3474

Information about 3474

Published on January 2, 2008

Author: Pumbaa

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Mention oak trees and people may think of their lobed leaves, acorns, durable wood and long life. These majestic members of our hardwood forests are an extremely valuable asset, but high quality oaks are declining in numbers. Plant succession and past timber harvesting practices have favored regeneration of other tree species rather than oaks. This program describes how to increase the number of oaks and maintain fast tree growth when managing hardwood stands that have a mixture of tree species.:  Mention oak trees and people may think of their lobed leaves, acorns, durable wood and long life. These majestic members of our hardwood forests are an extremely valuable asset, but high quality oaks are declining in numbers. Plant succession and past timber harvesting practices have favored regeneration of other tree species rather than oaks. This program describes how to increase the number of oaks and maintain fast tree growth when managing hardwood stands that have a mixture of tree species. Management recommendations are based on experiences in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Iowa. But, woodland conditions can vary widely. Always contact a forester to inspect your woodland and provide management suggestions before implementing any woodland management practices.:  Management recommendations are based on experiences in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Iowa. But, woodland conditions can vary widely. Always contact a forester to inspect your woodland and provide management suggestions before implementing any woodland management practices. Oaks are useful for a wide variety of wood products. Tree value depends largely on the quality and size of a tree. Trees with large diameter, high quality logs may be suitable for flooring or for veneer used in wall paneling, doors and furniture.:  Oaks are useful for a wide variety of wood products. Tree value depends largely on the quality and size of a tree. Trees with large diameter, high quality logs may be suitable for flooring or for veneer used in wall paneling, doors and furniture. Trees that are sound but have knots, cracks or other defects, may be suitable for lumber, dimension stock or railroad ties.:  Trees that are sound but have knots, cracks or other defects, may be suitable for lumber, dimension stock or railroad ties. Recently, small diameter, but good quality oaks have been used to produce shiitake mushrooms.:  Recently, small diameter, but good quality oaks have been used to produce shiitake mushrooms. Poor quality trees, branches, and logging residue make excellent firewood.:  Poor quality trees, branches, and logging residue make excellent firewood. Oak woodlands also provide habitat and acorns--an extremely valuable food--for turkeys, white-tailed deer, squirrels, ruffed grouse and a host of other animals.:  Oak woodlands also provide habitat and acorns--an extremely valuable food--for turkeys, white-tailed deer, squirrels, ruffed grouse and a host of other animals. Oaks and other trees often grow on slopes too steep to farm. This woodland absorbs chemicals and silt that wash off agricultural fields, thus protecting water quality.:  Oaks and other trees often grow on slopes too steep to farm. This woodland absorbs chemicals and silt that wash off agricultural fields, thus protecting water quality. Forests, croplands and pastures create an attractive landscape appreciated by residents and visitors. Forest management is necessary to satisfy the many demands for wood, wildlife, water, and recreation.:  Forests, croplands and pastures create an attractive landscape appreciated by residents and visitors. Forest management is necessary to satisfy the many demands for wood, wildlife, water, and recreation. There are really six oak species in this area. The red oak group, characterized by pointed lobes on their leaves, includes northern red oak, black oak and northern pin oak.:  There are really six oak species in this area. The red oak group, characterized by pointed lobes on their leaves, includes northern red oak, black oak and northern pin oak. The white oak group, with rounded lobes on their leaves, includes bur oak, white oak and swamp white oak.:  The white oak group, with rounded lobes on their leaves, includes bur oak, white oak and swamp white oak. The natural ranges of all these species overlap but are not identical. Their site requirements also differ. Northern red oak and white oak prefer moist, fertile sites. Black oak and northern pin oak tolerate drier sites. Bur oak is the most drought tolerant. Swamp white oak prefers moist bottomland sites.:  The natural ranges of all these species overlap but are not identical. Their site requirements also differ. Northern red oak and white oak prefer moist, fertile sites. Black oak and northern pin oak tolerate drier sites. Bur oak is the most drought tolerant. Swamp white oak prefers moist bottomland sites. Oaks grow well in coves and on middle and lower slopes facing north or east. Timber growth rate and quality are generally best on sites with silt, loam or clay soil at least 3 feet deep, that is moderate- to well-drained. Tree growth and quality is poorest on sites with soil less than 20 inches deep or deep porous sands. Oaks also grow poorly on narrow ridges, upper slopes and steep slopes facing south and west. Oaks regenerate easily on poor sites, but are difficult to regenerate on good sites, because they must compete with many other tree species. Here are some points to consider when regenerating oaks.:  Oaks grow well in coves and on middle and lower slopes facing north or east. Timber growth rate and quality are generally best on sites with silt, loam or clay soil at least 3 feet deep, that is moderate- to well-drained. Tree growth and quality is poorest on sites with soil less than 20 inches deep or deep porous sands. Oaks also grow poorly on narrow ridges, upper slopes and steep slopes facing south and west. Oaks regenerate easily on poor sites, but are difficult to regenerate on good sites, because they must compete with many other tree species. Here are some points to consider when regenerating oaks. Oaks commonly reproduce from acorns. Northern red oaks produce good acorn crops at 2 to 5 year intervals. Acorn production varies widely from year to year. Total production may range from just a few thousand acorns per acre in a poor year to more than 250,000 per acre in a good year. But these numbers are deceiving.:  Oaks commonly reproduce from acorns. Northern red oaks produce good acorn crops at 2 to 5 year intervals. Acorn production varies widely from year to year. Total production may range from just a few thousand acorns per acre in a poor year to more than 250,000 per acre in a good year. But these numbers are deceiving. Acorn weevils may destroy up to one-half of the acorns in a good seed year and nearly all in a poor seed year. Wildlife also eat large quantities of acorns. Seedling numbers, therefore, are high only following years of good seed production, when there are excess acorns not damaged by weevils or consumed by wildlife.:  Acorn weevils may destroy up to one-half of the acorns in a good seed year and nearly all in a poor seed year. Wildlife also eat large quantities of acorns. Seedling numbers, therefore, are high only following years of good seed production, when there are excess acorns not damaged by weevils or consumed by wildlife. The best seed producing trees are likely to have large crowns and be at least 14 inches in trunk diameter.:  The best seed producing trees are likely to have large crowns and be at least 14 inches in trunk diameter. Acorns are usually disseminated by squirrels, blue jays and gravity.:  Acorns are usually disseminated by squirrels, blue jays and gravity. Best germination and survival occurs in mineral soil under a light covering of leaves, just the way squirrels plant them. Acorns exposed on top of the leaf litter will dry out or be eaten by mammals and birds.:  Best germination and survival occurs in mineral soil under a light covering of leaves, just the way squirrels plant them. Acorns exposed on top of the leaf litter will dry out or be eaten by mammals and birds. Stump sprouts are also a source of oak reproduction following a harvest. Stump sprouts grow fast because they begin life with a large root system. Sprouts arising at or below ground level are not likely to decay.:  Stump sprouts are also a source of oak reproduction following a harvest. Stump sprouts grow fast because they begin life with a large root system. Sprouts arising at or below ground level are not likely to decay. Stump sprouts that originate high on the stump are subject to breakage and to decay introduced from the parent stump or from dead companion sprouts.:  Stump sprouts that originate high on the stump are subject to breakage and to decay introduced from the parent stump or from dead companion sprouts. Small diameter stumps are more likely to sprout than large diameter stumps. Sprouting is minimal for trees larger than 17 inches diameter. Northern red oaks sprout more frequently than white oaks.:  Small diameter stumps are more likely to sprout than large diameter stumps. Sprouting is minimal for trees larger than 17 inches diameter. Northern red oaks sprout more frequently than white oaks. Northern red oak and white oak are intermediate in shade tolerance. They need less sunlight than aspen, black walnut and paper birch, but they require more sunlight than ash, basswood, elm, hickory, maple and most other species.:  Northern red oak and white oak are intermediate in shade tolerance. They need less sunlight than aspen, black walnut and paper birch, but they require more sunlight than ash, basswood, elm, hickory, maple and most other species. To give oak seedlings adequate sunlight, group selection, clearcutting or shelterwood harvests are recommended. These harvesting systems will regenerate a mixture of tree species with oaks as an important component. In a large managed forest, only about 1 to 2 percent of the woodland is regenerated each year.:  To give oak seedlings adequate sunlight, group selection, clearcutting or shelterwood harvests are recommended. These harvesting systems will regenerate a mixture of tree species with oaks as an important component. In a large managed forest, only about 1 to 2 percent of the woodland is regenerated each year. Harvesting selected trees scattered throughout the woodland will regenerate shade tolerant species, but not oaks. Selection harvests all too often remove the largest and highest quality trees. The poor quality trees left behind occupy valuable growing space and become the seed source for future generations. This high-grading does not develop quality hardwood timber.:  Harvesting selected trees scattered throughout the woodland will regenerate shade tolerant species, but not oaks. Selection harvests all too often remove the largest and highest quality trees. The poor quality trees left behind occupy valuable growing space and become the seed source for future generations. This high-grading does not develop quality hardwood timber. Oaks may live for several hundred years. But, managed stands on moderate to good sites can produce harvestable trees, 18 to 24 inches in trunk diameter, in 60 to 90 years.:  Oaks may live for several hundred years. But, managed stands on moderate to good sites can produce harvestable trees, 18 to 24 inches in trunk diameter, in 60 to 90 years. A stand also may be ready for harvest and regeneration if it is greatly understocked or most trees are of poor quality or undesirable species.:  A stand also may be ready for harvest and regeneration if it is greatly understocked or most trees are of poor quality or undesirable species. The most reliable method for insuring oak regeneration is to develop plenty of advance regeneration. Before harvesting, a forester should count the tree seedlings and potential stump sprouts in sample plots to determine if regeneration is adequate.:  The most reliable method for insuring oak regeneration is to develop plenty of advance regeneration. Before harvesting, a forester should count the tree seedlings and potential stump sprouts in sample plots to determine if regeneration is adequate. The number of oak seedlings needed to successfully stock the next stand depends on seedling size prior to the harvest and the percentage of oaks desired in the next stand. For example, if a pure oak stand were desired and all the oak seedlings were 1 foot tall, you would need 11,000 per acre to insure survival of a sufficient number to fully stock a new stand. If they were all 8 feet tall, you would need just 275 per acre. The larger the seedlings, the more likely they are to survive and outgrow competing vegetation. Fewer oak seedlings are needed if other tree species are present and desirable as growing stock.:  The number of oak seedlings needed to successfully stock the next stand depends on seedling size prior to the harvest and the percentage of oaks desired in the next stand. For example, if a pure oak stand were desired and all the oak seedlings were 1 foot tall, you would need 11,000 per acre to insure survival of a sufficient number to fully stock a new stand. If they were all 8 feet tall, you would need just 275 per acre. The larger the seedlings, the more likely they are to survive and outgrow competing vegetation. Fewer oak seedlings are needed if other tree species are present and desirable as growing stock. Oak stands are most likely to build up satisfactory advance regeneration on dry sites because oaks are more drought hardy than most other tree and shrub species. Dry sites will not support fast growing, high quality oaks, but they can produce firewood and do have wildlife value.:  Oak stands are most likely to build up satisfactory advance regeneration on dry sites because oaks are more drought hardy than most other tree and shrub species. Dry sites will not support fast growing, high quality oaks, but they can produce firewood and do have wildlife value. Oaks are more difficult to regenerate on sites that are moist, but well-drained and have good fertility. Many tree species grow well on these sites and provide too much competition for oak seedlings to survive. When such stands are harvested, some oaks may reproduce from stump sprouts, but there will be few oak seedlings.:  Oaks are more difficult to regenerate on sites that are moist, but well-drained and have good fertility. Many tree species grow well on these sites and provide too much competition for oak seedlings to survive. When such stands are harvested, some oaks may reproduce from stump sprouts, but there will be few oak seedlings. Stands that are well-stocked with advance oak seedlings and that have little competition from undesirable trees, shrubs or herbaceous vegetation may be clearcut. A clearcut should be at least one-half acre and preferably at least two acres in size. Otherwise shade from the surrounding timber will suppress oak seedling growth. For regeneration purposes there is no maximum size for clearcuts. Some landowners, however, limit clearcut size for scenic or wildlife purposes.:  Stands that are well-stocked with advance oak seedlings and that have little competition from undesirable trees, shrubs or herbaceous vegetation may be clearcut. A clearcut should be at least one-half acre and preferably at least two acres in size. Otherwise shade from the surrounding timber will suppress oak seedling growth. For regeneration purposes there is no maximum size for clearcuts. Some landowners, however, limit clearcut size for scenic or wildlife purposes. If advance oak regeneration is not adequate, a forester should analyze why. If there is a seed source present, but few seedlings, the problem often is too much shade. Acorns will germinate, but in shade, the oak seedlings will survive for only a few years. Large quantities of oak seedlings will not accumulate. Shade could be from a dense overstory of large trees.:  If advance oak regeneration is not adequate, a forester should analyze why. If there is a seed source present, but few seedlings, the problem often is too much shade. Acorns will germinate, but in shade, the oak seedlings will survive for only a few years. Large quantities of oak seedlings will not accumulate. Shade could be from a dense overstory of large trees. Shade is also created by a dense understory of shade tolerant hardwood trees or shrubs such as sugar maple, ironwood and prickly ash.:  Shade is also created by a dense understory of shade tolerant hardwood trees or shrubs such as sugar maple, ironwood and prickly ash. Herbaceous vegetation, especially ferns and nettles, also creates dense shade and may produce toxins that kill oak seedlings. If oak seedlings are to survive longer and accumulate in the understory, it will be necessary to remove part of this shade.:  Herbaceous vegetation, especially ferns and nettles, also creates dense shade and may produce toxins that kill oak seedlings. If oak seedlings are to survive longer and accumulate in the understory, it will be necessary to remove part of this shade. Your first consideration should be to remove the understory of shade tolerant hardwood trees or shrubs. Undesirable small trees and shrubs may be killed by felling, girdling, basal spraying a herbicide, applying herbicide to foliage, or very careful bulldozing. A forester can recommend appropriate methods for your woodland.:  Your first consideration should be to remove the understory of shade tolerant hardwood trees or shrubs. Undesirable small trees and shrubs may be killed by felling, girdling, basal spraying a herbicide, applying herbicide to foliage, or very careful bulldozing. A forester can recommend appropriate methods for your woodland. Ferns may be killed by a herbicide application in late summer. Contact a forester for herbicide recommendations, and always follow label directions.:  Ferns may be killed by a herbicide application in late summer. Contact a forester for herbicide recommendations, and always follow label directions. Understory control is most important, but if dense shade is produced by a high canopy, then you should also remove approximately 20 to 40% of this canopy, leaving 60 to 80% crown cover. This shelterwood canopy provides seed, intermittent sunlight needed by small seedlings, and enough shade to discourage growth of competing vegetation.:  Understory control is most important, but if dense shade is produced by a high canopy, then you should also remove approximately 20 to 40% of this canopy, leaving 60 to 80% crown cover. This shelterwood canopy provides seed, intermittent sunlight needed by small seedlings, and enough shade to discourage growth of competing vegetation. Leave a seed source of species and individual trees which you want to provide seed for the next generation. For example, leave oaks and other desirable species, such as ash and black walnut with large, well-formed crowns, tall straight stems, and no signs of severe damage.:  Leave a seed source of species and individual trees which you want to provide seed for the next generation. For example, leave oaks and other desirable species, such as ash and black walnut with large, well-formed crowns, tall straight stems, and no signs of severe damage. Remove trees which are undesirable species or that have poorly formed stems, small crowns, or substantial damage. Logging should be done carefully to avoid damaging residual timber which will be harvested later.:  Remove trees which are undesirable species or that have poorly formed stems, small crowns, or substantial damage. Logging should be done carefully to avoid damaging residual timber which will be harvested later. Unmerchantable trees may be felled or girdled. To prevent undesirable tree species from producing stump sprouts or root suckers, treat cut surfaces with an approved herbicide.:  Unmerchantable trees may be felled or girdled. To prevent undesirable tree species from producing stump sprouts or root suckers, treat cut surfaces with an approved herbicide. Following the shelterwood harvest and understory removal, you may need to wait several years until you have a satisfactory number of seedlings before clearcutting the stand. During that time, a forester should inspect the stand annually to determine the adequacy of oak regeneration and to monitor re-growth of undesirable trees, shrubs and ferns. Additional understory control may be needed if the oaks require more than five years to regenerate. Clearcutting must follow the shelterwood harvest to provide full sunlight that oak seedlings need to outgrow shade tolerant species.:  Following the shelterwood harvest and understory removal, you may need to wait several years until you have a satisfactory number of seedlings before clearcutting the stand. During that time, a forester should inspect the stand annually to determine the adequacy of oak regeneration and to monitor re-growth of undesirable trees, shrubs and ferns. Additional understory control may be needed if the oaks require more than five years to regenerate. Clearcutting must follow the shelterwood harvest to provide full sunlight that oak seedlings need to outgrow shade tolerant species. There are several potential problems with a shelterwood harvest. There may not be a sufficient timber volume to justify two commercial harvests spread several years apart. The first harvest may damage residual trees--lowering their value. And understory vegetation treated at the time of the first harvest may quickly re-grow, thus suppressing oak regeneration.:  There are several potential problems with a shelterwood harvest. There may not be a sufficient timber volume to justify two commercial harvests spread several years apart. The first harvest may damage residual trees--lowering their value. And understory vegetation treated at the time of the first harvest may quickly re-grow, thus suppressing oak regeneration. An alternative to the shelterwood harvest that may avoid those problems is to delay harvesting until a year when there is a very good acorn crop. This crop can be assessed in mid-summer.:  An alternative to the shelterwood harvest that may avoid those problems is to delay harvesting until a year when there is a very good acorn crop. This crop can be assessed in mid-summer. If the stand has an abundance of undesirable trees or shrubs in the understory that are likely to re-sprout after cutting, you may want to kill them with a herbicide treatment in late summer before harvesting. Usually this competition can be knocked down or uprooted by logging equipment during the harvest.:  If the stand has an abundance of undesirable trees or shrubs in the understory that are likely to re-sprout after cutting, you may want to kill them with a herbicide treatment in late summer before harvesting. Usually this competition can be knocked down or uprooted by logging equipment during the harvest. Then clearcut the stand soon after the acorns drop in the fall. Harvesting should occur before the ground freezes and in a manner that scarifies the site, thus covering the acorns with soil and leaves. Good scarification is achieved by dragging whole trees over the ground, by bulldozing the site with a toothed blade that runs on the surface, or by disking. This regeneration method has worked in a few trials but needs further testing before results can be predicted more accurately.:  Then clearcut the stand soon after the acorns drop in the fall. Harvesting should occur before the ground freezes and in a manner that scarifies the site, thus covering the acorns with soil and leaves. Good scarification is achieved by dragging whole trees over the ground, by bulldozing the site with a toothed blade that runs on the surface, or by disking. This regeneration method has worked in a few trials but needs further testing before results can be predicted more accurately. The risk in clearcutting without advance regeneration is that acorns, even after a good seed year, may fail to germinate in satisfactory numbers, or competing trees and shrubs may outgrow oak seedlings. Then the site may revert to less desirable species.:  The risk in clearcutting without advance regeneration is that acorns, even after a good seed year, may fail to germinate in satisfactory numbers, or competing trees and shrubs may outgrow oak seedlings. Then the site may revert to less desirable species. Because of the risk and possible delay involved when relying on natural regeneration, you may want to consider planting seedlings of desirable species such as oak, ash and walnut. Planting enables you to supplement natural regeneration, to plant genetically superior stock when it is available, and to plant the species you want. Seedlings may be planted before or immediately following a clearcut, group selection or shelterwood harvest. However, planting under a shelterwood is preferred because it gives planted trees time to become well established before they are exposed to the surge of competition that develops after clearcutting.:  Because of the risk and possible delay involved when relying on natural regeneration, you may want to consider planting seedlings of desirable species such as oak, ash and walnut. Planting enables you to supplement natural regeneration, to plant genetically superior stock when it is available, and to plant the species you want. Seedlings may be planted before or immediately following a clearcut, group selection or shelterwood harvest. However, planting under a shelterwood is preferred because it gives planted trees time to become well established before they are exposed to the surge of competition that develops after clearcutting. In any case, before planting you may need to control undesirable trees and shrubs by cutting, bulldozing, or herbicide treatment.:  In any case, before planting you may need to control undesirable trees and shrubs by cutting, bulldozing, or herbicide treatment. The most desirable oak seedlings have a fibrous root system and a stem at least 3/8 inch in diameter 1 inch above the root collar. Discard smaller diameter seedlings because they are less likely to survive and grow rapidly. Planting large seedlings will reduce the total number needed to insure a successful planting. Choose seedlings from a seed source known to thrive in your area and use seedlings from genetically superior stock when available.:  The most desirable oak seedlings have a fibrous root system and a stem at least 3/8 inch in diameter 1 inch above the root collar. Discard smaller diameter seedlings because they are less likely to survive and grow rapidly. Planting large seedlings will reduce the total number needed to insure a successful planting. Choose seedlings from a seed source known to thrive in your area and use seedlings from genetically superior stock when available. The number of seedlings to be planted depends on their size and quality, as well as the amount and size of advance regeneration and potential stump sprouts in the stand. You may need to plant about 200 oak seedlings per acre to supplement natural regeneration, and possibly 600 or more per acre where there are no seedlings present.:  The number of seedlings to be planted depends on their size and quality, as well as the amount and size of advance regeneration and potential stump sprouts in the stand. You may need to plant about 200 oak seedlings per acre to supplement natural regeneration, and possibly 600 or more per acre where there are no seedlings present. Just before planting, clip the tops and roots of the seedlings, leaving both about 8 inches long. Clipped seedlings develop a more fibrous root system, are easier to handle, and may grow faster than unclipped seedlings.:  Just before planting, clip the tops and roots of the seedlings, leaving both about 8 inches long. Clipped seedlings develop a more fibrous root system, are easier to handle, and may grow faster than unclipped seedlings. Plant oak seedlings in moist soil early in the spring soon after the frost leaves the ground. Plant these seedlings in the soil deep enough to bury the root collar. Pack the soil firmly to eliminate air pockets.:  Plant oak seedlings in moist soil early in the spring soon after the frost leaves the ground. Plant these seedlings in the soil deep enough to bury the root collar. Pack the soil firmly to eliminate air pockets. Control weeds around the planted oak seedlings for one to two years. Herbicides are usually effective and economical for weed control.:  Control weeds around the planted oak seedlings for one to two years. Herbicides are usually effective and economical for weed control. After the regeneration stage, well-stocked oak stands should be thinned at about 10-year intervals in order to concentrate growth on the best trees. If less valuable species have outgrown the oaks, thinnings should start as soon as 10 years after regenerating the new stand. You should select potential crop trees on a spacing of about 15 to 20 feet. Choose crop trees that are desirable species with crowns in or above the main canopy, straight stems, and no signs of severe damage.:  After the regeneration stage, well-stocked oak stands should be thinned at about 10-year intervals in order to concentrate growth on the best trees. If less valuable species have outgrown the oaks, thinnings should start as soon as 10 years after regenerating the new stand. You should select potential crop trees on a spacing of about 15 to 20 feet. Choose crop trees that are desirable species with crowns in or above the main canopy, straight stems, and no signs of severe damage. Remove less desirable species and trees that have poor form or are damaged. Do not eliminate all undesirable stems, only those touching the crowns of crop trees. Small understory trees are not significant competitors. Reduce stump sprout clumps to one or two stems when the sprouts are still less than three inches in diameter. Leave sprouts that are vigorous, straight and attached low on the stump. A forester can mark the trees to be removed in a thinning.:  Remove less desirable species and trees that have poor form or are damaged. Do not eliminate all undesirable stems, only those touching the crowns of crop trees. Small understory trees are not significant competitors. Reduce stump sprout clumps to one or two stems when the sprouts are still less than three inches in diameter. Leave sprouts that are vigorous, straight and attached low on the stump. A forester can mark the trees to be removed in a thinning. Before thinning, a forester will usually take measurements in the woodland to determine the stocking, size and quality of trees in the stand. By referring to specially designed charts, the forester can determine the ideal stocking for your woodland to encourage fast growth. If too many trees are cut during a thinning, future wood growth and tree quality will be reduced. If too few trees are cut, the final harvest may be delayed many years or crop trees will be smaller than desired when they are harvested.:  Before thinning, a forester will usually take measurements in the woodland to determine the stocking, size and quality of trees in the stand. By referring to specially designed charts, the forester can determine the ideal stocking for your woodland to encourage fast growth. If too many trees are cut during a thinning, future wood growth and tree quality will be reduced. If too few trees are cut, the final harvest may be delayed many years or crop trees will be smaller than desired when they are harvested. If you plan to regenerate oaks when a mixed hardwood stand is harvested, then remember these alternatives. If advance oak regeneration is adequate, the stand may be harvested by clearcutting or group selection. If regeneration is not adequate you have three options. First, you can conduct a shelterwood harvest. Begin by eliminating understory competition, remove undesirable seed producers, reduce crown cover by means of the shelterwood harvest, then clearcut when advance regeneration is adequate. A second option is to wait for a good acorn crop, then immediately after the acorns drop, harvest by clearcutting or group selection and scarify the site. The third option is to plant oak seedlings in conjunction with a shelterwood harvest, clearcut or group selection.:  If you plan to regenerate oaks when a mixed hardwood stand is harvested, then remember these alternatives. If advance oak regeneration is adequate, the stand may be harvested by clearcutting or group selection. If regeneration is not adequate you have three options. First, you can conduct a shelterwood harvest. Begin by eliminating understory competition, remove undesirable seed producers, reduce crown cover by means of the shelterwood harvest, then clearcut when advance regeneration is adequate. A second option is to wait for a good acorn crop, then immediately after the acorns drop, harvest by clearcutting or group selection and scarify the site. The third option is to plant oak seedlings in conjunction with a shelterwood harvest, clearcut or group selection. Your woodland should be inspected periodically, preferably during the growing season, to look for damage caused by storms, insects or diseases.:  Your woodland should be inspected periodically, preferably during the growing season, to look for damage caused by storms, insects or diseases. Keep fire out of woodlands. Fire may kill small trees or damage the bark on large trees and permit the wood to be invaded by decay organisms.:  Keep fire out of woodlands. Fire may kill small trees or damage the bark on large trees and permit the wood to be invaded by decay organisms. Heartwood decay is one of the most serious diseases. Although trees are seldom killed, decay often renders the entire stem unusable for timber products. Decay fungi usually enter the stem through wounds or through dead branch stubs and stump sprouts. To prevent decay, keep fire out of woodlands, prevent wounding trees during thinnings, and thin stump sprouts when they are less than three inches in diameter.:  Heartwood decay is one of the most serious diseases. Although trees are seldom killed, decay often renders the entire stem unusable for timber products. Decay fungi usually enter the stem through wounds or through dead branch stubs and stump sprouts. To prevent decay, keep fire out of woodlands, prevent wounding trees during thinnings, and thin stump sprouts when they are less than three inches in diameter. Oak wilt kills both red and white oaks. It spreads mainly through root grafts between adjoining oak trees, but insects may also spread spores from infected trees to fresh wounds on other trees. Oaks usually die in pockets in the woodland. Avoid pruning oaks or wounding their bark from April through July when spores are being produced. If an oak wilt infection is present, harvest infected trees within four weeks of wilting, and harvest non-infected oaks for a distance of 100 feet beyond the infected trees. In high value stands, cutting root grafts with a vibratory plow or by chemical means may stop the disease from spreading.:  Oak wilt kills both red and white oaks. It spreads mainly through root grafts between adjoining oak trees, but insects may also spread spores from infected trees to fresh wounds on other trees. Oaks usually die in pockets in the woodland. Avoid pruning oaks or wounding their bark from April through July when spores are being produced. If an oak wilt infection is present, harvest infected trees within four weeks of wilting, and harvest non-infected oaks for a distance of 100 feet beyond the infected trees. In high value stands, cutting root grafts with a vibratory plow or by chemical means may stop the disease from spreading. Insects also attack oaks. Various wood boring insects may severely damage and degrade wood. Several leaf feeding insects may defoliate oaks, reducing their growth, encouraging root rot, and occasionally killing stands of trees. A single defoliation is usually not serious, but repeated defoliations can cause mortality.:  Insects also attack oaks. Various wood boring insects may severely damage and degrade wood. Several leaf feeding insects may defoliate oaks, reducing their growth, encouraging root rot, and occasionally killing stands of trees. A single defoliation is usually not serious, but repeated defoliations can cause mortality. To minimize damage by insects and subsequent disease problems, maintain stocking levels that permit rapid tree growth, and avoid damaging trees during thinnings. Encourage mixed species stands because they resist pest damage better than single species stands. Salvage dying or damaged trees before their wood is unfit to use.:  To minimize damage by insects and subsequent disease problems, maintain stocking levels that permit rapid tree growth, and avoid damaging trees during thinnings. Encourage mixed species stands because they resist pest damage better than single species stands. Salvage dying or damaged trees before their wood is unfit to use. Livestock generally should be fenced out of woodlands. Cattle, pigs, horses, goats and other domestic livestock will eat seedlings, trample and disfigure small trees, rub the bark off trees, and compact the soil.:  Livestock generally should be fenced out of woodlands. Cattle, pigs, horses, goats and other domestic livestock will eat seedlings, trample and disfigure small trees, rub the bark off trees, and compact the soil. Woodland management practices we have discussed are aimed primarily at regenerating and growing timber for wood products. Some modifications will benefit certain wildlife species. Wildlife diversity is fostered by creating a mix of stand ages since some wildlife require young dense stands and other wildlife need old growth forests.:  Woodland management practices we have discussed are aimed primarily at regenerating and growing timber for wood products. Some modifications will benefit certain wildlife species. Wildlife diversity is fostered by creating a mix of stand ages since some wildlife require young dense stands and other wildlife need old growth forests. Songbird diversity is encouraged by maintaining several canopy layers within a stand. Periodic thinning of the main canopy will permit sunlight to penetrate and stimulate the understory.:  Songbird diversity is encouraged by maintaining several canopy layers within a stand. Periodic thinning of the main canopy will permit sunlight to penetrate and stimulate the understory. Acorns are an important food for squirrels, white-tailed deer, turkeys, ruffed grouse, and other wildlife. Normal timber management practices aimed at maintaining well-stocked stands that are thinned at regular intervals will produce oaks with moderately large, healthy crowns needed for acorn production. Oaks start to bear acorns at about age 25 and become good producers at age To provide food for wildlife, maintain 40 to 60 percent of the woodland in stands of acorn-bearing age.:  Acorns are an important food for squirrels, white-tailed deer, turkeys, ruffed grouse, and other wildlife. Normal timber management practices aimed at maintaining well-stocked stands that are thinned at regular intervals will produce oaks with moderately large, healthy crowns needed for acorn production. Oaks start to bear acorns at about age 25 and become good producers at age To provide food for wildlife, maintain 40 to 60 percent of the woodland in stands of acorn-bearing age. During thinning operations, leave den trees to provide homes for birds, squirrels, raccoons and other cavity dwellers. Leaving den trees with small crowns will not significantly reduce timber production.:  During thinning operations, leave den trees to provide homes for birds, squirrels, raccoons and other cavity dwellers. Leaving den trees with small crowns will not significantly reduce timber production. During thinnings or clearcuts, instead of felling unmerchantable trees, kill the trees standing in order to provide snags for birds that feed on insects beneath the bark or that hollow out the wood for nesting holes. Snags are useful to the largest variety of wildlife when they are at least eight inches in diameter.:  During thinnings or clearcuts, instead of felling unmerchantable trees, kill the trees standing in order to provide snags for birds that feed on insects beneath the bark or that hollow out the wood for nesting holes. Snags are useful to the largest variety of wildlife when they are at least eight inches in diameter. The clearcut and shelterwood methods have been recommended for releasing oak seedlings, but such cuttings may be objectionable for aesthetic reasons. The appearance of newly regenerated stands can be improved by cutting stumps low, lopping tree tops and felling all trees in the harvest area. But remember, dead standing trees are useful to wildlife.:  The clearcut and shelterwood methods have been recommended for releasing oak seedlings, but such cuttings may be objectionable for aesthetic reasons. The appearance of newly regenerated stands can be improved by cutting stumps low, lopping tree tops and felling all trees in the harvest area. But remember, dead standing trees are useful to wildlife. Break up straight woodland edges by creating irregular shaped edges or by thinning into the adjacent stand.:  Break up straight woodland edges by creating irregular shaped edges or by thinning into the adjacent stand. Design the clearcut to blend into the topography.:  Design the clearcut to blend into the topography. Large clearcuts should be irregular in shape so that only small portions are visible from one observation point.:  Large clearcuts should be irregular in shape so that only small portions are visible from one observation point. Seed temporary logging roads and landings to clover and grass to reduce soil erosion and provide forage for wildlife.:  Seed temporary logging roads and landings to clover and grass to reduce soil erosion and provide forage for wildlife. Before implementing any woodland management practice, contact a forester to inspect your land and provide specific advice tailored to your situation. You might start by contacting your local county extension service. Their agents have access to forestry specialists that may be able to answer specific questions or provide publications to help you analyze your situation. State forestry agencies have foresters that will inspect your woodland, explain management options and help you plan specific activities. Consulting foresters are available to help you with all phases of woodland management including timber marketing, reforestation and damage appraisal. Some large forest products firms also have foresters that will assist you in planning timber harvesting and reforestation.:  Before implementing any woodland management practice, contact a forester to inspect your land and provide specific advice tailored to your situation. You might start by contacting your local county extension service. Their agents have access to forestry specialists that may be able to answer specific questions or provide publications to help you analyze your situation. State forestry agencies have foresters that will inspect your woodland, explain management options and help you plan specific activities. Consulting foresters are available to help you with all phases of woodland management including timber marketing, reforestation and damage appraisal. Some large forest products firms also have foresters that will assist you in planning timber harvesting and reforestation. Oak woodlands are one of the Midwest's greatest natural resources for wood, wildlife, water and recreation. But they demand careful management to perpetuate the species and quality of trees in demand. Plan now to invite a forester to your woodland and investigate how to manage it for your objectives.:  Oak woodlands are one of the Midwest's greatest natural resources for wood, wildlife, water and recreation. But they demand careful management to perpetuate the species and quality of trees in demand. Plan now to invite a forester to your woodland and investigate how to manage it for your objectives.

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