212angiosperms

Information about 212angiosperms

Published on December 12, 2007

Author: Savina

Source: authorstream.com

Content

CO 23:  CO 23 Outline:  Outline Phylum Magnoliophyta Gametophyte Development Pollination Fertilization and Seed Development Specialization Trends in Flowering Plants Pollination Ecology Herbaria and Plant Preservation Overview:  Overview Angiosperms are plants with seeds contained within a vessel (carpel). Largest and most diverse phylum of the Plant Kingdom. Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies Permission Required for Reproduction or Display Phylum Magnoliophyta:  Phylum Magnoliophyta Flowering Plants Angiosperms are heterosporous. Female gametophytes are wholly enclosed within sporophyte tissue and reduced to only a few cells. At maturity, male gametophytes consist of a germinated pollen grain with three nuclei. Fig. 23.3a:  Fig. 23.3a Fig. 23.3b:  Fig. 23.3b Fig. 23.8:  Fig. 23.8 Mature Megasporocyte:  Mature Megasporocyte Copyright © McGraw-Hill Companies Permission Required for Reproduction or Display Fig. 23.5:  Fig. 23.5 Fig. 23.6:  Fig. 23.6 Mature Male Gametophyte:  Mature Male Gametophyte Fertilization and Seed Development:  Fertilization and Seed Development After pollination, further development of the male gametophyte may not take place unless the pollen grain is: From a different plant of the same species. From a variety different from that of the receiving flower. Under suitable conditions, a pollen tube grows down between the cells of the stigma and style until it reaches the ovule micropyle. Fertilization and Seed Development:  Fertilization and Seed Development When the pollen tube reaches the micropyle, it continues to the female gametophyte and discharges its contents. Double Fertilization (Fusion) Occurs One sperm migrates from the synergid to the egg and forms a zygote. Other sperm cell migrates from the synergid and unites with the central cell nuclei producing a triploid endosperm nucleus. Specialization Trends in Flowering Plants:  Specialization Trends in Flowering Plants Fossil record suggests flowering plants first appeared about 160 million years ago during the late Jurassic period. Most botanists hypothesize primitive flowers had numerous spirally-arranged parts that were not fused together and were variable in number. Flowers were regular and contained both stamens and pistils. Fig. 23.9:  Fig. 23.9 Fig. 23.10:  Fig. 23.10 Specialization Trends in Flowering Plants:  Specialization Trends in Flowering Plants In advanced flowers, the receptacle has fused to the ovary. When the ovary is embedded in the receptacle, it is said to be inferior. Flower parts attached to to the top of the ovary are epigynous. When the ovary is produced on top of the receptacle, it is said to be superior. Flower parts attached around the base are hypogynous. Specialization Trends in Flowering Plants:  Specialization Trends in Flowering Plants Flowers have tended to become irregular. Complete flowers contain a calyx, corolla, stamens, and a pistil. Perfect flowers have stamens and a pistil. Imperfect flowers are missing either stamens or a pistil. Monoecious plants have both male and female imperfect flowers. Dioecious plants only have only male or female flowers. Fig. 23.12:  Fig. 23.12 Pollination:  Pollination Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from an anther to a stigma. Fertilization involves the union of an egg and a sperm. May not occur until days or weeks or even months after pollination has taken place. Fig. 23.18.1:  Fig. 23.18.1 Fig. 23.18.2:  Fig. 23.18.2 Fig. 23.13:  Fig. 23.13 Fig. 23.15:  Fig. 23.15 Fig. 23.17:  Fig. 23.17 Pollination Ecology:  Pollination Ecology Throughout the evolutionary history of flowering plants, the pollinators have evidently coevolved with plants. Twenty thousand bee species are included among current-day pollinators. Many bee-pollinated flowers are delicately sweet and fragrant. Flowers pollinated by beetles tend to have different, stronger odors. Pollination Ecology:  Pollination Ecology Moth and butterfly-pollinated flowers also often have sweet fragrances. Night-flying moths tend to visit white or yellow flowers. Butterflies tend to visit bright blue, yellow, or orange flowers. Nectaries are at bottom of corolla tubes. Situated for specialized mouth parts. Pollination Ecology:  Pollination Ecology Flowers visited by birds are often bright red or yellow, and usually have little, if any, odor. Typically large flowers. Birds are highly active pollinators and tend to burn energy rapidly. Many bird-pollinated flowers produce copious amounts of nectar to assure repeated visits. Bats tend to visit flowers that open only at night. Apomixis and Parthenocarpy:  Apomixis and Parthenocarpy Apomixis is development or fusion of gametes but with the normal structures otherwise being involved. Fruits that develop from ovaries with unfertilized eggs are parthenocarpic. Seedless (Navel oranges) Seedless watermelon are produced by crossing varieties with different numbers of chromosomes. (Not parthenocarpic) Fertilization and seed formation don’t occur. Herbaria and Plant Preservation:  Herbaria and Plant Preservation Herbaria are essentially libraries of dried, pressed plants, algae, and fungi, arranged and labeled. Properly prepared and maintained specimens may remain in excellent condition for 300 or more years. Review:  Review Phylum Magnoliophyta Gametophyte Development Pollination Fertilization and Seed Development Specialization Trends in Flowering Plants Pollination Ecology Herbaria and Plant Preservation Fig. 23.19:  Fig. 23.19 Fig. 23.20:  Fig. 23.20 Fig. 23.22:  Fig. 23.22 Fig. 23.14:  Fig. 23.14

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