434 L18 Marine Pollution 07

Information about 434 L18 Marine Pollution 07

Published on January 15, 2008

Author: Donato

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Marine Pollution:  Marine Pollution Human Effects on the Marine Environment:  Human Effects on the Marine Environment Alteration of bottom by dredging; shoreline alteration and filling Introduction of toxic substances Eutrophication through nutrient enrichment Thermal pollution from power plants Invasive or nonindigenous species Important Marine Legislative Acts Characteristics of Pollution:  Characteristics of Pollution Acute vs. Chronic Pollution:  Acute vs. Chronic Pollution Acute (short term) – ex. is an oil spill, the effects of which diminish with time Chronic (long term) – ex. is nutrient input Pollution – Point and Non-Point:  Pollution – Point and Non-Point Point source – from a single sewer pipe or factory waste-water outfall Non-point source – effects cannot be attributed to any single spot and thus harder to control; exs. Runoff of toxic substances or fertilizer after a rain; Using Organisms to Monitor Pollution:  Using Organisms to Monitor Pollution Determining species diversity – diversity usually declines in strongly polluted habitats Bioassay species; exposure of certain species to varying concentrations of toxic materials; crabs and mussels often used Degree of evolved resistance Biodegradeable vs. Inert Toxic Substances:  Biodegradeable vs. Inert Toxic Substances Inert toxic substances biomagnify up the food chain whereas biodegradeable materials do not; Substances that biomagnify heavy metals - cadmium, mercury and lead Pesticides made of chlorinated hydrocarbons – kepone, DDT, dieldrin, chlordane, dioxin PCB’s - used as lubricants Slide8:  Biomagnification of Inert Materials Important Toxic Substances:  Important Toxic Substances Sources- mines, sewage, insecticides, fungicides and industry Oil Mercury (methylmercury) – see the story in the text on “Minamata disease” Cadmium – from electroplating and battery manufacturing plants Lead Chlorinated hydrocarbons PCB’s Oil Pollution - Sources:  Oil Pollution - Sources Leaks from marine terminals and in harbors Leaks from offshore drilling Leaks from breakup of oil tankers and barges Washout of oil into storm drains Sources of Oil Pollution:  Sources of Oil Pollution Slide12:  Some Major Oil Spill Catastrophies Slide13:  The Components and Effects of Oil Minamata Disease – see lecture text:  Minamata Disease – see lecture text Potential Results of Pollution:  Potential Results of Pollution A reduction in biodiversity Stress on populations that are already threatened or endangered Slide16:  Endangered or Threatened Marine Species Slide17:  Radioactive Wastes Slide18:  Waste Radionucleotides - Deep-Sea Disposal Sites Slide19:  Nutrient Input and Eutrophication Slide20:  Eutrophication Leads to Dead Zones Slide21:  Human Activity and Dead Zones Nutrient Enrichment Leads To …:  Nutrient Enrichment Leads To … Algal blooms which can lead to … High antiherbivory toxin production such as red tides (Dinoflagllates) which effect shellfish and vertebrates Populations of Pfisteria Slide23:  Green Brown Yellow Too! Dinoflagellates cause Slide26:  24 recognizable life stages! Did these protists evolve in 1997? Opportunistic Highly adaptable Cysts Free-swimming Parasitic to fish Toxins Slide27:  Dinoflagellates “Toxic Tides” Are these “new” species of protists? Are they opportunistic protists? Slide28:  What is common among algal blooms? Slide29:  Dinoflagellates “Toxic Tides” What environmental stimuli promote their growth? Slide30:  Thermal Pollution Invasive Species:  Invasive Species Sources of invasive species Ship ballast Aquaculture Academia and public aquaria Pet and aquarium stores Recreational boating and fishing Special activities – transporting dry docks, oil rigs and barges Invasive Species in Coastal Regions – Questions Asked:  Invasive Species in Coastal Regions – Questions Asked Questions related to Species Richness What species are in our estuaries? How many are non-native in each estuary? How is species composition changing over time? Which regions have the highest rate of new invasions? Which taxa have the highest proportion of non-native to native species? Questions Cont’d. :  Questions Cont’d. Questions on Impact Impacts on ecosystem productivity, biodiversity, community structure, and ecologically sensitive habitats? Which non-native species are a particular threat to native communities? How does human-mediated habitat disturbance and hydrological alteration modify the impact of non-native species? Factors That Mediate Invasion Success :  Factors That Mediate Invasion Success How is propagule pressure related to invasion success? Which vectors are responsible for the most invasions, or those of the most high-impact invaders? Are different taxa more likely to be introduced by different vectors? ????????????????? Invaders – Intrinsic Traits:  Invaders – Intrinsic Traits How does the live history stage or genetics of a species affect its invasive abilities? How does the ecological role of a species affect the rate and pattern of its spread? Are populations of selected introductions genetically isolated from other populations? Marine Legislation:  Marine Legislation Six Important Acts Important Legislation:  Important Legislation National Marine Sanctuaries Act - (1972) (NMSA) Fisheries Management and Conservation Act (1976) Clean Water Act – (1977) Endangered Species Act Estuaries and Clean Water Act (2000) The Oceans Act (2000) National Marine Sanctuaries Act of 1972:  National Marine Sanctuaries Act of 1972 Authorizes the Sec. of Commerce to designate and manage areas of the marine environment with nationally significant aesthetic, ecological, historical or recreational values as National Marine Sanctuaries . The primary objective is to protect marine resources while facilitating “compatible” public and private uses of those resources. Fisheries Management and Conservation Act - 1976:  Fisheries Management and Conservation Act - 1976 The primary law dealing with fisheries resources and fishing activities in federal waters (extends from edge of State waters out to the 200 mile limit). Primary goals include conservation and management of fisheries resources, development of U./S. domestic fisheries and phasing out foreign fishing activities within the 200 mile conservation zone adjacent to the U.S. coastline. Clean Water Act of 1977:  Clean Water Act of 1977 Unlawful to discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters unless a permit (NPDES) is obtained EPA has authority to set effluent standards Also unlawful to discharge dredged or fill materials into wetlands without a permit Endangered Species Act:  Endangered Species Act Provides for the conservation of threatened and endangered plants and animals and the habitats in which they are found. The law prohibits any action, administrative or real, that results in a “taking” of a listed species, or adversely affects habitat. Estuaries and Clean Waters Act of 2000:  Estuaries and Clean Waters Act of 2000 Encourages the restoration of estuary habitat through more efficient project financing and enhanced coordination of Fed. And non-Fed. restoration programs Establishes a Estuary Habitat Restoration Council to develop a comprehensive approach Oceans Act of 2000:  Oceans Act of 2000 Establishes a commission to make recs. for coordinated and comprehensive national ocean policy. Issues will include coastal hazards, stewardship, marine pollution prevention, enhancing marine-related commerce and transportation, research and education and the use of technology to address coastal issues. FINIS:  FINIS

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