Published on November 1, 2007
Slide1: Unit19 Slide2: Who is he? Slide3: William Shakespeare (1564 - 1616 ) Slide4: Shakespeare: Former residence William Shakespeare (1564---1616), a dramatist and poet, is generally considered to be the greatest of authors in any language, ancient or modern. Throughout the world, Shakespeare’s plays are performed more frequently than those of any other playwright. Slide5: William Shakespeare wrote many works, including 37 plays : comedies, tragedies, histories, and 154 sonnets (十四行诗) Works of Shakespeare: Slide6: Do you know some of Shakespeare’s plays? Slide7: The Twelfth Night All’s Well that Ends Well The Taming of the Shrew The Merry Wives of Windsor Measure for Measure A Midsummer Night’s Dream The Merchant of Venice As You Like It 终成眷属 仲夏夜之梦 皆大欢喜 一报还一报 温莎的风流娘儿们 威尼斯商人 驯悍记 第十二夜 Slide8: Romeo and Juliet Hamlet King Lear Macbeth Othello Timon of Athens Antonio and Cleopatra Titus Andronicus 安东尼与克莉奥佩特拉 哈姆莱特 李尔王 麦克白 奥瑟罗 罗米欧与朱丽叶 雅典的泰门 科利奥兰纳斯 Slide9: Hamlet To be or not to be: that is the question. Slide10: That is a question whether to live on in this world or to die, that is, to take action or to do nothing. Slide11: King Henry IV Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown. Slide12: A person who has great responsibilities, such as a king, is constantly worried and therefore doesn't sleep soundly. Slide13: Neither a borrower nor a lender be. <Hamlet> Meaning: be careful to take or give money to others. You’d better be careful. Romeo, why are you Romeo? Deny your father, and refuse your name…<Romeo & Juliet> Meaning: if only you had a different name, we would not have this problem and would be together forever. Slide14: The Merchant of Venice Slide15: Antonio is a rich businessman of the city of Venice. Everyone likes him because he is always ready to help others. At the time of this story his ships are all at sea to trade with foreign countries. Bassanio , Antonio’s best friends, is in love with Portia. Portia is a rich and beautiful lady. She loves Bassanio but they cannot get married because he is too poor. Then Bassanio asks Antonio to lend him three thousand ducats. Slide16: Being short of money just then Antonio goes to Shylock to borrow the money, Shylock has always hated Antonio, because Antonio has often in public shown how cruel and terrible Shylock is . Shylock agrees to lend Antonio the money, but Antonio must promise to allow Shylock to take a pound of flesh from any part of his body if he cannot pay the money back after three months. Antonio agrees to this, takes the money and gives it to Bassanio. Slide17: On the day Bassanio and Portia get married, they receive a letter from Antonio saying that all his ships have been lost at sea. Now he himself does not have enough money to pay back the three thousand ducats and so he must give Shylock one pound of his flesh. Portia thinks of a clever plan to save Antonio. she asks a good friend who is a doctor of law, to lend her some of his lawyer’s clothes and books. Dressed as a lawyer, she arrives at the court of the Duke, where Antonio case is decided. Slide18: As the Duke is wondering what to do, Portia gives him a letter from the famous lawyer whom she has visited. In the letter it says that Portia is a learned young doctor from Rome who is young but very wise. The Duke accepts Portia to take the place of the famous lawyer and handle this difficult case. Slide19: Shylock Bassanio Portia Antonio Slide20: Antonio: Bassanio: Duke: Shylock: Portia: the moneylender Bassanio’s wife Antonio’s friend the merchant of Venice What is their relation to the other characters in the play? the judge Listening Slide21: Shylock hated Antonio and wanted to take the chance to kill him. 2.Bassanio offered to pay Shylock much more money than Antonio had borrowed from him. 3. Shylock accepted Bassanio’s offer. Slide22: What’s your opinion of Portia? Portia is a very wise and clever lady. 2.What is your opinion of Shylock? A very cruel and mean man. 3.Why do you think Shylock prefers to take his pound of flesh instead of the money from Bassanio? Because Shylock wants to take this opportunity to kill him. Slide23: Literally, with the heart which he will cut out of my body. Metaphorically, I’m willingly to pay back all the money. 4.What are the two meaning of “I’ll pay him back with all my heart”? Slide24: (3) The deeper meaning of the balance is justice. In Portia’s court of law, morals are weighed. 5. (1) Usually, things are weighed with a balance. Weighs go into the left scale and things into the right scale. (2) She wants to remind Shylock that he must cut exactly a pound of flesh from Antonio, no more, no less. Slide25: Portia Shylock Bassanio Antonio the Duke Slide26: Shylock a cruel businessman lends Antonio 3000 ducats. Portia a rich and beautiful woman marry Bassanio, also acts as the lawyer. Antonio A kind merchant of Venice borrows 3000 ducats from Shylock for Bassanio . Bassanio Antonio’s best friend gets married with Portia with the money borrowed from Shylock. The duke President of Venice head of the court. Slide27: Reading comprehension The text mainly tells about __________. A Antonio’s kindness B Portia’s cleverness C Shylock’s cruelty D all of the above Antonio was a _________ person. A warm-hearted B strong- willed C open-minded D ill-tempered By saying “ Do not be so bitter.” the Duke wants Shylock to be _________. A forgiving B calm C kind-hearted D reasonable Slide28: It seemed that the Duke in the court supported_________. A Portia B Antonio C Shylock D none of the above That Portia was able to defend Antonio was due to ________. A her cleverness B a famous lawyer’s help C her husband’s support D both A and B Slide29: Analyse the main characters. Find sentences in the text to support your ideas. greedy and mean, cruel cold-blooded stone-hearted vengeful(复仇心重的） crafty(狡诈的 ) Shylock: Slide30: generous weak sheepish kind friendly Antonio: be ready to help others Slide31: smart wise kind merciful brave Portia: Slide32: Shylock Antonio (vengeful) (merciful) Mercy VS revenge Slide33: masterpiece n.= great works This is a masterpiece of Beethoven . Word study Slide34: 2. mercy n.= sympathy, have a pity to adj. = merciful 对罪犯的仁慈，就是对人民的残忍。 Mercy to the criminal may be cruelty to the people. 报纸对他进行了无情的评击。 The newspaper attacked him without mercy. Slide35: at the mercy of have mercy on/ upon show mercy to sb They found themselves completely at the mercy of the conquerors. 看在上帝的份上，可怜可怜这些穷苦的人们吧。 For the sake of God, please have mercy on these poor people. 他们发现自己完全处于征服者的摆布之下。 Integrating skills: Integrating skills The merchant of venice(2) Slide37: Read this passage carefully and answer the following questions: How does Portia stop Shylock from cutting Antonio’s flesh? What does Portia say when Shylock finally agree to take three times more than Antonio borrowed from him? 3. What is the result of the trial? Does the story have a happy ending? 4. Is this play a tragedy or a comedy? And why? 1.How does Portia stop Shylock from cutting Antonio’s flesh?: 1.How does Portia stop Shylock from cutting Antonio’s flesh? Portia allows Shylock to take exactly one pound of flesh from Antonio, no more, no less. She also tells Shylock that he must not let one drop of his blood fall. So Shylock gives in. 2. What does Portia say when Shylock finally agree to take three times more than Antonio borrowed from him?: 2. What does Portia say when Shylock finally agree to take three times more than Antonio borrowed from him? She says that Shylock must give half of his money to Antonio and the other half to the city of Venice according to the law. 3. What is the result of the trial? Does the story have a happy ending?: 3. What is the result of the trial? Does the story have a happy ending? Antonio is saved. Shylock gets punished. The story has a happy ending. 4.Is this play a tragedy or a comedy? And why?: 4.Is this play a tragedy or a comedy? And why? Comedy. Because the Good wins, and the Bad loses. Slide42: Background(背景) Problem (问题) Climax (高潮) Outcome(结局) Antonio is not able to pay the debt. Antonio’s ships are lost.Shylock starts demanding his pound of flesh. Antonio and Bassanio borrow 3000 ducats from Shylock. However, there is an agreement: if the debt is not repaid on time, Antonio as security will pay with one pound of his flesh. Portia declares Shylock may have a pound of flesh to be cut nearest to Antonio’s heart.No more, no less, and no blood. Otherwise, Shylock will lose al his land and money. Shylock begs for mercy. He is punished, though not killed. Slide43: Words and expressions merchant n. 商人 Merchant of Venice 2. uneasy a. 1)心神不安的， 忧虑的，担心的 feel uneasy about sth. 2) 拘束的，不自在的安 uneasy manners 拘束的态度 3. deny vt 否定，否认 To deny that is to deny everything. deny that… I don’t deny that it is a serious problem. deny v.否认, 拒绝: deny v.否认, 拒绝 deny doing something Two men have denied murdering a woman at a remote picnic spot. deny somebody something拒绝，不给 She could deny her son nothing. 他对她的儿子有求必应。 deny something to somebody He gave to his friend what he denied to his family. 他宁愿赠朋友而不愿给与家人。 Slide45: 4. pay back 1) 还钱给某人 句型: pay sb back ( sth ) / pay sth back I’ll pay him back with all my heart. 我将用我的生命向他偿还。 Have you paid me back the money you owe me yet? 2) 惩罚，报复 I’ll pay him back for the trick he played on me. Slide46: pay for 为…付款 pay sb for sth 为…给某人报酬 pay up 付清全部欠款 pay off 还清 pay back 偿还 Slide47: 5. mercy [u] 仁慈，怜悯 The newspaper attacked him without mercy. 报纸对他进行了无情地攻击。 Mercy to the criminal is cruelty to the people. 罪犯的仁慈就是对人民的残忍。 adj. merciful 仁慈的，慈悲的 The merciful king saved the young officers from death. The old man was so merciful that he let the lost boy live in his cabin. Slide48: mercy 所构成的词组: have mercy on ( upon ) ; show mercy to ; at the mercy of ; without mercy ; beg for mercy ; For the sake of the God, please have mercy on these poor people. He showed great mercy to the little dog. They were at the mercy of the conquerors. 是生是死，他们全凭征服者发落。 They found themselves completely at the mercy of the boss. Slide49: 6. revenge vt. 替某人报仇 revenge sb 为某人报仇 He revenged his dead brother/his brother’s death. n. 报仇；报复 have / take one’s revenge on sb for sth 因某事向某人报仇 do sth in / out of revenge 报复性地做某事 7.go about 开始做,着手做: 7.go about 开始做,着手做 go about doing something How shall we go about the job? go about to do sth 设法做某事 The leaflet tells you how to go about making a will. go about something The villagers were going about their business as usual. She went about her preparations in a quiet businesslike way. Slide51: 8. enemy [c] 敌人 The enemy was / were forced to retreat. 敌人被迫撤退了。 Jane and Sarah used to be friends but now they are bitter enemies. 9. as far as I know = so far as I know = to my knowledge 10. reasonable 合乎情理的,讲理的 Be reasonable. a reasonable man be sold at a reasonable price n. reasonableness adv. reasonably Slide52: 11. judgement n.判断 判决 form a judgement upon facts 根据事实作出判断 pass a judgement on a book / a man 对….作出评价 a man of good judgement 判断力强的人 use / exercise one’s judgement 运用判断力 in one’s judgement 在某人看来 Slide53: 12. greeting 问候 offer greetings to sb 13. envy 嫉妒 羡慕 n. feel envy at sb out of envy 出于嫉妒 He is the envy of others (…是某人嫉妒的对象). v. How I envy you! I don’t envy you your good luck. 14. troublesome a.令人烦恼的,讨厌的, He is a troublesome boy. My cough is rather troublesome. ask / look for trouble Slide54: be in trouble get into trouble get sb into trouble 让某人陷入困境 have trouble in make trouble put sb to trouble 给某人带来麻烦 15. accuse 1) 指责，谴责 accuse sb of carelessness 2) 控诉 accuse sb of a crime the accused 被告 accuser 谴责者，起诉者 The professor stands accused of (=has been accused of) stealing his student's ideas and publishing them. bargain n.协议,交易, 廉价货 v.讨价还价,谈判: bargain n.协议,交易, 廉价货 v.讨价还价,谈判 It's an attractive little home, and I think it's a bargain . That second-hand table was a real bargain . Good knives don't come at bargain prices . Slide56: into the bargain或in the bargain Over and above what is expected; in addition. 出乎意料：超出、超过了期望值；另外 I am now tired, cold, and hungry, with a headache into the bargain. Slide57: 16. consequence n.结果,后果,影响 in consequence of 由于…的缘故 in consequence结果 She was over the age limit and, in consequence, her application was rejected. take the consequence 承担后果 17. tear up 1) 撕毁 John tore up the test paper so that his mother would not see it. 2) 挖开，揭开，拔起 The wind tore up several trees. 3) 不履行… He accused his secretary of tearing up the agreement. Slide58: tear down 弄倒，拆除 18. deed n.行为 do a good deed 19. declare 1) 宣布，宣告 They will declare the results of the election soon. America declared war on / against Iraq. The judge declared him to be the winner of the race. 2) 断言，宣称，声明 He declared that he was innocent. the Declaration of Independence Slide59: 20. court n.法庭 appear in court 出庭 go to court 起诉 21. justice 公平,公正 All men should be treated with justice. To do him justice, he is not equal to the job. 平心而论, 他不能胜任这职。 22. go down on one’s knees They will never go down on their knees before the enemy. He went down on one knee before her. Slide60: 23. worthy 1) 有价值的，可尊敬的 a worthy man 高尚的人 2) [常作表语] 值得的，配得上的，相称的 something worthy of note 值得注意的事 worthy to be considered worthy of the name 名副其实的 The place is worth visiting. The place is worthy of being visited. The place is worthy of a visit. Slide61: be worthy of being done = be worthy to be done 这本书值得一读。 The book is worthy of being read. The place is worthy to be visited. It’s worthwhile to visit the place. worth adj.值钱的, 值的看中的: worth adj.值钱的, 值的看中的 be worth (doing) something 主动态表被动态 A lot of the small towns in the area are definitely worth visiting. The film is well worth seeing. Slide63: 24. punish sb for sth n. punishment 25. order vt. 命令，定货 She ordered her daughter a new dress. The general ordered that a bridge be built over the river at once. You must obey my order. n. 命令，定货，顺序；规则 The order came that the soldiers cross the river in the evening. Some teachers found it difficult to keep order in their classes. Slide64: orderly adj. 安排好的，有秩序的；有条理的 n. in order 按顺序，井然有序 in the order of 按…的顺序； out of order 混乱，出毛病 place an order for 订购 in order that in order to Slide65: 1．It is useless trying to argue with Shylock. 试图跟夏洛克讲道理是没有用的。 ① 在这个句型中 it 是形式主语，后面的动名词或者动名词短语是真正的主语。能以动名词作主语的这类句子比较少，主要用在以 no point , no use , no good 等作表语的句子中。 例如： It‘s no use talking without acting. = It’s useless talking without acting. 光说不干是没有用的。 Slide66: ② it 作形式主语用在 it’s a waste of time + ing 的句子中。例如： It’s just a waste of time talking to him. ③ 动名词作主语还用于 there + be + no use ( good , point ) + ing 句型中，例如： There‘s no use talking about it. = It’s no use talking about it. Slide67: 2 You might as well go stand upon the beach and argue with the sea. 不妨； 可以；还是…的好； 你不妨现在就开始。 You might as well begin at once. 我们已完成工作，因此现在可以回家。 We have finished the work, so we may as well go home now. Slide68: 3 Pass judgement on me and give Shylock what he wants. 对某人宣判 法庭对此案仍需做出判决。 The court has still to pass judgement in the case. 昨天法庭对凶手进行了判决。 Yesterday the court passed judgment on the murderer. Slide69: times 在此表示三倍以上的倍数。用 times 表示“甲是乙的几倍大（长、宽、高等）”，“甲比乙大（长、高、宽等）几倍”，可以用下列句型： ① A is … times the size ( length , height , width ) of B This street is four times the length of that one. 这条街是那条街的 4 倍长。（= 这条街比那条街长 3 倍。） Slide70: ② A is … times as big ( long , high , wide ) as B Asia is four times as large as Europe .亚洲是欧洲的四倍大。（= 亚洲比欧洲大三倍。） ③ A is … times bigger ( longer , higher ) than B The meeting-room is three times bigger than our office. 会议室比我们的办公室大三倍。 Slide71: 三倍以下通常用 double 或者 twice。 His weight is double what it was ten years ago. 他的体重是 10 年前的两倍。 This railway is twice longer than that one. 这条铁路比那条长两倍。 The room is twice the size of that one. = This room is twice as big as that one. Slide72: 4.how can you hope for mercy yourself to you when you show none?"如果你不宽恕别人，你自己怎能希望得到别人的宽恕呢？" 1）hope for"希望，盼望"。Hope for the best， prepare for the worst.抱最好的希望，作最坏的准备。We hope for an early answer to our letter.盼早日赐覆。 2） "when"在这里相当于if。例如，She'll be here to give you help when necessary.如果需要，她就来给你帮忙。 Slide73: 5.I have sworn to heaven to have my pound of flesh.我想天发誓我必须得到我要的肉。 swear vt.(swore ;sworn)立[宣, 发](誓) swear an oath发誓/ I swear I won't tell anyone your secret.我发誓不把你的秘密告诉任何人。/ He swore to speak the truth.他发誓要说实话。 Slide74: To err is human, to forgive, divine. 人皆犯错，你能原谅别人，你就是圣人。--- Pope All the splendors in the world is not worth a good friend . 人世间所有的荣华富贵不如一个好朋友. ---Voltaire Creditors have better memories than debtors . 放债的比借债的记忆好。--- Benjamin Franklin Slide75: Dirty money will not bring good luck. 不义之财不会带来好运气。 The course of true love never did run smooth. 通向真爱的路从无坦途。--- Shakespeare Love is the only sane and satisfactory answer to the problem of human existence. 爱是对人类之存在这一问题唯一明确而又令人满意的答案。 Slide76: The ideals which have lighted my way , and time after time have given me new courage to face life cheerfully have been kindness, beauty and truth. 有些理想曾为我们引过道路，并不断给我新的勇气以欣然面对人生，那些理想就是——真、善、美。--- Albert Einstein Thank you! Good bye!: Thank you! Good bye!