2FA

Information about 2FA

Published on January 20, 2008

Author: Panfilo

Source: authorstream.com

Content

The Second Feudal Age 900 – 1350 (sort of):  The Second Feudal Age 900 – 1350 (sort of) Middle Ages leading to Crusades and Mongolians Change:  Change 6th C 9th c You can identify the change based on culture:  You can identify the change based on culture Two different architectural styles Romanesque Gothic Population increases and growth of cities Changing role of women New social classes including economic influences from Merchant and Craft Guilds Centralization of authority and limitation of authority Changing role of church Changing styles of warfare Practice war games such as jousting Romanesque Architectural Style:  Rounded Arches. Barrel vaults. Thick walls. Darker, simplistic interiors. Small windows, usually at the top of the wall. Romanesque Architectural Style Slide5:  Romanesque Architecture Gothic Architectural Style:  Pointed arches. High, narrow vaults. Thinner walls. Flying buttresses. Elaborate, ornate, airier interiors. Stained-glass windows because you could use large windows instead of stone walls “Flying” Buttresses Gothic Architectural Style Slide7:  Gothic Churches Cause and Effect:  Cause and Effect FOR WANT OF A NAIL For want of a nail, the shoe was lost: For want of the shoe, the horse was lost; For want of the horse, the rider was lost; For want of the rider, the battle was lost; For want of the battle, the kingdom was lost, And all for the want of a nail . Beginning of Germanic Comitatus or Kinship Groups:  Beginning of Germanic Comitatus or Kinship Groups König, eorlas und thanes: kings, nobles and warriors Mutual loyalty -- warriors fight for king, king is generous to warriors Originally a socially egalitarian setup, during the third and fourth centuries Ce then became socially stratified Basis for feudal loyalty Ideal and philosophy expressed in oral epics like Beowulf and The Song of Roland More of a Feudal Web than pyramid:  More of a Feudal Web than pyramid Slide11:  Feudalism A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service but must be coupled with manorialism Social Classes:  Social Classes SECULAR KING NOBLES KNIGHTS MERCHANTS PROFESSIONALS CRAFTSMEN PEASANTS freemen serfs ECCLESIASTICAL POPE CARDINALS (curia) BISHOPS ABBOTS PRIESTS MONKS SUMMONERS FRIARS PARDONERS NUNS PEASANTS lay brothers and sisters serfs Manors plus castle Manoralism plus Feudalism:  Manors plus castle Manoralism plus Feudalism Medieval Town Functional but not built for trade:  Medieval Town Functional but not built for trade Similarities to the First Feudal Age:  Similarities to the First Feudal Age Continuation of feudalism -- “public authority in private hands” Continued economic importance of manorialism Continued importance of feudal relationships Centrality of the church to medieval culture Differences from the First Feudal Age:  Differences from the First Feudal Age Reduction in Violence Agriculture Revolution Population Increase Aggressive, Optimistic Mentality Revival of Town Life Revival of Long-Distance Trade Reduction in Violence:  Reduction in Violence Magyars defeated in 955 and begin to settle in what will be Hungary Infighting among Muslims Vikings simply stop marauding and settle down Walls built around towns Dominance of Siege Warfare Church attempts to “tame” warfare -- “peace of God” -- “truce of God” Agricultural Revolution:  Agricultural Revolution Improvement in Climate Population decline of previous centuries led to search for new technologies Introduction of new technologies Moldboard plow created manoralism arable land, meadow land, waste land, and the village Three field system Horse Harness Seed yield shoots up = more food Population increases promoting town growth Tremendous search for more land Serfs become free peasants paying rent Agricultural specialization develops in regions Economic System and change from subsistence and self-sufficiency to surplus and the beginning of the Commercial Revolution:  Economic System and change from subsistence and self-sufficiency to surplus and the beginning of the Commercial Revolution Role of Agriculture in change Manorialism and the Common Land:  Manorialism and the Common Land Lord controlled the land and serfs and peasants worked the land Three Field system allowed for great crop yield which in turn provided greater food sources and caused an increase in population PLUS = SURPLUS over subsistence just enough food to survive and, if there was any food left over, they would then sell it at the village market. This system was known as subsistence farming.   In the next era they begin a system called the OPEN FIELD System Under the open-field system, a typical village would have three or sometimes four fields around it and a piece of common land that everyone could use. Each villager had thin strips of land in each field, which meant everyone had a piece of good land and a piece of bad land.   Each field was planted with a different crop every year. One might have wheat, a second barley and the last field lay fallow (empty) to allow the soil to recover its goodness, otherwise the soil's nutrients would be used up and produce a bad crop.   During winter, animals could graze on the fallow field so that manure would act as a fertiliser. Villagers needed to have land in all three fields because of the rotation cycle; otherwise they would have had no crops every third year.   Open Field after fall of feudal system:  Open Field after fall of feudal system Inventions of change:  Inventions of change Moldboard Horse collar was in varied use in China prior to Qin dynasty Spread to Europe by 920 CE Soap from the Muslims brought to Europe by 9th Century and developed into hard soap by 12th century Canon – 14th century Longbow late 13th century Stirrup from steppe regions in late 6th century and found in Carolinigan Empire Spurs used by Normans 10th Century Chimney in 12th century Rudder on ships Buttons in late 13th century Compass Either late 12th century in Europe or early 12th Century in China and could have been independent discovery Muslim world 13th century Started making charts and maps to match charts Time:  Time Liang Ling-Tsan ca. 725 AD, a Chinese engineer invented the mechanical escapement, a key device in all mechanical clocks. One of the most elaborate clock towers was built by Su Sung and his associates in 1088 A.D. European mechanical clocks appear in 1st half of 14th century Time was no longer the providence of God and man now could control time for his profit Spring powered 1500-1510 in Nuremberg 1656 Dutch pendalum clock 16th century pocket watch (English) and late 18th century the wristwatch (Swiss) Agricultural Rev. in East Asia and its tributaries:  Agricultural Rev. in East Asia and its tributaries End of 14th century at the beginning of the Ming dynasty rice was remained the staple food for China. The use of terraces was introduced at the beginning of the 2nd millennium increased rice production but not enough to keep up with the needs The use of Champa rice from SE Asis produced much larger harvests. Champa rice could be grown in a little over half the growing season and although not as nutritious produced much larger harvests Along with this the Ming introduced crop rotation where fields would be in continuous production They also introduced irrigation pumps and began stocking rice paddies with fish (food source and also fertilized the rice) This allowed the peasant to begin to experiment with cash crops like cotton and clothing dyes and cane. Then Hong-wu's most aggressive agricultural project involved reforestation beginning in the 1390's. Nanjing was reforested with 50 million trees in 1391; these trees became the lumber that built the naval fleet put together by Yung-lo in the early 1400's. In 1392 and again in 1396, peasants were ordered to plant fruit trees in the provinces of Anhui, Hunan and Hupeh. All in all, over one billion trees were planted in this decade. This reforestation greatly replenished both the timber and the food supply. World Population Growth:  World Population Growth Population Increase:  Population Increase Birth rate up and Death rate down European-wide Population explosion 1100 A.D. = 42 million 1300 A.D. = 72 million Regional Population Bursts No major famines or plagues between 1000-1200 A.D. More People for Lords to tax Aggressive, Optimistic Mentality:  Aggressive, Optimistic Mentality Aggressive approach to land reclamation Peasants given freedom in exchange for bringing land under cultivation The Crusades Urban II calls for first Crusade in 1095 Varying motivations for participation History of the 8 Crusades and 2 Children’s Crusades Creation of Military Monastic Orders Revival of Town Life:  Revival of Town Life Origins of town development Struggle for autonomy with lords Origins of “Communes”: Representative town government New class emerges Burgess or bourgeoisie Problems of overcrowding New institutions of guilds begin to influence daily life Revival of Town Life (cont.):  Revival of Town Life (cont.) Regulation of businesses Walls as psychological symbols Great differences in social classes Role of women in town life Begging, prostitution and law enforcement Professional geographic diversity Air pollution and water pollution Life inside of a town dweller’s home Medieval Guilds:  Medieval Guilds Controlled life in the towns and began to control more than the lords as the towns grew in population Provided services to its members such as help for a widow or payment for funeral services Had health services and sort of a heath insurance Built schools and created an environment for more secular education Also built walls around city and served as policeman Raised troops and protected the city Established standardized weights and measures Medieval Guilds Merchant guilds Regulated prices “just price theory” Chief Commodities traded Regulation of Craft Fairs Craft guilds Prevented poor workmanship Prevented monopolies Protected trade secrets three levels of skill in the crafts apprentice Journeyman master craftsman Crest of Cooper’s Guild (barrel maker):  Crest of Cooper’s Guild (barrel maker) Long-Distance Trade:  Long-Distance Trade Craft Fairs as town entertainment Development of economic transactions Funding of Long-Distance Trade Development of Pre-Modern Banking system Balance of trade problems at first Alliance of towns with kings in the name of long-distance trade Cultural Awakening:  Cultural Awakening Rise of the Medieval University:  Rise of the Medieval University Origins of the Medieval University Standard Teaching Method Religious Foundations of University life Granting of Degrees Student Life Medieval University Curriculum Violence in University Life Universities:  Universities Evolved from medieval schools known as studia generalia Places of study open to students throughout Europe. Efforts to educate clerks and monks beyond the level of the cathedral and monastic schools. Earliest Western universities: Salerno, Italy-- 9th c. -- famous medical school that drew students from all over Europe Bologna, Italy-- 11thc. --a widely respected school of canon and civil law University of Paris --mid 12th c.-- noted for its teaching of theology and as a model for other universities in N. Europe Oxford University in England--end of the 12th century. Medieval Scholasticism:  Medieval Scholasticism An attempt to reconcile faith with reason (logic) Demonstrates attempt to change at end of Middle Ages The idea that reason comes from the bible alone An attempt to reconcile the classical Greek philosophers with the bible It was deductive Started with the tenets of the bible which were used for proof Champions of Scholasticism --Anselm --Peter Abelard, Sic et Non --Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica Critics of Scholasticism --Bernard of Clairvaux Slide37:  St. Thomas Aquinas Mysticism:  Mysticism Bernard of Clairvaux "Prayer and personal sanctity, according to Bernard, are the ways to the knowledge of God, and not disputation. The saint, not the disputant, comprehends God." In the mystics we have a helpful introduction to one part of the reform that was needed in the church -- a renewed attention to the inner life with God. This didn't go far enough without a corresponding renewal of the outer, objective truth of salvation, which by now had been buried under layers of pagan idolatry, and superstition The Church at this time still had room for its mystics, but it did not have room for the “reformers of the outer truth. “ Wyclif and Hus Catherine of Siena (1347-1380) major player in returning the papacy from Avignon to Rome New Christian Art, Architecture & Drama:  New Christian Art, Architecture & Drama New Art emphasizes Jesus’ humanity and the personal, emotional religious experience Romanesque Church structures (11th and 12th centuries) Gothic Cathedrals (12th and 13th centuries) The symbolism of Cathedral interiors Religious Drama (13th century) Chivalry:  Chivalry Chivalry was a peculiarity of the practice of war in medieval Europe. The feudal knight was supposed to be devout, honest, selfless, just, brave, honorable, obedient, kind, charitable, generous, and kind to women. complex rituals and rules Only Vague until written for a French Queen by Guillaume:  Only Vague until written for a French Queen by Guillaume Declaration of passionate devotion Virtuous rejection by the lady Worship of the chosen lady Renewed wooing with oaths of eternal fealty Moans of approaching death from unsatisfied desire Heroic deeds of valor which win the lady's heart Consummation of the secret love Endless adventures and subterfuges Tragic end Troubadour Poetry:  Troubadour Poetry Origins in Provençal: Guillaume X considered to be first troubadour poet Troubadours and Trobiaritz flourished between 1100 and 1350 and were attached to various courts in the south of France. Innovations: vernacular language passionate love poetry influenced by Islamic love poetry voice of amour courtois love viewed as ennobling -- heightens one’s sensibility Arthurian Legend:  Arthurian Legend Historical: Romano-Celtic dux bellorum who fought the Anglo-Saxon invasions Major texts: 12th century Geoffrey of Monmouth’s History of the Kings of Britain Chretien de Troyes’ romances 13th-14th century: French prose romances 15th century: Malory Bocaccio’s Decameron:  Bocaccio’s Decameron Collection of 100 novelle with a frame tale Frame tale realistically details the Black Death in Italy Novelle: short tales based set in realistic settings with a variety of characters from all social classes The Canterbury Tales:  The Canterbury Tales Geofrey Chaucer’s masterpiece Frame: Pilgrimage from London to Canterbury Brilliant portraits of English characters Tales include many genres: romance, sermon, fabilaux, lai, etc. Establishes English dialect as it was one of the first popular, well read pieces written in the venacular Christine de Pisan 1364-ca. 1430:  Christine de Pisan 1364-ca. 1430 First European professional female author Prominent in the “Debate about Women” Works include courtesy books, military treatises, dream visions and The Book of the City of Women Religious Reform:  Religious Reform The growth of religious abuses Monastic Reform Cluniac Order – reformed Benedictine rule Cistercian Order Franciscan Order - St. Francis, who had gathered a number of followers, presented his Primitive Rule to the Pope in 1210. He forbade followers to touch money and they were expected to live by working for alms Dominican Order – confirmed in 1216, they led a life of learning, preaching and poverty. Forbidden to own property, begged for food Papal Reform Gregory VII (late 11th century) Innocent III (1198-1216) Western Europe Emerging European Monarchies:  Western Europe Emerging European Monarchies Evolution of Monarchy England:  England Alfred the Great: (871-899) Finally conquered the Danish and re-established Anglo-Saxon law. Actually only part of England was his kingdom but his learned ways spread throughout the island. He was a great scholar forced to become a soldier. After the Danes were finally forced out off the island Alfred began re-educating the priests and monks who had forgotten Latin and also began the “Anglo-Saxon Chronicles” a great historical source. His sons and grandson, three different Edwards continued to fight with the Danes until the last Edward the Confessor seceded Canute the Dane the last of the Danes in England. William the Conqueror:(Norman)(cousin to Edward the Confessor)(1066-1087) Illegitimate son of Robert of Normandy. Claimed a right to the English throne after there were no sons from Edward the Confessor. He named himself king of England after defeating the Anglo-Saxons at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. The nobles had chosen Edward another nephew to reign instead of William. He altered the feudal system in England by making all the lords and nobles swear allegiance to him thereby going around all the lesser kings and nobles of the land. Doomsday Book (1086) a census book for taxes but chronicles the history of England Slide50:  William the Conqueror: Battle of Hastings, 1066 (Bayeaux Tapestry) England:  England Henry I: Created the Office of Exchequer to handle the kingdom’s finances. He sent traveling judges to try cases. These judges superceded the Lord’s law which made enforcement of the law more universal and consistent and undermined the power of the Lords. Henry II: (Sons were Geoffrey (died early), John and Richard the Lionhart) Married to Eleanor of Aquitaine thereby doubling the size of his territory. Allowed the nobles to pay him money instead of sending knights. He then hired the knights himself. These knights owed their allegiance to Henry instead of the Lords. He later created a national army by requiring every freeman to serve. He further expanded the power of the circuit judges by creating juries that determine whether or not a case was tried. He sought to decrease the church’s authority but failed. His three son’s fought over his kingdom after his death. John: Forced the nobles to pay high taxes which they considered unjust. They forced him to sign the Magna Carta (1215), a document that reduced the power of the King. Magna Carta 1215:  King John I “signed” Runnymeade “Great Charter” monarchs were not above the law. kings had to consult a council of advisors. kings could not tax arbitrarily. Provided rights to the Barons of England Magna Carta 1215 Limitations on Monarch:  Limitations on Monarch Great Council & Parliament: First the Great Council was created when the nobles revolted against Henry III in 1260. In this council, knights and burgesses were represented. Later divided into tow houses-House of Lords and the House of Commons. Its key power was that of refusing to agree to new and special taxes. Later called Parliament. Eleanor of Aquitaine: Bridged both France and England’s history. Married and divorced to the king of France. She controlled Glascony, Aquitaine and other holdings on the continent of Europe. When she married Henry II this territory could be inherited by her sons, Richard, John or Geoffrey. The sons fought over these territories and other English holdings. France:  France Clovis: Last of the Merovian rulers Pepin II: Appointed Mayor of the Palace Charles Martel: Mayor of the Palace became and inherited position. Defeated the Moors at the Battle of Tours. The Moors were the Muslims living on the Iberian Peninsula. Halted the spread of Islam into Europe. Pepin III: Crowned by the Pope. Charlemagne: (Charles the Gross, Charles the Great) United much of Europe by forcing out the Avars and controlling the Bavarian princess. This process took over 30 years but he brought some stability to Europe. He strengthened the hold of the church and returned the Papal States to the church. For his efforts he was crowned "To Charles the August, crowned by God, great and pacific emperor, long life and victory!" on Christmas day 800 AD. This actually begins the Holy Roman Empire but Charlemagne never uses the title “Holy Roman Emperor”. He built learning centers throughout Europe and left libraries , encouraged learning. Although considered civilized as he often pardoned his enemies on one occasion ordered 4500 Saxon’s beheaded after a Saxon uprising. His Grandson’s divided his empire after Charlemagne’s son’s death. With the Treaty of Verdun hopes of a centralized government in Europe were again delayed. Limit powers:  Limit powers Hugh Capet: first of the Captien Kings) Chosen king after the last of the Carolinigian kings die in 987. This begins the Capetain dynasty in France that ends in the 14th century. These Capetain kings set up two new governmental departments the Chamber of Accounts and the Parliament of Paris. Philip Augustus (1180-1223) Louis IX (1226-1270) Extension of royal justice through “Parlement” or judging districts Holy Roman Empire:  Holy Roman Empire Otto the Great: (or Otto I) The first Emperor of the New Holy Roman Empire, called himself Holy Roman Emperor. All of the Holy Roman Emperors, as protectors of the church, had control over the selection of the Pope. This later sets up a struggle between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII The battle was over whether or not a layman, someone outside the church, could appoint a Bishop, a practice called lay investiture. This issue was later settled and is called the Concordat (binding agreement) of Worms. HRE:  HRE Frederick I: Tried to take the rich city-states in northern Italy, which caused the formation of the Lombard League, a defensive league of the Northern Italian city-states, organized to defeat Frederick. The view of kings as holy and untouchable Origin of political instability and fragmentation of monarchical power Frederick II (1212-1250): first feudal monarch to establish a centralized administration and an army of soldiers paid in cash Slide58:  The Marriage of Ferdinand Of Aragon and Isabella of Castile Unified Spain Role of the Roman Catholic church:  Role of the Roman Catholic church Conversion of nomadic people in Western Europe creates a more sedentary climate Continues to provide stability but institutions become corrupt Acquires property and competes with nobility Henry IV and Pope Gregory and issue of lay investiture Church:  Church Pope Innocent III: Led the papacy to the height of its power, dominating almost all of Europe. Four Major Problems of the Church: Lay Investiture (who would appoint officials) Worldly lives of the clergy Simony (buying a church office) Heresy (attacking teachings of church) The Inquisition begins as investigations of those committing acts of heresy Four Powers of the Church: Excommunication Interdiction Taxation Its own Laws and Courts (it was above the law of the land) The Inquisition :  The Inquisition A court established by the Catholic Church in 1232 to discover & try heretics; also was called the Holy Office Heresy/heretics = denial of basic church doctrines Dominicans became well known for their role as examiners of people suspected of Heresy Public penance/punishment was the result Those who did not confess voluntarily were tortured until they did confess – many were turned over to the state for execution Heresy was a crime against God & humanity Crusades:  Crusades Series of wars from 1095 until 1250 Initially a weakened church called for the crusades Western European knights traveled with others who went for a variety of reasons Claim was to regain the Holy Land East Meets West:  East Meets West The Crusades And Mongolians Political Causes:  Political Causes European Expansionism Conversion of Vikings and Magyars removes pressure on Europe Agricultural advances increase food supply Battle of Hastings, 1066 Capture of Toledo from Moslems, 1087 Capture of Sicily from Moslems, 1091 Europe 1000-1100:  Europe 1000-1100 Religious Conflict:  Religious Conflict Roman-Byzantine Rivalry Great Schism, 1064 Cluniac (Benedictine) Reform causes church in West to be more attentive to business and provides impetus to attempts to reassert control Upheaval in the East:  Upheaval in the East Events in Moslem World Battle of Manzikert, 1071. Byzantines lose Anatolia to Turks. Loss foreshadows eventual end of Byzantine Empire. Turks disrupt pilgrim traffic. Call for a Crusade:  Call for a Crusade Urban II calls for Crusade, 1095 Political Objectives of the church Drive Turks from Anatolia Obligate the Byzantines Provide occasion for healing Great Schism on Rome's terms Capture Holy Land Major Events of Crusades:  Major Events of Crusades I Crusade 1097-1098 Achieves all major objectives in Holy Land Turkish threat blunted, though not eliminated Area not strategic to Moslems, could have been held indefinitely with a little skill. Initial gains lost through diplomatic bungling. Crusaders attempt to destabilize neighbors Major Events of Crusades:  Major Events of Crusades II Crusade, 1147-1148 Military failure, discredits Crusaders as military threat III Crusade, 1189-1191 Well-known in literature (Robin Hood) Known as the Kings Crusade Involved Richard I of England, Phillip II of France, Frederick I of Holy Roman Empire Saladin on Moslem side. IV Crusade:  IV Crusade IV Crusade, 1199-1204 Western-Greek relations always strained, mutual contempt. To finance crusade, Crusaders work for Venetians Crusaders sack Constantinople, 1204 Chance to heal Great Schism utterly lost. In 1453, when attacked by Turks, Byzantines preferred surrender to asking Rome for aid. V & VI Crusades:  V & VI Crusades V Crusade 1218-1219 Capture Damietta, swap for Jerusalem Moslems agree Crusaders try to conquer Egypt, are routed VI Crusade 1229 Frederick II of Germany did little fighting and a lot of negotiation Treaty gave the Crusaders Jerusalem and all the other holy cities and a truce of ten years He was widely condemned for conducting the Crusade by negotiating rather than fighting. VII & VIII Crusades:  VII & VIII Crusades VII Crusade 1248-1254 Led by Louis IX of France Nearly an exact repeat of the Fifth Crusade VIII Crusade 1270 Led by Louis IX of France Louis’ brother, Charles of Anjou, king of Sicily, had strategic plans of his own and diverted the expedition to Tunisia, where Louis died. The last Crusader cities on the mainland of Palestine fell in 1291 One small island stronghold lasted until 1303. Crusades died out:  Crusades died out Lack of interest, rising European prosperity Repeated military defeats Discredited by "crusades" against Christians Effects of Crusades:  Effects of Crusades Fatal weakening of Byzantine Empire Vast increase in cultural horizons for many Europeans Decrease in serfdom Stimulated Mediterranean trade. Increased trade throughout Europe Cities grew Because cities grew – influence of the lords declined – serfs left the manors for the cities – no longer needed the protection of the knights – Feudalism was no longer effective Role of the Castle changed from protection to residence Need to transfer large sums of money for troops and supplies led to development of banking techniques. Rise of heraldic emblems, coats of arms Romantic and imaginative literature. New products Effects of Crusades:  Effects of Crusades Knowledge introduced to Europe Heavy stone masonry, construction of castles and stone churches. Siege technology, tunneling, sapping. Moslem minarets adopted as church spires Weakening of nobility, rise of merchant classes Enrichment was primarily from East to West--Europe had little to give in return. The Mongols:  The Mongols Mongol Origins The Rise of the Mongol Empire The Decline and Fall Organization:  Organization Families-->Clans-->Tribes--> Tribes gathered during annual migration Chiefs elected. Based on nobility, military ability, wisdom, leadership skills Religion: Shamanism Nature deities, but key God is the Sky God Sacred color: blue Temujin: Ghengis Khan:  Temujin: Ghengis Khan b. 1167, son of tribal chief Father poisoned…fled as youth Returned as adult, avenged father, Eventually chief By age forty had unified all Mongol tribes Battles, alliances, ability to survive Elected as the Great Khan Amazing talents along with sons and grandsons Some Questions to consider:  Some Questions to consider Why did such a remarkable family, gifted and competent, arise from such an isolated area at this time? How did the Mongols, with a total population of less than 1.5 million, conqueror such a large area and hold it for a century? Mongol Army Tactics:  Mongol Army Tactics Organized army in “Myriads” (10,000’s) Units within each of 1000, 100, and 10 Elaborate signals: every part can move in concert in battle. Flags, hand signals Tactics: retreat, turn, flank, destroy Armaments: horsemanship, compound bow Reputation created paralyzing fear By 1241: reached Poland and Hungary Conquest:  Conquest Every man carried their own supplies and had 2 horses. Ate horse blood and milk Thousands of vassals took loyalty oaths: became commanders, ran army, ran government Took walled cities by using Chinese siege technology Brought Chinese engineers with them Conquered most of Asia, Middle East, Russia Creation of Law:  Creation of Law Yasa – Monoglian Law Code The strength of the Mongolian Empire was in its military organization then administrative style as it finalized the conquest Genghis Khan:  Genghis Khan “Man’s highest joy is victory: to conqueror one’s enemies, to pursue them, to deprive them of their possessions, to make their beloved weep, and to embrace their wives and daughters.” The Conquest of China:  The Conquest of China Genghis Khan wanted the riches of China First secured his back: conquered Tibetan State of NW China, Manchu State (N) Took land all the way to Peking by 1227 Ghengis Khan died 1227 Successors reached the Yellow River 1234 Took all of China by 1241 Divisions at Genghis Khan’s Death:  Divisions at Genghis Khan’s Death Four Khanates Kipchak Khanate (Golden Hoarde): Russia IlKhanate: Persia Chagatai Khanate: Mongolia Great Khanate: China, Outer Mongolia, Border States, to which the others owed allegiance. Later became the Yuan Dynasty Territory of the Mongols:  Territory of the Mongols Kublai Khan:  Kublai Khan Grandson of Genghis Khan Moved capital to Beijing 1261 Not north enough to stay in contact with other Khanates Yet south enough to control most of China Conquered the Southern Sung by 1279 Building Projects:  Building Projects Too far from prosperous south to easily collect taxes Built the Grand Canal to Beijing (Peking) Palace of the Khan: designed by Arab architects. Summer palace: Shangtu (Xanadu) Where a Mongol can be a Mongol Developed hereditary succession Mongolian Rule of China: Yuan Dynasty:  Mongolian Rule of China: Yuan Dynasty Originally, plundered and robbed Learned the art of taxation Mongols ruling elite: Highly centralized Emperor-->Secretariat--> Roving Secretariat Ruling minority segregated Majority ranked according to ethnicity Trusted foreigners and Mongolians Ethnic Ranking:  Ethnic Ranking Mongols: Top military, civilian posts Persians, Turks, Non-Chinese nomad stock: High civil posts N. Chinese, border people, Manchurians: Next highest posts S. Chinese: Lowest civil posts All records and proceedings in Uighur Turkic, than translated word by word into Chinese (sounded barbaric) Foreign Contact:  Foreign Contact Large, multi-ethnic empire facilitated diffusion Subject states: Persian, Arab, Russian, Turkic Goods, art, technology and ideas spread Chinese communities found as far west as Moscow Printing, gunpowder, medicine diffuse west Marco Polo Religion: Christianity:  Religion: Christianity Policy of toleration Kublai Khan’s mother was a Nestorian Christian Papal Mission created Peking Archbishop and cathedral, complete with Mongol and Turkic sermon and Mongol choir boys Wanted 100 learned Catholics to be sent by the Pope Buddhism and Islam in China:  Buddhism and Islam in China Tibetan Buddhism gained 500,000 converts Islam gained many converts. A mosque was built in a new Islamic quarter of Peking and others built in SW China Confucianism survived Considered a tax free religion. No real influence at court Most of China in the South remained unchanged Decline and Fall :  Decline and Fall Yuan Dynasty: Shortest lived major Chinese dynasty (1264-1368) By the death of Kublai Khan’s son, series of weak rulers The Khanates lose cohesion due to religious and cultural differences Yuan Dynasty becomes more isolated Decline:  Decline Chinese never really accepted as legitimate Succession wars between heirs and generals High Taxes, Corrupt officials Paper money controversy Yellow River changed course and flooded Grand Canal among other natural disasters Decentralization: Rise of Warlords Last Khan fled to Mongolia in 1368 Results:  Results Results of their conquest Nomadic peoples became sedentary Opened former trade routes and established new ones Fostered an interest in goods from the east Stimulated trade and exploration The Hundred Years War:  The Hundred Years War Between trade consortiums of Western Europe over the rich economic areas of Flanders Between English and French over territory still governed by English on French soil Joan of Arc Joan is victorious at Orleans (1429) Joan provided inspiration and national unity Capture, trial and execution of Joan of Arc The masculinity of Joan’s dress and bearing II. The Hundred Years War (cont):  II. The Hundred Years War (cont) Gunpowder warfare is introduced into Europe Development of the English Parliament Peasants and non-nobles constituted a new infantry Hundred Years War:  Hundred Years War Superiority of mounted knight undermined by new weapons Increased nationalism Centralization of French monarchy Destruction of peasant farmland English clothing industry emerges

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