Published on December 11, 2007
Three Cuban Revolutionary Leaders:: Three Cuban Revolutionary Leaders: Fulgencia Batista, Jose Marti, Fidel Castro and the Revolution A Senior Capstone By Mary C. Hodo Totalitarian Regimes: Totalitarian Regimes Attempt to create and establish a utopian society Thought by some to be an extreme form of authoritarianism “Radical” ideas about new ways of politics Most frequent example- Communist regimes Totalitarian Regimes: Totalitarian Regimes Totalitarian regimes are more brutal than authoritarians- more people die Create a “mass terror”- genocides of entire people, anyone they consider to be a threat Seek to gain total control- politically, socially and economically Authoritarian Regimes: Authoritarian Regimes Are much more common today then totalitarian regimes No utopian ideas or goals Governed by a single ruler or an “elite” group Authoritarian Regimes: Authoritarian Regimes Rulers tell the people that they must obey based on “moral or sacred” grounds, but Do not hesitate to use direct brutal force when faced with any kind of rebellion of opposition, however Common in Latin America- ruling committees- President (general), other generals. Background and Lead-in Pt 1: Background and Lead-in Pt 1 Carlos Prio President before Fulgencia Batista Batista- President from 1940-1944 Cuba’s Constitution –no consecutive terms Batista took over from Prio in 1952- “Chief of State”, not President Batista- Prio was planning revolt- he was allowed to leave the country by Batista Background and Lead in Pt 2: Background and Lead in Pt 2 Batista- (1933-1940) could make or break a President, controlled Cuba, seemed to care for people 1952- formed own party, knew he couldn’t win, so seized the government Cancelled the Presidential elections and suspended Congress Banned strikes and protests Batista- 1933-1944: Batista- 1933-1944 1933-1940- and 1940-1944- seemed to care more for the people, advocated for things like education and social welfare and reform Military man (General) of strong character, good political mind During these years, people were free to voice their opinions Batista- 1933-1944: Batista- 1933-1944 Good reputation with U.S.- Batista compliant with Good Neighbor policy Accepted monetary aid from the U.S. Were at least 166 American businesses Batista- 1952-1959: Batista- 1952-1959 166 American businesses by the end, including hotels and casinos- strong U.S. ties New Batista gov’t- much harsher this time Now, when anything negative was said or a protest held, harsher consequences than ever Batista- 1952-1959: Batista- 1952-1959 Now,- instead of arresting and jailing- sent them to into exile “26th of July Movement”- Eastern Cuba Result- Fidel and Raul Castro exiled to Central America for a few years Military also killed people who opposed the regime- “freethinkers” Conclusion: authoritarian (leaning towards totalitarian) Jose Marti: Jose Marti Freethinker, considered to be the founder of Cuban Revolutionary thought Born in Havana on Jan. 28, 1853 Was a legislator, poet, above all, a freethinker- Poetry still significant today- Cuba’s first “truly” great poet and writer Possibly most respected political mind in Cuba Jose Marti: Jose Marti Much of Marti’s life was spent fighting for Cuban independence from Spain No Cuban heritage, still, he wanted Cubans to unite, despite differences He also fought for better conditions for workers- believed in the “poor man” “Guantanamera” lyrics- Jose Marti: Jose Marti Marti- strong policy on justice- co revolutionaries fair and honest Theories on society and justice- interdependent Told Cubans- not to be “complacent”, always want better For Marti- freedom was the “essence of life” an “inescapable basis for all useful works” Jose Marti: Jose Marti Interpretation of freedom- 2 opinions Had many ideas for post- independence, reshaping Cuba Pride (national) and education were on his “plan” list Believed that Cubans would all want it, once they saw it was possible Jose Marti: Jose Marti Marti would not live to see Cuban independence- was killed in battle on May 19, 1895 Was said by Fidel Castro to be an “auteur intellectual” of the Revolution and its “political goals” Ideas are still studied and used in studying social democracies Fidel Castro 1959-: Fidel Castro 1959- Prime Minister from 1959-1976 President from 1976- Major leader of Revolution At first- seemed like he was going to help Cuba become a leader in Latin America Belief in Communist doctrine- Cuba would become increasingly subject to “economic hardship and isolation” Fidel Castro 1959-: Fidel Castro 1959- Led “26th of July” revolt, 1953 1956-1958 led revolt- “army” of rebels called the “26th of July Movement” Major part of Revolution ended on Jan. 1, 1959, when Batista left Cuba At first, the Cuban people thought they had won, that they were going to get change Fidel Castro 1959-: Fidel Castro 1959- Castro talked in 1963 about Cuba’s problems- blamed people, not his own policies Believed in personalized interference in order to move the institutional system ahead Castro grew more and more radical- focused more on developing Communism Fidel Castro 1959-: Fidel Castro 1959- Went from “moderate left” to more extreme radical as he gained power as PM Put political opponents in prison 1960s- “embraced” Communism, began accepting aid from Soviets Became hostile to U.S., who had helped Batista 1960- U.S. embargo on Cuba Slide21: Embargo on Cuba exports- medical supplies, soybeans, rice, and corn products Castro- “Yankee imperialism”- retaliated, seized the 166 U.S. businesses 1961- Bay of Pigs- Invasion of Cuba by U.S. and Cuban exiles- unsuccessful 1962-63- Cuban Missile Crisis Fidel Castro 1959-: Fidel Castro 1959- 1991- Soviet Union collapsed, Castro isolated Mid 1990s- thousands fleeing from regime Jan 1998- Castro lets Pope visit- result, some political prisoners released Fidel Castro 1959-: Fidel Castro 1959- 1998- 7 Cuban Americans- indicted for conspiracy and attempt to assassinate Castro 1999- 4 Cubans arrested for opposing a Communist government- 3 ½-5 years 1999- Elian Gonzalez- found in boat off coast of FL- mother and stepfather dies seeking refuge in U.S. with relatives Fidel Castro 1959-: Fidel Castro 1959- November 2004- Cuban dancers defected to U.S., gov’t told them it was illegal to come here and perform Were granted asylum Conclusion: Conclusion Conclusion: Castro - authoritarian ruler, arrests political opponents, doesn't kill them What now for Cuba? Should U.S. lift embargo, and allow direct travel there? Should they wait until Castro is out of office?