3 BasicRepro2

Information about 3 BasicRepro2

Published on December 7, 2007

Author: Flemel

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Slide1:  Basic Reproduction 2: Pollination Systems Slide2:  Plant Breeding Systems General Issues to consider: A flower is an adapted leaf specialized for sex. Its function is to bring the gametes together thus forming zygotes with new genetic combinations A species’ survival is dependent on the production of offspring adapted to a particular environment. Plants have evolved a variety of adaptations that either encourage outbreeding (cross-pollination) or inbreeding (self-pollination or selfing). Each breeding system has genetic ramifications Slide3:  Basic Terms Outbreeding: Sexual reproduction between different genotypes (cross-pollination). Inbreeding: Sexual reproduction within an individual genotype (self-pollination) Sexual Reproduction: Combination of meiosis and fertilization. The sexual process is a mechanism to bring about gene recombination. Recombination is the chief source of inherited variation and provides the raw materials for species to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Slide4:  Outbreeder or Inbreeder?? Often one can tell just by looking at a flower whether it cross-pollinates or self-pollinates OUTBREEDER INBREEDER Trait Incompatibility Flower # Flower size Flower color Nectories Scent Nector guides Anther position Pollen # Style position Stigma self-incompatible self-compatible many flowers few flowers large flowers small flowers bright colors mono-colored nectaries present nectaries absent scented flowers unscented flowers nectar guides present nectar guides absent anthers far from stigma anthers close to stigma many pollen grains fewer pollen grains style exserted from flower style included in flower stigmatic area well-defined stigmatic area poorly-defined Slide5:  Outbreeding (Cross-pollination) Advantages: Disadvantages: Increases genetic variability Strong evolutionary potential Adaptation to changing conditions Successful long-term Can destroy well-adapted genotypes Relies on effective cross-pollination, seed dispersal and establishment Slide6:  Inbreeding (Self-pollination) Advantages: Disadvantages: Preserves well-adapted genotypes Insures seed set in the absence of pollinators Single colonizing individual possible Decreases (or maintains) genetic variability Evolutionary dead-end Cannot adapt to changing environmental conditions Successful short-term Self Incompatibility: How Plants Avoid Inbreeding:  Self Incompatibility: How Plants Avoid Inbreeding Evolution seems to favor genetic variability Genetic variability is promoted by outbreeding (reproduction between genetically dissimilar individuals) How do plants promote outbreeding? Self Incompatibility:  Self Incompatibility Mechanisms by which the plant affects pollen selection for fertilization; normally thought of in the prevention of self fertilization Defined as the inability of a plant producing functional gametes to achieve fertilization A genetically based mechanism which controls mating w/in angiosperm species by imposing a ‘barrier’ between pollination and fertilization Self Incompatibility:  Self Incompatibility Can be based on morphology (flower structure, sexual distinctness), development (gamete maturation time), or genetics Highly species specific Evolutionarily significant; impedes homozygosity, promotes heterozygosity Self Incompatibility-Key concepts:  Self Incompatibility-Key concepts Self incompatibility (SI) is different from sterility; fertility must be demonstrated for both male and female gametes Pre-fertilization phenomenon Widespread Ancient, ancestral Like x Like = no fertilization Like x Unlike = fertilization Types of Self Incompatibility:  Types of Self Incompatibility Imperfect Flowers- Sexual distinctness: Monoecious (Maize) vs. Dioecious (Hollies, Poplars) Perfect Flowers- Gamete Maturation Time (Dicogamy): - Protogyny - gynoecium matures 1st; stigmas receptive before anthers release pollen - Protandry - androecium matures 1st; anthers shed pollen before the stigma is receptive Protogyny:  Protogyny Stigmata Receptive Anthers pre-anthesis Stigmata Non-receptive Anthesis Protandry:  Protandry Types of Self Incompatibility:  Types of Self Incompatibility Perfect Flowers Heteromorphic: visible differences in flower morphology coincide with crossability differences (vs. Homomorphic) Characteristics affected: style length, filament length, pollen size, exine sculpturing, etc… - Does not affect the presence or absence of other SI mechanisms Heteromorphic SI-Distyly:  Heteromorphic SI-Distyly Types of Self Incompatibility:  Types of Self Incompatibility Perfect Flowers - Homomorphic: the mating types can not be recognized by morphological features - Numerous mating types controlled by “S” alleles (“S”, historical from idea that no seed = sterility) - Parental S alleles have to be different for successful fertilization Homomorphic SI:  Homomorphic SI Sporophytic SI - Proteins coded by the S alleles present within the sporophytic tissues of the parents interact; e.g. exine (male sporophyte genotype) and the female stigma/style Gametophytic SI - Proteins coded by the S alleles present within gametophytic and sporophytic tissues interact; e.g. intine/pollen tube (male gametophyte genotype) and the female stigma/style Sporophytic SI:  Sporophytic SI Less common then gametophytic SI Reaction controlled by S loci (w/ dominance) Dominance relationships are S1>S2>S3>S4... Extremely polymorphic Incompatibility is controlled by the diploid genotype of the sporophyte Thus, pollen will not germinate on stigma of a flower that contains either of the two alleles in the sporophyte parent that produced the pollen Sporophytic SI:  Sporophytic SI All pollen grains produced by a S1S2 plant Genotypes of pistils Stigma Style Gametophytic SI:  Gametophytic SI More common then sporophytic SI Reaction controlled by S loci (w/o dominance) Extremely polymorphic Incompatibility is controlled by the haploid genotype in pollen Thus, pollen will not grow in any pistil that contains the same allele Gametophytic SI:  Gametophytic SI All pollen (incompatible and compatible) will germinate and grow into style However, growth of incompatible pollen tubes will be arrested w/in style Reaction based on S-locus-encoded ribonucleases (RNase) synthesized in style RNase appears to enter all pollen tubes but destroys RNA in only incompatible pollen Gametophytic SI:  Gametophytic SI All pollen grains produced by a S1S2 plant Genotypes of pistils Stigma Style Overcoming SI Systems:  Overcoming SI Systems Temperature treatment Irradiation Grafting Double pollination Bud pollination Slide24:  Variants in the Reproductive Process Apomixis:  Apomixis Substitute for sexual reproduction Development of an embryo w/o sex Identified in over 300 species across 37 families. Not rare but relatively uncommon Apomixis:  Apomixis Must bypass two different processes: Meiosis: no reduction of chromosome # Fertilization: development of embryo w/o fusion of sperm and egg Reproductive Behavior:  Reproductive Behavior Obligate Apomict: a plant which reproduces only by asexual reproduction. Facultative Apomict: a plant which has the potential to reproduce either sexually or asexually. Both process may occur simultaneously or one may be predominant. Within a genus or species, all reproduction strategies may be possible Stimulus for Embryo Development:  Stimulus for Embryo Development Autonomous: requires no further stimulation - embryo and endosperm may be developed before flowers open Pseudogamy (False-fertilization): development of 2n gametophyte requires pollination and/or pollen tube growth. Sometimes a sperm nucleus fuses with polar nuclei, but never with egg Cytology in Apomicts:  Cytology in Apomicts Meiosis in mega/microsporogenesis usually irregular However, in some cases only the female gametophyte is affected and normal pollen is produced. Genetics of Apomicts:  Genetics of Apomicts Apomixis is genetically controlled in most cases studied Control is complex (multigenic) and recessive to sexual reproduction Polyploidy may affect apomictic reproduction Hybridization tends to increase apomixis Use of Apomixis in Breeding:  Use of Apomixis in Breeding Production of exact replicas of diploid Fix hybrid vigor Fix heterozygous status Identifying Apomixis:  Identifying Apomixis Pollination control Seed w/o pollination, apomixis present Progeny analysis Uniform, all progeny maternal like Cytological observations Unexpected chromosome # from cross with 2 ploidy levels (2N x 4N= 2N or 4N) Developmental observations Megaspore, embryo sac and embryo Parthenocarpy:  Parthenocarpy Development of fruit w/o fertilization and subsequent development of ovules or embryos Parthenocarpy:  Parthenocarpy Characteristics Remnant ovule sacs (seed coats) w/o any embryos or seeds (e.g. banana) Causes Usually stimulated by pollination or some other stimulus within the style Parthenocarpy:  Parthenocarpy Induction of parthenocarpy Example: Apple fruit set; evidence for a specific role of seeds Extracted immature apple seeds Applied extract to unpollinated flowers Produced seedless apples Conclusion: Hormonal effect induced by gibberellins Xenia and Metaxenia:  Xenia and Metaxenia Xenia: The phenotypic effect of the male genotype on the endosperm of the seed Metaxenia: The phenotypic effect of the male genotype fruit tissues “Window into next generation” Maize: aleurone color and type of endosperm reflects genotype of pollen that fertilized that seed Rosa: time to germination dependent on pollen parent

Related presentations


Other presentations created by Flemel

What is a Play
17. 10. 2007
0 views

What is a Play

Jeopardy HIV STD HPV
06. 08. 2007
0 views

Jeopardy HIV STD HPV

Training School Bus Driver
17. 09. 2007
0 views

Training School Bus Driver

semantics
17. 09. 2007
0 views

semantics

philosophy
27. 09. 2007
0 views

philosophy

como rezar rosario
01. 10. 2007
0 views

como rezar rosario

WorldMuslimCongress Mecca
02. 10. 2007
0 views

WorldMuslimCongress Mecca

sentence
03. 10. 2007
0 views

sentence

DHL presentation
11. 10. 2007
0 views

DHL presentation

VIPAR Presentation
15. 10. 2007
0 views

VIPAR Presentation

annee2005
16. 10. 2007
0 views

annee2005

PrÃsentation JBaer 20avr
17. 10. 2007
0 views

PrÃsentation JBaer 20avr

Panel 17 8 Taking the Pulse
17. 10. 2007
0 views

Panel 17 8 Taking the Pulse

tom eddy
17. 09. 2007
0 views

tom eddy

grass
22. 10. 2007
0 views

grass

CXPBrasil June2005
26. 11. 2007
0 views

CXPBrasil June2005

Theor Astrophysics
29. 11. 2007
0 views

Theor Astrophysics

Carnival Brasil
30. 11. 2007
0 views

Carnival Brasil

boon
26. 10. 2007
0 views

boon

kumar eng
26. 10. 2007
0 views

kumar eng

talking freight
07. 11. 2007
0 views

talking freight

LHC Net meet 101205ppt
28. 09. 2007
0 views

LHC Net meet 101205ppt

cmd04 VW
16. 11. 2007
0 views

cmd04 VW

11 OrgsSimAndReal
22. 11. 2007
0 views

11 OrgsSimAndReal

PolComm1
08. 10. 2007
0 views

PolComm1

CAFTA training
03. 01. 2008
0 views

CAFTA training

2 casting forming
04. 01. 2008
0 views

2 casting forming

Sales Training II Final
11. 08. 2007
0 views

Sales Training II Final

Sonnet
11. 08. 2007
0 views

Sonnet

sommers rev oct 19 ppt
11. 08. 2007
0 views

sommers rev oct 19 ppt

Scherrer
11. 08. 2007
0 views

Scherrer

Topic 12 Genetic Disorders 3
11. 08. 2007
0 views

Topic 12 Genetic Disorders 3

Sonnet MLA
11. 08. 2007
0 views

Sonnet MLA

Autism AHistory
05. 01. 2008
0 views

Autism AHistory

Shortage of Girls in China
11. 08. 2007
0 views

Shortage of Girls in China

How Adults Learn
06. 08. 2007
0 views

How Adults Learn

Introversion Turned Inside Out
06. 08. 2007
0 views

Introversion Turned Inside Out

Jenkins
06. 08. 2007
0 views

Jenkins

HCR 107 Overheads
06. 08. 2007
0 views

HCR 107 Overheads

N REG SANIT INT
22. 10. 2007
0 views

N REG SANIT INT

022 Hexapods for robot soccer
31. 12. 2007
0 views

022 Hexapods for robot soccer

Sung Su Truss Bridge
01. 01. 2008
0 views

Sung Su Truss Bridge

Slides KateSteinbeck
11. 08. 2007
0 views

Slides KateSteinbeck

Senate Hearing 2000
11. 08. 2007
0 views

Senate Hearing 2000

William Graham
23. 11. 2007
0 views

William Graham

truman7
29. 12. 2007
0 views

truman7

231nm02
29. 09. 2007
0 views

231nm02

chpt 1 ppt
24. 02. 2008
0 views

chpt 1 ppt

HIV AIDS in Europe
06. 08. 2007
0 views

HIV AIDS in Europe

Heidtke
29. 02. 2008
0 views

Heidtke

NIBSSep021
28. 12. 2007
0 views

NIBSSep021

07 Uae Profilers in TRMM GV Gage
17. 09. 2007
0 views

07 Uae Profilers in TRMM GV Gage

Protista
26. 03. 2008
0 views

Protista

original
07. 04. 2008
0 views

original

slides prog 71
11. 08. 2007
0 views

slides prog 71

wb english
27. 03. 2008
0 views

wb english

Malaria Blue Sky Final Slideshow
30. 03. 2008
0 views

Malaria Blue Sky Final Slideshow

Session1 Parenteau
10. 04. 2008
0 views

Session1 Parenteau

BS3008w1
13. 04. 2008
0 views

BS3008w1

healthcare
06. 08. 2007
0 views

healthcare

SRM Presentation Jim Hanco
14. 04. 2008
0 views

SRM Presentation Jim Hanco

finnews284 2
16. 04. 2008
0 views

finnews284 2

FX Hedging Strategies1
17. 04. 2008
0 views

FX Hedging Strategies1

ioko times showreel
22. 04. 2008
0 views

ioko times showreel

23 Practice Problems
07. 11. 2007
0 views

23 Practice Problems

PE2 U6 R
14. 02. 2008
0 views

PE2 U6 R

ASUD
18. 06. 2007
0 views

ASUD

armi leggere
18. 06. 2007
0 views

armi leggere

apq
18. 06. 2007
0 views

apq

apicorso
18. 06. 2007
0 views

apicorso

aeipres
18. 06. 2007
0 views

aeipres

901059 Kids Share ppt
18. 06. 2007
0 views

901059 Kids Share ppt

Sporting tips
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Sporting tips

semi2
18. 06. 2007
0 views

semi2

Saker Motorports USALLC
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Saker Motorports USALLC

Running on Fumes
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Running on Fumes

FBranca Luxembourg 3mar
26. 11. 2007
0 views

FBranca Luxembourg 3mar

Sisvalsoc
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Sisvalsoc

Shalom Auschwitz Ginocchio
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Shalom Auschwitz Ginocchio

scrittura
18. 06. 2007
0 views

scrittura

scheda unipol
18. 06. 2007
0 views

scheda unipol

satzherstellung
18. 06. 2007
0 views

satzherstellung

uss presentation
02. 01. 2008
0 views

uss presentation

HandsOnWMS nov
16. 10. 2007
0 views

HandsOnWMS nov

hatikvah E2 short
22. 10. 2007
0 views

hatikvah E2 short

amer deadlocks
17. 09. 2007
0 views

amer deadlocks

deadlocks
17. 09. 2007
0 views

deadlocks

L14 Deadlock
17. 09. 2007
0 views

L14 Deadlock

Chapter 03
17. 09. 2007
0 views

Chapter 03

Slides Egidi
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Slides Egidi

Ballanti Diagramaps 070704
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Ballanti Diagramaps 070704

1111 123080220071234
24. 10. 2007
0 views

1111 123080220071234

Dr Tom Sparrow
17. 09. 2007
0 views

Dr Tom Sparrow

amiland gesetze
18. 06. 2007
0 views

amiland gesetze

Gen Micro130 ch1
16. 10. 2007
0 views

Gen Micro130 ch1

bus safety
15. 06. 2007
0 views

bus safety

xo Overheads 2
15. 06. 2007
0 views

xo Overheads 2

Wandering
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Wandering

walker ssm
15. 06. 2007
0 views

walker ssm

spelling
15. 06. 2007
0 views

spelling

spanish american humor
15. 06. 2007
0 views

spanish american humor

research paper checklist
15. 06. 2007
0 views

research paper checklist

Phil Logic 2000 1
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Phil Logic 2000 1

merchant
15. 06. 2007
0 views

merchant

Love 3
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Love 3

jewish humor
15. 06. 2007
0 views

jewish humor

oef 9 opl
15. 06. 2007
0 views

oef 9 opl

oef 2 opl
15. 06. 2007
0 views

oef 2 opl

obscenity andc ensorship
15. 06. 2007
0 views

obscenity andc ensorship

intro to personality psych
06. 08. 2007
0 views

intro to personality psych

Neorev
24. 02. 2008
0 views

Neorev

session 3b cogdell
18. 06. 2007
0 views

session 3b cogdell

jurors
06. 08. 2007
0 views

jurors

Hyde
06. 08. 2007
0 views

Hyde

Reunion Burgos
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Reunion Burgos

JSOBasic
06. 08. 2007
0 views

JSOBasic

sipf050405ih
23. 10. 2007
0 views

sipf050405ih

419 banks 051
10. 03. 2008
0 views

419 banks 051

pries vortraege
14. 11. 2007
0 views

pries vortraege

scar slides
17. 11. 2007
0 views

scar slides

Item 2 Mercury in Terns
06. 08. 2007
0 views

Item 2 Mercury in Terns

The new obesity guidance
11. 08. 2007
0 views

The new obesity guidance

Socrates IIa
11. 08. 2007
0 views

Socrates IIa

ID3 MedhaPradhan
26. 10. 2007
0 views

ID3 MedhaPradhan

AeroSpace Workshop JK mods
22. 10. 2007
0 views

AeroSpace Workshop JK mods

tritroph
30. 12. 2007
0 views

tritroph

Trick or Treaters
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Trick or Treaters

Saviez vous que
11. 08. 2007
0 views

Saviez vous que