Published on January 13, 2008
Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning: Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning Form of learning in which responses that lead to positive outcomes or that permit avoidance of negative outcomes are strengthened Reinforcement: increases behavior Punishment: decreases behavior Modeling: Modeling Learning by example Learning in which individuals acquire new forms of behavior through observing others Social Comparison: Social Comparison The process through which we compare ourselves to others in order to determine whether our views of social reality are or are not correct If others hold our views we tend to have increased confidence that they are correct Influenced by perception of ‘other’ Slide6: UC BERKELEY EXTENSION OUR STUDENTS ARE PLEASED WITH THEIR EDUCATION Slide7: REVLON GOES ON SMOOTHER STAYS ON LONGER Social Comparison: Social Comparison Others’ attitudes have more influence if we identify with them or like them Mere Exposure: Mere Exposure Having seen an object previously often leads to positive attitudes towards that object True whether we are aware of exposure or not Small Group Activity: Small Group Activity Come up with a real or hypothetical attitude Explain how one might form this attitude based on each of these principles Classical conditioning, subliminal conditioning, instrumental (operant) conditioning, modeling, social comparison, and mere exposure Attitude Functions: Attitude Functions Why do we form attitudes? Knowledge Function: Knowledge Function Attitudes aid in the interpretation of new stimuli View attitude inconsistent information as more suspect Attitudes enable rapid responding to attitude-relevant information Influence approach-avoidance responses Impression Motivation: Impression Motivation Attitudes can be used to lead other to have a positive view of us When we are motivated to do so, we can shift our attitudes to influence impressions Identity Function: Identity Function Attitudes can communicate who we are by allowing us to express our central values and beliefs Allow us to develop relationships with others Self Esteem Function: Self Esteem Function Holding a particular attitude can help enhance self worth Attitudes are often self validating Experience positive emotions when act consistently with attitudes Ego Defensive Function: Ego Defensive Function Attitudes can protect us from unwanted or unflattering views of ourselves Can identify with attitudes that are more acceptable than our behavior Expressed and experienced attitudes vary by our surroundings Attitudes and Behavior: Attitudes and Behavior Do attitudes always predict behavior? Attitudes and Behavior: Attitudes and Behavior Relationship between attitudes and behavior significantly influenced by social context Attitudes and Behavior: Attitudes and Behavior Do attitudes influence behavior First study (1934) LaPiere: prejudice (attitude) and discrimination (behavior) Traveled with Chinese couple Fair treatment (behavior) Unfair survey response (attitude) Lesson: there can be a sizable gap between attitudes and behavior Attitudes and Behavior: Attitudes and Behavior Today Many factors may influence the relationship between prejudice (attitude) and discrimination (behavior) Laws, social pressure Attitudes and Behavior: Attitudes and Behavior Sometimes the inverse is true One might hold negative views of prejudice (attitudes) but still discriminate Post 9/11 Arabs or Muslims Situational Constraints: Situational Constraints Expression of attitudes influenced by beliefs about how others will respond to us Pluralistic ignorance: our tendency to misunderstand what attitudes others hold, and to believe they hold attitudes different from our own College drinking study Slide25: What if the college discussion was on use of date rape drugs instead? Would students behavior be more related to their attitudes? Why? Strength of Attitude: Strength of Attitude Strength of attitude is an important predictor of behavior Strength of Attitude: Strength of Attitude Emotional reaction provoked Vested interest Degree to which attitude is based on personal experience Both make attitudes more accessible When attitudes influence behavior, what processes are involved?: When attitudes influence behavior, what processes are involved? Controlled? Automatic? Reasoned Thought: Reasoned Thought Theory of reasoned action/planned behavior Decisions to engage in a behavior are the result of a rational process Consider behavior options, generate consequences, evaluate, decide Evaluation involves attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control Should I go to class?: Should I go to class? Attend, attend half, skip Teacher will notice, will lose points, can have fun Evaluate: Should I go to class?: Should I go to class? Attend, attend half, skip Teacher will notice, will lose points, can have fun Evaluate: -Attitudes: teacher impression very important, anything but an ‘A’ means I’m stupid, fun is for the weak -Subjective norms: Nobody at UCBE skips class -Perceived behavioral control: I wouldn’t know how to go about it anyways Should I go to class? - YES: Should I go to class? - YES Attend, attend half, skip Teacher will notice, will lose points, can have fun Evaluate: -Attitudes: teacher impression very important, anything but an ‘A’ means I’m stupid, fun is for the weak -Subjective norms: Nobody at UCBE skips class -Perceived behavioral control: I wouldn’t know how to go about it anyways Should I go to class? - NO: Should I go to class? - NO Attend, attend half, skip Teacher will notice, will lose points, can have fun Evaluate: -Attitudes: teachers are dorks, nobodies perfect, you only live once -Subjective norms: Nobody would miss a party like this -Perceived behavioral control: I can do whatever I want to do Attitudes and Spontaneous Behavior: Attitudes and Spontaneous Behavior Attitude to behavior process model EVENT Attitude Situational Norms Definition of Even Behavior Attitudes and Spontaneous Behavior: Attitudes and Spontaneous Behavior Attitude to behavior process model EVENT Cheats “Cheaters are evil” Attitude Situational Norms “few cheat” “shouldn’t cheat” Definition of Event “horrible sin” Behavior “reprimand” Attitudes and Spontaneous Behavior: Attitudes and Spontaneous Behavior Attitude to behavior process model EVENT Cheats “cheating is understandable if the person is really attractive” Attitude Situational Norms “many cheat” “o.k. is circumstances” Definition of Event “reasonable” “little slip up” Behavior “laugh” “ask how was it” In Class Experiment: In Class Experiment Split into three groups Number off 1, 2, 3 Don’t talk to other group member unless instructed to do so Read all instructions carefully Group 3 go outside and wait quietly until I tell you to come in In Class Experiment: In Class Experiment Groups 1 & 2 Read your instructions and follow them carefully Complete the tasks described Study: Study Some deception was used What do you think the purpose of the study was? Purpose: Purpose Cognitive dissonance An unpleasant internal state that arises when our attitudes are inconsistent with out behavior Induced or forced compliance: situations in which individuals are some how induced to say or do things that are inconsistent with their true attitudes Cognitive Dissonance: Cognitive Dissonance An unpleasant internal state that arises when our attitudes are inconsistent with out behavior Or with other attitudes Examples Cognitive Dissonance: Cognitive Dissonance Negative internal state can cause us to shift our attitudes to reduce dissonance Can also acquire new information to support our behavior Can also trivialize the attitudes or behavior Can also engage in self-affirmation Behavior must be freely chosen Study: Study Three conditions 1: Offered 5 points to tell others that task was interesting 2: Offered 25 points to tell other that task was interesting 3: Control condition Study: Study IV: whether or not asked to say task was interesting; how many points offered DV: how interesting the task was actually rated Study: Study Hypothesis: Telling others that a boring task is interesting will induce cognitive dissonance. This dissonance will be reduced by justifying behavior based on 25 points. Dissonance will remain high in the 5 point group, leading to a change in attitudes (increase in interest) to reduce dissonance.