3 Russia 05

Information about 3 Russia 05

Published on October 26, 2007

Author: Charlie

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Russia:  Russia Background Russia and newly independent neighbors once formed the USSR and cover an enormous area European part of region includes Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania / Belarus, Ukraine and Moldova. Also includes Transcaucasus states of Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan Asian part of region includes Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tadzhikistan region occupies 1/6 of earth’s landsurface, stretches 6,000 miles from west to east and 3,000 north to south; spans 12 time zones Slide2:  image of unlimited raw materials and virgin lands compromised by difficulty of exploitation, remoteness of territory, lack of capital, and bad climate Russia occupies 3/4 of former USSR Natural Regions large Eurasian landmass and high latitudinal location strongly influence severe continental climate (southern most area same latitude as Memphis, TN) Moscow further north than Edmonton, Canada 75% of area is north of 49th parallel (northern border of US/Canada) Slide3:  Importance of Rivers to Russia Longest north-south river is Volga which flows from the north to Caspian Sea Dnieper River empties into Black Sea Don River into Sea of Azov “Mutushka” (mother) name of Volga Boatmen towed barges up Volga to Moscow (The Volga Boatmen) Volga-Don canal important for transportation Slide4:  Landforms European section Baltic states, Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine lie within Eastern European plain drained by numerous rivers like Volga and Dnieper fairly flat with low mountains on Kola peninsula mountains border plain on south- Carpathian Mts., Crimean Mts., Caucasus Mts. Mt.. Elbrus 18.5 k, highest peak in Europe European plain ends at Ural Mts.. Siberia western Siberian lowland 1,000 miles to Pacific Slide5:  Ob river drains most of western Siberian lowland Yenisey and Lena Kazakhstan and Central Asia Kazay uplands to south of western Siberian lowland Aral sea fed by two rivers that originate in Pamir and Tian Shan Mts- Amu Darya and Syr Darya Slide6:  Vegetation zones Tundra 13% of Russian republic mean temperature in warmest month 50-32 degrees F short growing season, poor soils, only hardy plants permafrost and high winds very sparsely populated with only a few military bases, tribes, hunters, trappers, and miners Forest regions taiga of Russia coniferous forests with swamps and meadows subartic climate with temperatures as low as 90 degrees F Permafrost much of the year short summers, very cold winters, 100 day growing season Slide7:  transportation and constructions problems timber, fur-bearing animals, precious metals, oil and gas mixed forests of Baltics, Belarus, Ukraine and European Russia coniferous and broadleaf trees temperatures and growing season increase toward south less acidic and more fertile soils broadleaf forests of Siberia in Far East broadleaf forests cold, dry winters, hot, humid summers Slide8:  Forest steppe and steppe forest steppe gives way to true steppe in south Moldova, Ukraine, western Siberia, and Kzakhstan chernozerm (black earth) soils in steppe important for agriculture but unreliable rainfall Deserts trans-Volga area, southern Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan 10 inches of rain per year very hot, dry conditions in summer; cold in winter vegetation consists of grasses and plants that can store moisture Slide9:  Subtropical south east coast of Black Sea (Georgia) and Crimean peninsula in Ukraine Crimean mountains help protect narrow coastal region from cold north winds famous resort areas on Black Sea specialized agriculture with tea, citrus fruits, fertile soils, good moisture Mountain areas Central Asia countries of Kyrgyzstan, Tadzhikstan, Uzbekistan, and Transcaucasus Russian Far East Slide12:  Russia: Physical Map Kamchata Peninsula Ural Mts Russian Plain Kazay uplands Slide13:  Russian Climate Map Slide14:  Russian Climates Polar climate (permafrost, very cold) Continental climate (cold winters, cool summers, short growing season) Dry climate (mid latitude steppe and desert with limited rainfall Humid subtropical climate (hot summers, mild winters, longer growing season, good moisture) Slide15:  Population General Observations population of 15 republics that once constituted the former USSR was 290 million; Russia alone has 150 million 6th most populous country of the world former soviet states vary in size from Estonia at 1.5 mil to 52 mil in the Ukraine Formation of a Multinational State present state of Russia about 3/4 size of USSR Tsarist and Soviet rulers able to expand territory at expense of indigenous peoples Slide16:  Latvians, Lithuanians, Armenians, and Tadzhiks also speak languages belonging to Indo-European family pervasive power of state maintained empire with allowance for a few ethnic rights- native languages, ethnic customs, etc CPSU dominated by Russians practice of Russification after 73 years of communist rule, ethnic cleavages could not be contained any longer Ethnic Composition eastern Slavs- Russians, Ukrainians, and Belorussians speak languages belonging to Indo-European family Slide17:  50 million in Central Asia speak a language belonging to the Altaic family. Live in Central Asia, middle Volga Valley and Caucasus small representation of Uralian family (5 million) in Estonia, northern Europe, western Siberian section variety of other languages spoken by Georgians, Mongols, Koreans, tribes in Siberia Religious composition Eastern Orthodox- Moscow core region Christianity- Baltic states Islam- Southern Muslim Republics Roman Catholicism- Baltic states Jewish- Russia Slide19:  Political Divisions Former political units of USSR were the 15 union republics (S.S.R.’s) In early 90’s all become independent republics CIS- Commonwealth of Independent States (12/15 SSR’s) host of other ethnic groups wanted representation Russians were significant minorities in the Baltics, Central Asian republics, and other territories Gorbachev’s call for “demokratizatsiya” opened up Pandora’s box old Soviet constitution said USSR was a “voluntary” federation with right of succession Slide20:  demonstrations and conflicts all over Russia Lithuania took boldest step in declaring independence abortive 1991 coup by right wing Communist officials leads to other declarations of independence in Latvia and Estonia By 1992 all former SSR’s declared statehood hammer and sickle on Soviet flag replaced by old Tsarist flag; Gorbachev resigns as president Post-Independence Nationality Problems challenge of political cooperation among different ethnic groups 80 border disputes due to ethnic conflicts citizenship questions for Russian minorities in ethnic republics Slide21:  Russians and Ukrainians in Moldova declared Dniester Republic War between Armenia and Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh Southern Ossetians and Abkhazy declared independence from Georgia Tatars in middle Volga demand independence Chechnya war raging since 1990.Devastation of Grozny, the capital of Chechnya today. 50 million Muslims in Central Asia desire pan-Islamic federation Russian federation main successor to RSFSR (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic) Slide22:  demographic characteristics Slavs and Baltic peoples have low birth rates and low death rates ethnic groups in Central, Caucasus, and Siberia have high birth rates and low death rates Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Azerbaijan have birth rtes like Third World between 1979-89 Russian grew by 5.6% and Ukrainians grew by 4.2% Tadzhiks, Turkmen, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz grew by 45%, 34%, 34%, and 33% respectively Slavs have declined from 75% of total population in 1959 to 51% today Slide23:  life expectancy in Russia is 64 years for Russian males vs 72 in US life expectancy in Russia is 74 years for Russian females vs 79 in US Alcoholism and inadequate health care imbalance of male/female ratios (USSR lost 20 million men in WW II) imbalances slowly being rectified use of females in labor force shortages in labor force pronatal policies of Marxist ideology plus stipends have not increase birth rate birth rate too high in Central Asia, Kazakhstan, and Caucasuses but too low in urbanized, Slavic Russia Slide24:  Russia: Fertile Triangle Slide25:  distribution of population fertile triangle from St. Petersburg to Urals to Crimea on Black Sea (Russian core area) distribution varies from 250 people per sq. mile western Ukraine to virtually nothing in Russian tundra and Asian deserts 75% of total population lives in European Russia outside European Russia, heaviest populations concentrated in foothills and valleys of Central Asia, along rivers, and irrigated areas urbanization 18% of population lived in cities in Tsarist Russia industrialization in Stalinist Russia increased urbanization to 33% before WW II Slide26:  today 75% of Russian live in cities 70% of Estonians, Belarussians, Latvians, and Lithuanians live in cities 30-40% of Tadzhiks, Kyrgyz and Uzbeks live in cities most large cities in European Russia large cities in Russian Siberia mostly in southern part of region or along Trans-Siberian railway Summary Russia has diverse environmental and human resources serious environmental disruption, polluted atmosphere and contaminated lakes, rivers, soil Nuclear wastes Novaya Zemlya; biological toxins Aral Sea control over diverse ethnic mosaic very challenging problem for Russian government Slide28:  Russia: Political Map Slide29:  Russia Russia-Economic Activities:  Russia-Economic Activities Background prior to Russian Revolution 80% of population were peasants grinding rural poverty, high debts, no land, inadequate food, unyielding autocracy industry growing in 1890’s history of revolts, revolutions, demands for freedom and democracy in Russia influence of World War I and the Bolshevik Revolution Slide31:  Bolshevik Revolution and establishment of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Soviet Approach to Development Dictatorship of Communist Party of Soviet Union would lead backward country through economic development and eventually communism significant achievement of industrialization under Stalinist Five-Year Plans heavy costs on workers and rural peasants human toll of Stalinist economic policy in 20’s and 30’s Slide32:  Planned Development Stalinist Five-Year Plans planned economy, production goals for all goods and services complexity of economic blueprints created problems in allocating resources achievement of notable success in heavy industry and military arms (“heavy metal eaters”) performance in agriculture and light industries poor performance in consumer industries dismal Slide33:  Gorbachev’s economic reforms economic stagnation and decreasing growth in 70’s USSR could not feed itself, importing food ruble valueless (not convertible) outside Russia military spending consuming 25% of budget nothing available to buy in state stores Gorbachev promised glasnost (more openness), demokratizatsiya (democratization), and perestroika (restructuring of the economy). plan was to improve economic performance by introducing market reforms Slide34:  high inflation unemployment in the short run unemployment increased, prices rose, inequality of incomes apparent, decrease in the standard of living for many people, political instability Challenge of Development reformers losing political influence; nationalists and ex-communists gaining influence level of economic well-being differs from republic to republic difficulties in privatizing state enterprises by 1993 most retail shops in private hands Slide35:  agricultural and industrial production dropped by 50% in 5 years of market reforms defense spending and other government spending cut, land privatized, inflation, declining economic growth, joblessness, poverty centrally controlled distribution system curtailed Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Belarus, and Azerbaijan have made fewest changes Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Lithuania and Moldova committed to reform but little progress so far Estonia and Latvia experiencing some success Slide36:  military/security problems with soldiers not being paid, equipment deteriorating, command and control structures fragile, possibility of nuclear thefts former republics highly dependent on trade with other republics; under market reforms trading between these former republics is more complicated inability to pay for imported goods Commonwealth of Independent States created to facilitate trade and political ties; most new republics suspicious of Moscow, fear dominance Russia benefiting today due to high prices for gas and oil. New markets East and West. Slide37:  Economic Development Potential Russia and Ukraine have best chance of economic success Ukraine has extensive agricultural land, industrial resources, good manufacturing capability Russia has extensive natural resources, largest industrial regions, good agricultural land Baltics have good prospects for industrialization and agricultural development most other regions except the Baltics have economic problems Central Asian Republics particularly weak Slide38:  Industrial Resources Russian region ranks among the leaders in natural resources, but these are not evenly distributed many resources in remote areas, costly to obtain, harsh environment Energy good growth potential for oil and gas production USSR prior to 1992 was world’s leading producer of oil and gas 1/2 of region’s oil comes from West Siberian fields problem of permafrost antiquated equipment and poor management Slide39:  Volga Urals fields second most important oil-producing area Caspian Sea area has major reserves rivaling that of the Persian Gulf Japan and US interested in foreign investment Soviet Union was world’s leading producer of coal good reserves in Siberia; most coal production today in western Russia and Ukraine Donets Basin is major source of coal electric generation from peat, coal, oil or gas atomic power about 10% now could rise to 25% soon 15% of generation from hydroelectric with Volga and Kama rivers particularly important Caspian Oil:  Caspian Oil Slide41:  Metallic Ores diverse base of metals iron ore reserves largest in world (40% of known reserves) 50% of iron ore extracted in USSR came from Ukrainian Krivoi Rog fields Urals and Kursk deposits manganese and mercury in Ukraine Kazakhstan has bauxite, tungsten, molybdenum, chromium, led, zing, and world’s largest copper deposits mercury and gold in Uzbekistan Slide42:  Industrial Regions Soviets attempted to disperse location of industrial regions for security reasons Kuznetsk metallurgical base in Siberia impact of German occupation in WW II Soviet planning favored development of manufacturing in several areas: (1) Center around Moscow; (2) St. Petersburg; (3) Mid-Volga area; (4) the Urals; (5) Kuznetsk Basin in Siberia; (6) Ukraine Industrial District Slide43:  Center Moscow most populous and largest industrial city large market; good supply of skilled labor; good transportation good electrical supply from Volga hydroelectric and gas/oil pipelines from Ukraine manufacture linen, cotton, wool, silk fabrics machine construction, engineering, chemical, food processing and woodworking St. Petersburg Peter the Great, window to the West deficient in resources machine tools, shipbuilding Slide44:  Mid Volga extensive energy resources petroleum producing areas in “Volga-Urals fields hydroelectricity good transportation along Volga with 60% of all freight transported by river automotive plant build at Tolyatti with Fiat Urals third largest industrial production center iron and steel industries copper smelting, zinc refining, aluminum production Yekaterinburg major rail center Slide45:  Siberia rich coal deposits in Kuznetsk Basin Novosibirsk, major rail junction on Trans-Siberian line great industrial potential but high transportation costs and high production costs location of industries with high power requirements because of good hydroelectric potential Baikal-Amur Mainline Railroad (BAM) development of Siberia could be facilitated by Japanese but political problems complicate relations Slide46:  Ukraine Industrial District principal heavy-manufacturing area good availability of coal, iron, ore, ferroalloys, heavy machinery construction gas fields to north and oil fields in Caucasus high productivity of agriculture food processing and agricultural equipment Kiev- capital with diversified industrial base Kharkov- important in production of heavy machinery Odessa- main port city Slide47:  Russian Industrial Regions Slide48:  Agriculture agriculture not as developed historically as industry production increases from 1950’s to 1980’s productivity of Soviet farms poor with one American farm worker producing 8 times more than his Soviet counterpart 22% of Soviet work force in agriculture vs 2% in US one Soviet farm worker feeds 8 Russians while one US farmer feeds 52 Americans Collectivization of agriculture in 20’s proved to be a disaster Slide49:  Problems of Collectives peasants thought to be a latent capital class wanted to control peasants forced peasants into collectives control of agricultural prices and wages at low levels feed industrial labor force cheaply mechanization possible millions of peasants (kulaks) killed livestock herds slaughtered rather than surrender them Types of farm organization collective farms (kolkhoz) state farms (sovkhoz) Slide50:  collective farms brought several villages together with centrally located machinery and private plots near houses state farms paid a set wage with bonuses for extra performance insufficient incentives to increase production state investment in fertilizers, machinery and technology inadequate private plots took up 4% of cultivated land but produced 48% of vegetables, 52% of meat, 67% of milk, and 84% of eggs. agriculture was Achilles heel of Soviet system

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