive Slave Act The United States outlaws any efforts to impede the capture of runaway slaves. Slide15:  1794—Cotton Gin Eli Whitney patents his device for pulling seeds from cotton. The invention turns cotton into the cash crop of the American South—and creates a huge demand for slave labor. 1808—United States Bans Slave Trade Importing African slaves is outlawed, but smuggling continues. 1820—Missouri Compromise Missouri is admitted to the Union as a slave state, Maine as a free state. Slavery is forbidden in any subsequent territories north of latitude 36°30´. Slide16:  1822—Slave Revolt: South Carolina Freed slave Denmark Vesey attempts a rebellion in Charleston. Thirty-five participants in the ill-fated uprising are hanged. 1831—Slave Revolt: Virginia Slave preacher Nat Turner leads a two-day uprising against whites, killing about 60. Militiamen crush the revolt then spend two months searching for Turner, who is eventually caught and hanged. Enraged Southerners impose harsher restrictions on their slaves. 1835—Censorship Southern states expel abolitionists and forbid the mailing of antislavery propaganda. Slide17:  1846-48—Mexican-American War Defeated, Mexico yields an enormous amount of territory to the United States. Americans then wrestle with a controversial topic: Is slavery permitted in the new lands? 1847—Frederick Douglass’s Newspaper Escaped slave Frederick Douglass begins publishing the North Star in Rochester, New York. 1849—Harriet Tubman Escapes After fleeing slavery, Tubman returns south at least 15 times to help rescue several hundred others. Slide18:  1850—Compromise of 1850 In exchange for California’s entering the Union as a free state, northern congressmen accept a harsher Fugitive Slave Act. 1852—Uncle Tom’s Cabin Published Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel about the horrors of slavery sells 300,000 copies within a year of publication. 1854—Kansas-Nebraska Act Setting aside the Missouri Compromise of 1820, Congress allows these two new territories to choose whether to allow slavery. Violent clashes erupt. Slide19:  1857—Dred Scott Decision The United States Supreme Court decides, seven to two, that blacks can never be citizens and that Congress has no authority to outlaw slavery in any territory. 1860—Abraham Lincoln Elected Abraham Lincoln of Illinois becomes the first Republican to win the United States Presidency. 1860—Southern Secession South Carolina secedes in December. More states follow the next year. Slide20:  1861-65—United States Civil War Four years of brutal conflict claim 623,000 lives. 1863—Emancipation Proclamation President Abraham Lincoln decrees that all slaves in Rebel territory are free on January 1, 1863. 1865—Slavery Abolished The 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution outlaws slavery. Introduction:  Introduction You are a slave. Your body, your time, your very breath belong to a farmer in 1850s Maryland. Six long days a week you tend his fields and make him rich. You have never tasted freedom. You never expect to. And yet . . . your soul lights up when you hear whispers of attempted escape. Freedom means a hard, dangerous trek. Do you try it? Slide22:  Life for a runaway slave was full of hazards.  The journey to freedom meant traveling only a few miles at night, using the North Star as a map and trying to avoid search parties.  Often, escaped slaves would hide in homes or on the property of antislavery supporters.  These stops to freedom were called Underground Railroad stations because they resembled stops a train would make between destinations.   "Underground" refers the the secret nature of the system. Slide23:  In their flight, slaves used three main routes to cross into freedom:  Madison and Jeffersonville, Indiana and Cincinnati, Ohio.  From these points, the fugitives were taken to Newport.  Once in the house, the presence of the runaway slaves could be concealed for up to several weeks, until they gained enough strength to continue their journey. The Underground Railroad:  The Underground Railroad Definition in the encyclopedia: in U.S. history, loosely organized system for helping fugitive slaves escape to Canada or to areas of safety in free states. It was run by local groups of Northern abolitionists , both white and free blacks. The metaphor first appeared in print in the early 1840s, and other railroad terminology was soon added. The escaping slaves were called passengers; the homes where they were sheltered, stations; and those who guided them, conductors. The Underground Railroad legend::  The Underground Railroad legend: In fact, most of the help given to fugitive slaves on their varied routes north was spontaneously offered and came not only from abolitionists or self-styled members of the Underground Railroad, but from anyone moved to sympathy by the plight of the runaway slave before his eyes. Slide27:  The major part played by free blacks, of both North and South, and by slaves on plantations along the way in helping fugitives escape to freedom was underestimated in nearly all early accounts of the railroad. Moreover, the resourcefulness and daring of the fleeing slaves themselves, who were usually helped only after the most dangerous part of their journey (i.e., the Southern part) was over, were probably more important factors in the success of their escape than many conductors readily admitted. Slide28:  In some localities, like Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Wilmington, Del., and Newport, Ind. (site of the activities of Levi Coffin ), energetic organizers did manage to loosely systematize the work; Quakers were particularly prominent as conductors, and among the free blacks the exploits of Harriet Tubman stand out. Slide29:  In all cases, however, it is extremely difficult to separate fact from legend, especially since relatively few enslaved blacks, probably no more than a few thousand a year between 1840 and 1860, escaped successfully. Far from being kept secret, details of escapes on the Underground Railroad were highly publicized and exaggerated in both the North and the South, although for different reasons. Slide30:  The abolitionists used the Underground Railroad as a propaganda device to dramatize the evils of slavery; Southern slaveholders publicized it to illustrate Northern infidelity to the fugitive slave laws . The effect of this publicity, with its repeated tellings and exaggerations of slave escapes, was to create an Underground Railroad legend that correctly represented a humanitarian ideal of the pre-Civil War period, but that strayed far from reality. Cultural Notes: 1. Freedom and rights:  Cultural Notes: 1. Freedom and rights Freedom of the individual is considered one of the essential features of western civilization, which is itself sometimes called the Free World. This freedom is often expressed in terms of rights to do certain things or to be treated in a particular way. When a person does something that others think strange, British and American people will often say, “It’s a free country,” meaning that although they disagree with the choice they recognize the other person’s right to make it. Slide32:  In Britain and the US the most basic rights include freedom of expression (=freedom to say or write anything), freedom of choice (=freedom to make decisions about your own life) and freedom of worship (=freedom to practice any religion). 2. the civil rights movement:  2. the civil rights movement In the US, the national campaign by African-Americans for equal rights, especially in the 1950s and 1960s. the campaign included boycotts (=refusals to buy particular products), the actions of freedom riders, and in 1963 a march to Washington led by Martin Luther King. It succeeded in causing the introduction of bussing and affirmative action. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 were also introduced as a result of the civil rights movement, which has helped to change the attitudes of many white Americans toward blacks. II. Cultural Background:  II. Cultural Background 2. the Civil Rights Movement a timeline 1954 Oliver Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott 1957 Desegregation at Little Rock, Arkansas 1960 Sit-in Campaigns 1961 Freedom Rides 1962 University of Mississippi Riot 1963 Birmingham March on Washington 1965 Bloody Sunday 1954 Oliver Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas :  1954 Oliver Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas In the 1950s, school segregation was widely accepted throughout the nation. In fact, it was required by law in most southern states. In 1952, the Supreme Court heard a number of school-segregation cases, including Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. It decided unanimously in 1954 that segregation was unconstitutional, overthrowing the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson ruling that had set the "separate but equal" precedent. 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott :  1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott Rosa Parks, a 43 year old black seamstress, was arrested in Montgomery, Alabama, for refusing to give up her bus seat to a white man. The following night, fifty leaders of the Negro community met at Dexter Ave. Baptist Church to discuss the issue. Among them was the young minister, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The leaders organized the Montgomery Bus Boycott, which would deprive the bus company of 65% of its income, and cost Dr. King a $500 fine or 386 days in jail. He paid the fine, and eight months later, the Supreme Court decided, based on the school segregation cases, that bus segregation violated the constitution. 1957 Desegregation at Little Rock, Arkansas:  1957 Desegregation at Little Rock, Arkansas Little Rock Central High School was to begin the 1957 school year desegregated. On September 2, the night before the first day of school, Governor Faubus announced that he had ordered the Arkansas National Guard to monitor the school the next day. When a group of nine black students arrived at Central High on September 3, the were kept from entering by the National Guardsmen. On September 20, judge Davies granted an injunction against Governor Faubus and three days later the group of nine students returned to Central High School. Although the students were not physically injured, a mob of 1,000 townspeople prevented them from remaining at school. Finally, President Eisenhower ordered 1,000 paratroopers and 10,000 National Guardsmen to Little Rock, and on September 25, Central High School was desegregated. 1960 Sit-in Campaigns :  1960 Sit-in Campaigns After having been refused service at the lunch counter of a Woolworth's in Greensboro, North Carolina, Joseph McNeill, a Negro college student, returned the next day with three classmates to sit at the counter until they were served. They were not served. The four students returned to the lunch counter each day. When an article in the New York Times drew attention to the students' protest, they were joined by more students, both black and white, and students across the nation were inspired to launch similar protests. 1961 Freedom Rides :  1961 Freedom Rides In 1961, bus loads of people waged a cross-country campaign to try to end the segregation of bus terminals. The nonviolent protest, however, was brutally received at many stops along the way. 1962 University of Mississippi Riot:  1962 University of Mississippi Riot President Kennedy ordered Federal Marshals to escort James Meredith, the first black student to enroll at the University of Mississippi, to campus. A riot broke out and before the National Guard could arrive to reinforce the marshals, two students were killed. 1963 Birmingham :  1963 Birmingham Birmingham, Alabama was one of the most severly segregated cities in the 1960s. Black men and women held sit-ins at lunch counters where they were refused service, and "kneel-ins" on church steps where they were denied entrance. Hundreds of demonstrators were fined and imprisoned. In 1963, Dr. King, the Reverend Abernathy and the Reverend Shuttlesworth lead a protest march in Birmingham. The protestors were met with policemen and dogs. The three ministers were arrested and taken to Southside Jail. 1963 March on Washington :  1963 March on Washington Despite worries that few people would attend and that violence could erupt, A. Philip Randolpf and Bayard Rustin organized the historic event that would come to symbolize the civil rights movement. A reporter from the Times wrote, "no one could ever remember an invading army quite as gentle as the two hundred thousand civil rights marchers who occupied Washington." 1963 March on Washington :  1963 March on Washington 1965 Bloody Sunday :  1965 Bloody Sunday March from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., was set upon with violence when the marchers crossed the Edmund Petus Bridge. Local police used billy clubs, tear gas, cattle prods, and beat the marchers to show their resistance to voter rights and the freedom to petition for those rights on "Bloody Sunday," March 7, 1965. 1965 Bloody Sunday:  1965 Bloody Sunday 3. the Civil Rights Act of 1964:  3. the Civil Rights Act of 1964 It refers to the US law that forced the southern states to allow African-Americans to enter restaurants, hotels, etc. which had been reserved for white people for white people only and to end the practice of having separate areas for black and white people in theatres, train stations, buses, etc. (segregation). The act was mostly the result of the civil rights movement and was strongly supported by President Lyndon Johnson. It was followed the next year by the Voting Rights Act. 4. Quaker:  4. Quaker It refers to any member of the Society of Friends, a religious group established in England in the 1950s by George Fox. They were originally called Quakers because members were thought to “quake” or shake with religious excitement. Quakers worship Christ without any formal ceremony or fixed beliefs, and their meetings often involve silent thought or prayer. They are strongly opposed to violence and war, and are active in education and charity work. 5. Grand Central Terminal:  5. Grand Central Terminal This is the best-known railway station in the US. It is on East 42nd Street in New York and was completed in 1913 in the American Beaux Arts Style. The Main area is very large, and the trains enter and leave the station on 123 tracks, arranged on two levels. The station is often very crowded: You can’t move in there—it’s like Grand Central Station! 6. Methodist:  6. Methodist This term refers to a member of the Methodist Church, the largest of the Protestant Free Churches in Britain and the US. It was established in 1739 by John Wesley as part of the Church of England but it became separate from it in 1795. It was introduced into the US in the 18th century and today has over 50 million members around the world. It emphasized the importance of moral issues, both personal and social.   II. Reading Strategy:  II. Reading Strategy Reading in Thought Groups While you are reading, two things are important: one is understanding, the other is speed. Therefore, while making constant efforts to improve your reading comprehension, you should also try consciously to increase your reading speed. Reading in thought groups is a good way to achieve these two goals. Besides, it is also a good way for you to identify idiomatic way of saying things and the structure of the sentence. Slide51:  e.g. The little boy, Johnnie, had been up with a packet of mints, and said he wouldn't go out to play until the post had come. How to read this sentence? A poor reader is apt to move his eyes from word to word while an efficient reader will move his eyes from words to words – that is, from thought group to thought group: Slide52:  The little boy Johnnie – had been up – with a packet of mints – and said he wouldn’t go out to play – until the post had come. Keep on practising this skill until you can apply it automatically. Then you will be able to acquire sufficient speed to read fluently with good comprehension. III. Text Analysis:  III. Text Analysis 1. Detailed explanation Para 1 1) … Ontario, was home to a hero in American history. 2) Barbara Carter, my guide back to a time when … Josiah Henson: a freedom fighter 3) the Creator Slide54:  Josiah Henson Slide55:  Josiah Henson (1789-1883) was born a slave on 15th June, 1789 in Charles County, Maryland. He was sold three times before he reached the age of eighteen. By 1830, Henson had saved up $350 to purchase his freedom. After giving his master the money he was told that the price had increased to $1,000. Cheated of his money, Henson decided to escape with his wife and four children. After reaching Canada, Henson formed a community where he taught other ex-slaves how to be successful farmers. His autobiography, The Life of Josiah Henson (1849) was read by Harriet Beecher Stowe and inspired her best-selling novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin.   Uncle Tom’s Cabin:  Uncle Tom’s Cabin It is a novel (1852) by the US writer Harriet Beecher Stowe which increased support for the movement to free slaves. It is about a kind slave called Tom who is badly treated and finally killed by Simon Legree. Tom’s daughter Little Eva also dies, and another well-known character in the novel is the slave child Topsy. The name Uncle Tom is sometimes used as an insult to describe an African-American who has too much respect for white people. Slide58:  Para 2 1) devotion to … more than personal pride 2) has lived on through the character symbolize: to represent by a symbol 代表,象征 Who is a racial sellout ? Who is a man of principle ? Slide59:  Para 3 a historic site Moses: the Leader who brought the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt and led them to the Promised Land. Slide60:  Para 4 part of a much larger mission one name of a long list of courageous men and women who forged the Underground Railroad What is the Underground Railroad ? Slide61:  Para 5 the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center to honor this great civil-rights struggle in the U.S. in honor of this great civil-rights struggle in the U.S. It’s about what time ?--This article’s writing background. Slide62:  Para 6 Exploits of John Parker: a black conductor. trusted neighbour a party of escaped slaves hiding in the woods Para 7 life of John Parker: born a slave sold on the slave market get trained in iron moulding worked hard & saved enough money to buy his freedom working on days & being a conductor at nights Slide63:  Paras 8-10 How John Parker helped the party on the Underground Railroad. Paras 11-12 The connective function of the “While clause”. Exploits of Levi Coffin: a white conductor. Word spread that… The Coffin house: the Grand Central Terminal of the Underground Railroad. Levi Coffin:  Levi Coffin Catherine Coffin:  Catherine Coffin Slide66:  Levi and Catharine Coffin were legendary in helping many former slaves escape to freedom in the North.  Levi is often referred to as the President of the Underground Railroad. Levi Coffin House:  Levi Coffin House A Federal style brick home built in 1839. Slide68:  To the thousand of escaped slaves, an eight-room Federal style brick home in Newport (Fountain City), Indiana, became a safe haven on their journey to Canada.   This was the home of Levi and Catharine Coffin, North Carolina Quakers who opposed slavery.  During the 20 years they lived in Newport, the Coffins helped more than 2,000 slaves reach safety. Escaping slaves could be hidden in this small upstairs room and the beds moved in front of the door to hide its existence. :  Escaping slaves could be hidden in this small upstairs room and the beds moved in front of the door to hide its existence. Escaping slaves were well hidden for their travels in this wagon when grain bags were piled around the hiding area .:  Escaping slaves were well hidden for their travels in this wagon when grain bags were piled around the hiding area . Slide72:  So successful was the Coffin sanctuary that, while in Newport, not a single slave failed to reach freedom.  One of the many slaves who hid in the Coffin home was "Eliza", whose story is told in Uncle Tom's Cabin.  In 1847, the Coffins moved to Cincinnati so that Levi could operate a wholesale warehouse which supplied goods to free labor stores.  The Coffins continued to assist the cause, helping another 1,300 slaves escape. Slide73:  The Coffin house was purchased in 1967 by the State of Indiana.  The house was restored and then opened to the public in 1970.  The site is a registered National Historic Landmark and is operated by the Levi Coffin House Association. Slide74:  Para 13 What possible risks may a conductor face ? frequent death threats and warnings be imposed a fine or a brief jail sentence escaped escaping fleeing runaway fugitives/ runaways Slide75:  Paras 14-15 What hardships may a runaway slave meet ? How can they find the way to freedom? Para 16 Back to tell the exploits of Josiah Henson. Paras 17-18 His life story: his family. What caused him to flee? Paras 19-23 His flight to freedom. Slide76:  2. Text Organization Section One Paras 1-5 The background of writing this essay. It is high time to honor the heroes who helped liberate slaves by forging the Underground Railroad in the early civil rights struggles in America. Section Two Paras 6-23 Memorizes the heroes. By citing examples the author praises the exploits of the civil-rights heroes who helped salves travel the U.R. to freedom. Slide77:  3. Features of writing We learn about the name of Josiah Henson at the beginning of the text, yet his full story is not told until the last part. In this way the author achieves coherence of text. Direct speech is more convincing than indirect speech, especially when it comes to expressing personal beliefs. For example, the text quotes Levi Coffin saying “The Bible, in bidding us to feed the hungry and clothe the naked, said nothing about color”. Slide78:  On other occasions, direct speech makes a story more vivid. For example, in the John Parker story characters spoke short sentences to stress the urgency of the situation. For another example, Josiah Henson threw himself to the ground and shouted to astonished onlookers: “Oh, no! Don’t you know? I’m free!” His joy affects us all. IV. Language Study:  IV. Language Study 1. settlement: a place where people have come to settle e.g. Manhattan was the site of the original Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam. These tools were found in an early Iron Age settlement. Slide80:  2. confident: feeling or showing trust in oneself or one’s ability (usu. followed by about/of/that clause) e.g. Michael was confident that he would be enrolled by Harvard University. The more familiar you are with this machine, the more confident you will be about using it. Slide81:  3. ironically: it seems ironic (that) e.g. Ironically the widespread use of antibiotics seems to be causing a lot of unexpected health problems. Ironically it is often the poorer people who give the most. Slide82:  4. racial: relating to a person’s race, or to different races of people e.g. Slavery is closely associated with racial prejudice, the belief that one race is superior to another. Mandela was elected President in South Africa’s first multi-racial elections, held in l994. Slide83:  5. stand up (for sb./sth.): speak, work, etc. in favour of sb./sth.; support sb./sth. e.g. You have to be prepared to stand up for the things you believe in. Don't be afraid to stand up for yourself. Slide84:  6. mission: particular task or duty undertaken by an individual or a group e.g. Some delegates were immediately sent to Israel. Their mission was to negotiate a ceasefire. The five young people have been on a mission to help the Cambodians. Slide85:  7. forge: (fig) create by means of much hard work e.g. The two countries agreed to forge closer economic ties. She forged a new career for herself as a singer. Slide86:  8. historic: famous or important in history e.g. In his book, Churchil1 recalls that historic first meeting with Roosevelt. More money is needed for the preservation of historic buildings and monuments. Slide87:  C.f. historical e.g. Historical people, situations, or things existed in the past and are considered to be a part of history. Many historical documents were destroyed when the library was bombed. Slide88:  9. web: network of fine threads spun by a spider or some other spinning creature; complex series or network e.g. The little boy was frightened by the spider’s web in the window. Many commercial and public organizations now have their own Web site and publish a “home page”, giving information about the organization. Every day thousands of web surfers flock to this popular site, posting messages. Slide89:  10. liberate: set free e.g. The new Afghan government is trying to liberate its people from poverty with international help. The troops’ aim is to liberate the country by the end of the year. Slide90:  11. authorize: give approval or permission for (sth.); give authority to e.g. The central government authorized $200 billion to construct new dams to generate cheap hydro-electric power. The President requested that Congress authorize the presence of US troops in the eastern region. He was obliged by the arguments of the Minister of Labour to authorize a 23 per cent general wage increase. Slide91:  12. exploit: brave or adventurous deed or action e.g. The general’s wartime exploits were later made into a film and a television series. My grandfather entertained us with stories of wartime exploits. Slide92:  13. be intent on doing sth.: be eager and determined to do sth. e.g. Working day and night, Janet seems intent on breaking the record in the Guinness Book of Records. Slide93:  14. peer: 1ook closely or carefully, esp. as if unable to see well (followed by at./through/into, etc.) e.g. Stephen had been peering at a computer printout that made no sense at all. Hawking was a typical grind (埋头读书的人,书呆子), underweight and awkward and peering through eye-glasses. Slide94:  15. on the side: as an additional job or source of income; secretly e.g. Some teachers have to find ways of making some money on the side. In order to earn enough money to send his children to school, he makes a little money on the side by cleaning windows in his spare time. Slide95:  16. capture: (V.) to take prisoner; e.g. Rebel forces captured the city after a week-long battle. Some of the terrorists who were involved in the 9.l l event were captured by the FBI. (n.)capturing or being captured e.g. At one time Peter took part in the capture of three thieves. The International Whaling Commission permits the capture of only 400 whales annually for scientific purposes. Slide96:  17. close in (on/around):(vi.) come near to, esp. in order to attack from several directions; surround e.g. Hitler committed suicide as Soviet forces were closing in on Berlin. Right after the suicide explosion, Israeli troops began to close in on the Palestinian city. Slide97:  18. painful: causing pain; hurting e.g. Symptoms of pneumonia include painful cough, fever, difficulty in breathing, rapid breathing and chest pain. The old photograph brought back painful memories of his childhood. Slide98:  19. religious: of religion e.g. Daoism (Taoism) is one of the three main Chinese religious and philosophical traditions, the others being Confucianism and Buddhism. The local government wants to increase the amount of religious education in schools. Slide99:  20. conviction: firm opinion or belief e.g. The old woman had a firm conviction that there would be a better life after death. A non-believer, Tom doesn't have any religious convictions. It is her personal conviction that all corruption should be exposed and dealt with according to relevant laws. Slide100:  21. terminal: (building at the) end of a railway line, bus route, etc.; a piece of equipment, usu. consisting of a keyboard and a screen, that connects the user with a computer system e.g. Most large airports have shops, restaurants, and banks in the terminal building, plus special lounges for departing passengers. A1l staff have terminals attached to the company’s main computer. Slide101:  22. as for: with regard to e.g. As for your request for a free sample, we will send it to you in about ten days. Some people have complained, but as for me I’m perfectly satisfied with the working conditions here. Slide102:  23. transport: take sth./sb. from one place to another in a vehicle e.g. Reducing the costs of transporting natural resources to production sites is one of the key factors in economic competition. Pipelines are used mainly to transport liquids or gases over long distances. Slide103:  24. abolish: end the existence of (a law, custom, system, etc.) e.g. Slavery was not finally abolished in the British Empire until l833. Their mission is to abolish the global fur industry permanently by utilizing appropriate legal and non-violent methods. Slide104:  25. impose: l) place a (penalty, tax, etc.) officially on sb./sth. e.g. The government has made a decision to impose a further tax on wines and spirits. The local government tried to impose fines on the factories which poured untreated waste into the river. Slide105:  2) try to make sb. accept (an opinion or a belief e.g. I wouldn't want to impose my religious convictions on anyone. It may not be wise for parents to impose their own tastes on their children. Slide106:  26. make the best of: accept an unsatisfactory situation cheerfully and try to manage as well as you can e.g. I know it’s cold and raining but we’re here now, so let’s just make the best of it. The living conditions in the village were very poor but we had to make the best of it. Slide107:  27. compel: make (sb.) do sth.; force e.g. In the past children were frequently compelled to work from an early age. A large debt burden compelled many developing countries to undertake stabilization and adjustment policies. Slide108:  28. at risk: threatened by the possibility of loss, failure, etc.; in danger e.g. It is reported that some areas in the west are at high risk of desertification. The buildings in the slum tend to be overcrowded, inadequately served by water and at risk from fire. Slide109:  29. starve: (cause a person or an animal to) suffer severely or die from hunger e.g. Some people starved to death during the long drought. Children in the developed countries are living a happy life, while many African children are starving. Slide110:  30. in the eyes of: in the opinion of e.g. In the eyes of his students, Richard is a sensible and reliable teacher. In the eyes of my parent, I am still a young person although I am already in my thirties. Slide111:  31. pass for: appear like; be accepted or looked upon as (same as pass as) e.g. He speaks American English well enough to pass for an American. My younger sister really wants to go and see the film, but I don’t think she’d pass for 18. Slide112:  32. honor: (n.) great respect e.g. hold sb. in honor/ He won honor for his courage. (V.) 1) to respect by feelings or by an action that show feelings e.g. to honor this first great civil-rights struggle向…致敬, 纪念 feel honored to do sth. 做某事感到荣幸 Slide113:  2) to keep an agreement, often by making a payment e.g. Please honor our arrangement by exchanging the damaged goods. You must have enough money to honor your cheques before writing them. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check: a check which has come back marked “insufficient funds”. Slide114:  33. spot: (v.) pick out, esp. with the eye; see; recognize e.g. He is a tall man easy to spot in a crowd./ He has a good eye for spotting mistakes. The helicopter pilot spotted the runaway in the woods. Slide115:  34.word:(uncountable) message or news e.g. I’ve had no word from him since he left. Word came of his success abroad. Slide116:  35. convey: (from…to…) 1) to take or carry from one place to another e.g. Wires convey electricity from power stations to the user. We conveyed our 116 goods in a lorry. Slide117:  2) to make (feelings, ideas, thoughts ) known e.g. I can’t convey my feelings in words. Every colour conveys a different meaning.

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