6 ApocaplyticLiterature

Information about 6 ApocaplyticLiterature

Published on October 1, 2007

Author: Danielle

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6. Apocalyptic Literature:  BOT535 Postexilic History & Literature 6. Apocalyptic Literature Definitions of “Apocalypse”:  Definitions of “Apocalypse” 1. “...as far as the preserved evidence goes, we must say that the literary form we call an apocalypse carries that title for the first time in the very late first or early second century AD. From then on, both title and form are fashionable, at least to the end of the classical period. Their fashionable-ness is part of the well known growth of superstition and of claims to special revelations and to occult knowledge, complementary characteristics of the later Roman Empire which forms their daily familiar social background.” [Smith, Morton, “On the History of APOKALUPTW and APOKALUYIS,” In Apocalypticism in the Mediterranean World and the Near East, ed. D. Hellholm, 19] Definitions of “Apocalypse”:  Definitions of “Apocalypse” 2. “‘Apocalypse’ was a well-known genre label in Christian antiquity, beginning from the end of the 1st century CE, when it appears as the introductory designation in Rev 1.1. Thereafter apocalypses are attributed to both NT (Peter, Paul) and OT figures (e.g., the gnostic Apocalypse of Adam, the Cologne Mani Codex speaks of apocalypses of Adam, Sethel, Enosh, Shem, and Enoch). Prior to the late 1st century CE the title is not used.” [Collins, “Early Jewish Apocalypticism,” ABD, I, 283] Definitions of “Apocalypse”:  Definitions of “Apocalypse” 3. “In general we understand ‘apocalyptic’ to apply to two things: first, a certain body of writings, the apocalypses, that is, revelatory writings which intend to reveal the secrets of the transcendental word and the end-time; second, it applies to the world of concepts and ideas which comes to expression in those texts.” [Betz, Hans Dieter, “On the Problem of the Religio-Historical Understanding of Apocalypticism,” Journal for Theology and the Church, No. 6, 1969, p. 135] Apocalypse as a Genre:  Apocalypse as a Genre A. “‘Apocalypse’ is a genre of revelatory literature with a narrative frame work, in which a revelation is mediated by an otherworldly being to a human recipient, disclosing a transcendent reality which is both temporal, insofar as it envisages eschatological salvation, and spatial insofar as it involves another, supernatural world.” [Collins, John, "Towards the Morphology of a Genre," Semeia 14, 1979, p. 9] Apocalypse as a Genre:  Apocalypse as a Genre 1. “...the recipient of the revelation in Jewish apocalypses is invariably a venerable ancient figure: Enoch, Daniel, Moses, Ezra, Baruch, Abraham.” [Collins, FOTL, 5] 2. “...the narrative framework invariably contains some account of the way in which the revelation was received.” [Collins, FOTL, 5] 3. “One weakness in this definition...is that it neglects the issue of function, though it does directly address the characteristic form and content of the genre apocalyptic.” [Aune, Prophecy in Early Christianity and the Ancient Mediterranean World, 109] Apocalypse as a Genre:  Apocalypse as a Genre N.B that Yarbro Collins has responded to this by: “...there is on a rather general level, a common function: an apocalypse is intended to interpret present, earthly circumstances in light of the supernatural world and of the future, and to influence both the understanding and the behavior of the audience by means of divine authority.” [Collins, “Early Jewish Apocalypticism,” ABD, I, 283] 4. “While the apocalypses constitute a distinct genre, they cannot be understood in isolation from various types of related literature.”[Collins, “Early Jewish Apocalypticism,” ABD, I, 283] Apocalypse as a Genre:  Apocalypse as a Genre B. “The term apocalypse should be applied strictly as the designation of a literary genre. It is one of the favored media adopted by apocalyptic seers for communicating their message, though it is not the exclusive nor even the dominant genre. Rather, it takes its place among other genres such as the testament, the salvation-judgment oracle, and the parable as a means of giving expression to the perspective of apocalyptic eschatology and as a vehicle for expressing the ideology of an apocalyptic movement. As in the case of all genres, the apocalypse is not rigid but underwent a history of development over the biblical and post-biblical period.” [Hanson, The Dawn of Apocalyptic, 430] Apocalypse as a Genre:  Apocalypse as a Genre 1. Structure and typical features: “These are expressed succinctly in Rev. 1.1-2: (1) a revelation is given by God, (2) through a mediator (here Jesus Christ or an angel), (3) to a seer concerning (4) future events.” [Hanson, “Apocalypse, Genre,” IDBSup, 27] Also note: revelation occurs in a vision in which the seer peers into the heavens to see future events; ecstatic state of seer; direct commutation from the Lord and interp. from angelic guide; seer responds in awe; words of comfort; cosmic drama with elaborate symbolism. The genre may have one or more visions; incorporated hymns, historical resumes, prayers, testaments, etc. Apocalypse as a Genre:  Apocalypse as a Genre 2. Setting and function: 2.01 “...the primary function is to disclose to the elect the secret of ‘what is and what is to take place,’ thereby serving to comfort the oppressed and encourage them to remain faithful to their beliefs.” [Hanson, “Apocalypse, Genre,” IDBSup, 27] 2.02 “...seem to stem from settings of persecution within which they reveal to the faithful a vision of reversal and glorification (Dan 12.1). This is made possible by concentration on heavenly realities, whether given in the form of symbols or in purported direct description. Earth’s woes are seen as the shadows of a passing Apocalypse as a Genre:  Apocalypse as a Genre epoch. Though it is likely that ecstatic experience played a part in the apocalypses, there is also evidence of studies application of conventional devices.” [Hanson, “Apocalypse, Genre,” IDBSup, 28] 2.03 “The popular view that apocalypses are reactions to persecution is based primarily on the canonical apocalypse of Daniel and Revelation, and is erroneous even in the latter case.... It is true, however, that all the apocalypses are related to a crisis, but the crises are of different kinds....” [Collins, FOTL, 22] The Two Basic Apocalyptic Genre:  The Two Basic Apocalyptic Genre A. The “Historical” Apocalypses (Daniel; Book of Dreams and Apocalypse of Weeks in 1 Enoch; Jubilees; 4 Ezra; 2 Baruch.) 1. The Media of Revelation: 1.01 The symbolic vision. [Dan 7-8] Note the pattern of (1) indication of circumstances; (2) description of the vision; (3) request for interp; (4) interpretation by an angel; (5) conclusions are usually variable. 1.01.01 visions usually allegorical 1.01.02 visions differ in pattern from: Amos 7.7-9; Zech 1.7-17; 1.18-21; 6.1-8. The Two Basic Apocalyptic Genre:  The Two Basic Apocalyptic Genre 1.01.03 symbolic dreams in Bible basically distrusted: Deut 13.1-5; Jer 23.25-32; 27.9-10; 29.8-9. 1.01.04 Note the parallels of Daniel and Joseph stories. 1.01.05 Zech and Ezek 40-48 parallel angel interp. 1.02 Epiphany. Vision of a single supernatural figure like in Dan 10. 1.02.02 Note Ezek 1-2; 8. 1.02.02 “God came to X in a dream by night...” pattern: Gen 20.3; 31.24; 1 Kgs 3.5; 9.2 The Two Basic Apocalyptic Genre:  The Two Basic Apocalyptic Genre 1.03 Angelic Discourse. A revelation delivered by a speech of an angel. Note Dan 10-11. 1.04. Revelatory Dialogue. 1.05 Midrash. “...a work that attempts to make a text of Scripture understandable, useful, and relevant for a later generation.” [Collins, FOTL, 9] 1.06 Pesher. Like a exegetical midrash, but interp of dreams and writings on the wall. 1.07 Revelations Report. The Two Basic Apocalyptic Genre:  The Two Basic Apocalyptic Genre 2. The content of the Revelations: 2.01 Ex Eventu Prophecy. (1) Periodization of History [Dan 7; 9] (2) Regnal prophecy [Dan 11] 2.02 Eschatological Predictions. The pattern is: crisis-judgment-salvation. (1) Signs of the end. (2)Description of Judgment Scene. (3) Epiphany of a Heavenly Figure. (4) Prophecy of Cosmic Transformation. The Two Basic Apocalyptic Genre:  The Two Basic Apocalyptic Genre B. Otherworldly Journeys (Book of the Watchers, Astronomical Book, Similitudes [all in 1 Enoch]; 2 Enoch; 3 Baruch; Testament of Abraham; Apocalypse of Abraham; Apocalypse of Zephaniah; Testament of Levi 2-5) 1. “Biblical tradition by contrast has no clear precedent for the apocalyptic otherworldly journey. The OT does not describe what Enoch or Elijah saw when they were taken up. The prophets are said to stand in the divine council (Jer 23.18; cf. 1 Kgs 22) but in not case is their ascent described. The nearest biblical approximation to this type of apocalypse is The Two Basic Apocalyptic Genre:  The Two Basic Apocalyptic Genre found in Ezekiel’s guided tour of the temple area in Ezek 40-48, but this involves neither an ascent to heaven nor a descent to the netherworld.” [Collins, FOTL, 15] 2. The Media of Revelation. 2.01 Transportation of the Visionary. (1) Report of Ascent. (2) Report of Descent. 2.02 The revelation Account. (1) Report of tour. (2) Report of Ascent through a Numbered Series of Heavens. The Two Basic Apocalyptic Genre:  The Two Basic Apocalyptic Genre 3. The Content of the Revelation. 3.01 List of Revealed things. 3.02 Visions of the Abodes of the Dead. 3.03 Judgment Scenes. 3.04 Throne Visions. 3.05 Lists of Vices. Literary Features:  Literary Features “Some of the striking literary features of apocalypses are: pseudonymity, reports of visions, reviews of history presented as prophecies, number speculation, the figure of the interpreting angel (angelus interpres), the tendency to make frequent allusions to, but not quote, the OT, and the conscious attempt to present the compositions as revelatory literature. The more distinctive religious features of apocalyptic authors include: imminent eschatology, pessimism, spatial and temporal dualism, determinism, secrecy, a longing for individual, transcendent salvation, and an emphasis on the detailed knowledge of the physical and supernatural universe.” [Aune, Prophecy in Early Christianity and the Ancient Mediterranean World, 108] Apocalyptic Eschatology:  Apocalyptic Eschatology “Apocalyptic eschatology...is neither a genre (apocalypse) nor a socio-religious movement (apocalypticism) but a religious perspective which views divine plans in relations to historical realities in a particular way.” [Hanson, The Dawn of Apocalyptic, 430] Apocalyptic Eschatology: Buber:  Apocalyptic Eschatology: Buber Apocalyptic Eschatology:  Apocalyptic Eschatology A. Hanson: 1. Hanson argues, “the line of connection between prophetic eschatology and apocalyptic eschatology can be seen in the orientation of both toward the future as the context of divine redemption and judging activity. The two are differentiated by the degree to which that activity is regarded to be integrated into the structure of historical realities and mediated by human agency.” [Hanson, The Dawn of Apocalyptic, 432] Apocalyptic Eschatology:  Apocalyptic Eschatology 2. “Eschatology, as the study of ‘end-time’ events, developed earlier in biblical prophecy. The perspective of apocalyptic eschatology can best be understood as an outgrowth from prophetic eschatology. Common to both is the belief that, in accordance with the divine plan, the adverse conditions of the present world would end in judgment of the wicked and vindication of the righteous, thereby ushering in a new era of prosperity and peace.... Prophetic eschatology and apocalyptic eschatology are best viewed as two sides of a continuum. The development from the one to Apocalyptic Eschatology:  Apocalyptic Eschatology the other is not ineluctably chronological, however, but is intertwined with changes in social and political conditions. Periods and conditions permitting members of the protagonist community to sense that human effort would be repaid by improved fortune tended to foster prophetic eschatology, that is, the view that God’s new order would unfold within the realities of this world. Periods of extreme suffering, whether at the hands of opponents within the community or those of foreign adversaries, tended to cast doubts on the effectiveness of human reform and thus to abet Apocalyptic Eschatology:  Apocalyptic Eschatology apocalyptic eschatology, with its more rigidly dualistic view of divine deliverance, entailing destruction of this world and resurrection of the faithful to blessed heavenly existence.” [Hanson, “Apocalypses and Apocalypticism,” ABD, I, 280-281] Apocalyptic Eschatology:  Apocalyptic Eschatology B. Collins 1. “The distinctive novelty here was the belief in the judgment of the dead. An apocalypse like Daniel might still proclaim an eschatological kingdom of Israel, but it also promised that the faithful would rise in the glory, and thereby offered a perspective on life which was very different from that of the Hebrew prophets.” [Collins, “Early Jewish Apocalypticism,” ABD, I, 283] 2. The two problems in the discussion of an apocalyptic eschatology: Apocalyptic Eschatology:  Apocalyptic Eschatology 2.01 The question whether there is a consistent apocalyptic eschatology. “All the apocalypses, however, involve a transcendent eschatology that looks for retribution beyond the bounds of history.” [Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination, 9] 2.02 “...neither the judgment of the dead nor even the scenario of the end of history is peculiar to apocalypses: hence the objective that there is no distinctive apocalyptic eschatology.... The genre is not constituted by one or more distinctive themes but by a distinctive combination of elements, all which are also found elsewhere.” [Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination, 9] Ideology of Apocalyptic Eschatology:  Ideology of Apocalyptic Eschatology “Apocalyptic eschatology, the belief that God would shortly intervene in human history to bring a catastrophic end to evil in all its forms, was a widespread ideology in Palestinian Judaism from ca. 200 BC to AD 100. This belief was a supernaturalistic response to what appeared to many Jews to be a dilemma insoluble by ordinary means: the anxiety, alienations, helplessness, and deprivation experienced in the political, economic, social, and religious spheres of Palestinian life.” [Aune, Prophecy in Early Christianity and the Ancient Mediterranean World, 121] Ideology of Apocalyptic Eschatology:  Ideology of Apocalyptic Eschatology 1. “One of the central features of apocalyptic eschatology was the programmatic belief that God would climactically intervene in human affairs to defeat and punish the wicked (pagan oppressors and reprobate Jews) and deliver the righteous (Israel or a group within Israel). He would also restore purify Jerusalem and the temple, gather the scattered people together, and inaugurate a golden age. This eschatological program could be affected directly by God himself or indirectly through a specially chosen human agent called a ‘messiah’, which means ‘anointed one.”” [Aune, Prophecy in Early Christianity and the Ancient Mediterranean World, 122] Ideology of Apocalyptic Eschatology:  Ideology of Apocalyptic Eschatology 2. Messianic Delivers: 2.01 “Yahweh Himself: “When the eschatological program of divine intervention is effected by God himself, his tasks are usually conceived in terms of ancient Canaanite and Israelite combat myths in which Yahweh is depicted as a divine warrior.” [Aune, Prophecy in Early Christianity and the Ancient Mediterranean World, 122] N.B: P. D. Miller, The Divine Warrior in Early Israel; F. M. Cross, Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic, 91-11; Hanson, The Dawn of the Apocalyptic Ideology of Apocalyptic Eschatology:  Ideology of Apocalyptic Eschatology 2.02 “When Yahweh’s role is taken over by a human agent who is a descendant of the Davidic house, elements of the divine warrior myth are assimilated to the expectation of an eschatological restoration of the greatness of Israel under the leadership of an ideal heir of David.” [Aune, Prophecy in Early Christianity and the Ancient Mediterranean World, 122] N.B.: 2 Sam 7, Ps 89; 132.11-12 > Isa 7.10-16; 9.1-7; 11.1-9; Mic 5.2-4 > Jer 23.5-6; 33.14-22 > Ezek 34.20-31 > Hag 2.23, Zech 3.8-10, 4.7, 6.9-14 [while the priestly or Levitical messiah in Zech 4.14] Ideology of Apocalyptic Eschatology:  Ideology of Apocalyptic Eschatology 2.03 “In yet a third type of eschatology, Yahweh’s role is taken over by a transcendent deliverer (e.g., “one like a son of man” Dan 7.13-14). In such instance a greater degree of assimilation has taken place between the divine warrior pattern and the national hope for the restoration of the people of Israel through the Davidic monarchy, with an emphasis on the former. The image of the transcendent deliverer, a relatively rare image in Judaism, may have been popular in antimonarchical or anti-Hasmonean circles (e.g., Daniel), or as a response to the apparent impossibility of the prospects of a national restoration (4 Ezra 13; 1 Enoch 37-71).” [Aune, Prophecy in Early Christianity and the Ancient Mediterranean World, 122] Ideology of Apocalyptic Eschatology:  Ideology of Apocalyptic Eschatology 3. Political Delivers: 3.01 “While the images of messianic deliverers focus on the task of the restoration of Israel and the inauguration of a golden age, the various conceptions of prophetic deliverers either minimize or ignore that task. Distinctions between the eschatological prophet and the Davidic messiah were often vague, though at times they could be sharply contrasted.... Generally, however, these eschatological deliverers are assigned distinct functions, which these functions are combined by placing various eschatological deliverers in relationship with each other. While the Davidic Ideology of Apocalyptic Eschatology:  Ideology of Apocalyptic Eschatology messiah was rarely if ever connected with prophesying (i.e. predicting the form future), preaching repentance and reconciliation, and performing miracles, those tasks form the basic functions of the eschatological prophets. From the perspective of late Second Temple Judaism the functions of the eschatological prophets corresponded to those of the ancient Israelite prophets. OT prophecy was regarded as having two functions: prediction of the future and rebuke.” [Aune, Prophecy in Early Christianity and the Ancient Mediterranean World, 124] Ideology of Apocalyptic Eschatology:  Ideology of Apocalyptic Eschatology 3.02 “The OT depicts Moses as both lawgiver and prophet, and later prophets such as Elijah (1 Macc 2.58) and Jeremiah (2 Macc 2.1-9) are considered zealots for the guardians of the Torah (1 Macc 4.46). Ancient prophets were also regarded as effective intercessors between man and God (Jeremiah in 2 Macc 15.14; Elijah in Jas 5.17; Rom. 11.2-4), and eschatological prophets were expected to play a similar role.” [Aune, Prophecy in Early Christianity and the Ancient Mediterranean World, 124] Note the roles of John the Baptist in the gospels and Mal 4.5-6. THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF THE APOCALYPTIC:  THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF THE APOCALYPTIC A. Early Theories: Paul Hanson = 6th cen. BCE “The origins of the apocalyptic must be searched for as early as the sixth century BC. In the catastrophe of the Exile the order forms of the faith and tradition came into crisis, and Israel’s institutions, including the religious institutions, collapsed or were transformed.” [Cross, Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic, 343] THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF THE APOCALYPTIC:  THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF THE APOCALYPTIC 1. Ancient myth and the rise of prophetic eschatology. 1.01 “Because apocalypticism in it many forms draws so heavily upon concepts and motifs of ancient myth, its roots must be traced to the great cosmogonic myths of the second millennium BC.” [Hanson, “Apocalypticism,” IDBSup, 32] 1.02 “There is obvious continuity between the apocalyptic expectation of a final judgment and the prophetic ‘day of the Lord.’ The idea of a cosmic day of judgment is widely attested in the prophets and the psalms (e.g., Pss 96, 98; Isa 2.4). THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF THE APOCALYPTIC:  THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF THE APOCALYPTIC The apocalyptic interest in the heavenly council (e.g., Ps 82.1) which can be traced back to Canaan and Mesopotamia in the 2d millennium.” [Collins, “Early Jewish Apocalypticism,” ABD, I, 284] 2. Transition to apocalyptic. 2.01 “The transformation of prophetic eschatology into apocalyptic eschatology was the gradual result of community crisis and national disintegration, circumstances which led prophets like Jeremiah and Ezekiel to envision redemption increasingly on a cosmic level through the use of motifs drawn from myth (Jer 4.23-28; Ezek 47).” [Hanson, “Apocalypticism,” IDBSup, 32] THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF THE APOCALYPTIC:  THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF THE APOCALYPTIC 3. Birth of the first apocalyptic movements. 3.01 “...Ezekiel and Second Isaiah both were able to bequeath to their followers programs of restoration written from perspectives quite advanced along the continuum from prophetic to apocalyptic eschatology.” [Hanson, “Apocalypticism,” IDBSup, 32] 3.02 “The writings which seem related to this apocalyptic movement (2nd Isaiah’s) (Isa 34-35; 24-27; 56-66; Malachi; Zech 9-14; Joel [?]) span THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF THE APOCALYPTIC:  THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF THE APOCALYPTIC the period from the Exile to the latter half of the fifth century. There seem to be no apocalyptic writings from the fourth century.” [Hanson, “Apocalypticism,” IDBSup, 32] 3.03 “Old oracle types (Guttungen) persisted, but were radically altered. The old songs of the wars of Yahweh were transformed into the eschatological songs of the imminent war in which Yahweh’s universal rule would be established. A new Conquest was described in terms of the language of the old Conquest of Israel’s Epic. A new Exodus was described in THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF THE APOCALYPTIC:  THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF THE APOCALYPTIC language of the old Exodus, and with bold mythological language which dissolved both old and new Exodus into the language of the battle with Yamm or Leviathan, dragon of chaos. The myths of creation, in short, were given an eschatological function. The old lawsuit oracle (rib) was transformed into a rhetorical lawsuit between Israel’s god and the gods of the nations. Royal and prophetic offices were democratized, and the old oracles of kingship and the inaugural oracles or ‘confessions’ (autobiographical oracles) of the prophet proclaimed to the nation Israel. THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF THE APOCALYPTIC:  THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF THE APOCALYPTIC Israel herself was to be the prophet, the servant of the Lord. The people Israel was to be ambassador to the nations bearing the law to the peoples.” [Cross, Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic, 345-346] 3.04 Two traits or patterns that emerged: “One is the democratizing and eschatologizing of classical prophetic themes and forms. A second is the doctrine of two ages, an era of “old things” and an era of “new things.” [Cross, Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic, 346] THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF THE APOCALYPTIC:  THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF THE APOCALYPTIC 4. Apocalypticism in the second century BC 4.01 “...the world view of these postexilic writings is significantly different from what we will later find in 1 Enoch and Daniel. The crucial difference can be seen in the nature of the eschatology. In Isaiah 65 the new creation is one where ‘the child shall die a hundred years old, and the sinner a hundred years old shall be accursed,’ but they will die nonetheless. There is no question of personal immortality. Even Isaiah 24-27, which speaks of the destruction of death and says that God’s death shall live (Isa 26.19), THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF THE APOCALYPTIC:  THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF THE APOCALYPTIC most probably only envisages the resurrection of the Israelite people, in the manner of Ezekiel 37. There is still no suggestion that a human being can pass over the world of the angles or become a companion to the host of heaven. Consequently these oracles retain the this-worldly emphasis traditional in biblical prophecy. In view of this, the oracles of Isaiah 56-66 and other postexilic prophecies are best regarded as examples of late prophecy, even though some of their themes are later taken up in a new context in the apocalypses.” [Collins, “Early Jewish Apocalypticism,” ABD, I, 284] THE SOCIAL SETTING OF APOCALYPSES:  THE SOCIAL SETTING OF APOCALYPSES A. Two primary religious orientations of postexilic Judaism: 1. “There is broad agreement that two primary religious orientations arose within postexilic Judaism, the priestly-theocratic perspective (represented by the Priestly document in the Pentateuch, the work of the Chronicler, and 1 and 2 Maccabees), and the prophetic-eschatological orientation (represented by Daniel, in addition to the deutero-prophetic writings and Malachi...).” [Aune, Prophecy in Early Christianity and the Ancient Mediterranean World, 110] 2. Hanson calls these two: visionary and hierocratic. THE SOCIAL SETTING OF APOCALYPSES:  THE SOCIAL SETTING OF APOCALYPSES B. Nature of Community: 1. “Apocalyptic eschatology is the idiom of those who are oppressed and powerless and whose hopes appear impossible of realization within the existing order.... There is some agreement that apocalypticism in early Judaism was a supernaturalistic response to the social, political, and religious oppression experienced by many segments of early Judaism under foreign powers as well as under native representatives of those powers, the priestly-theocratic group.” [Aune, Prophecy in Early Christianity and the Ancient Mediterranean World, 110] THE SOCIAL SETTING OF APOCALYPSES:  THE SOCIAL SETTING OF APOCALYPSES 2. “Apocalyptic eschatology during the late Second Temple period was a widespread ideological matrix which gave rise to various forms of collective behavior.” [Aune, Prophecy in Early Christianity and the Ancient Mediterranean World, 111] 3. “All attempts to link apocalyptic literature to specific sects or movements have proven unsuccessful. Yet it is clear that Daniel and other apocalypses are learned, scribal phenomenon produced by maskilim (“the wise,” Dan 11.33, 35), who are commonly (but unnecessarily) identified THE SOCIAL SETTING OF APOCALYPSES:  THE SOCIAL SETTING OF APOCALYPSES with the Hasidim. These scribes, only loosely connected with one another if at all, wrote apocalypses as ‘tracts for the times’ in various situations of oppression.” [Aune, Prophecy in Early Christianity and the Ancient Mediterranean World, 111] Apocalyptic Worldview:  Apocalyptic Worldview A. Philipp Vielhauser: [J.Christiaan Beker, Paul the Apostle, 135-136] 1. The doctrine of the two ages with its radical dualism. 2. Pessimism and otherworldly hope, which expresses the fundamental thought of apocalyptic dualism, that is, the radical discontinuity between this age and the coming age. 3. Universalism and individualism, that is, the cosmic, universal scope of apocalyptic and its view of the person as no longer a member of a collective entity. Apocalyptic Worldview:  Apocalyptic Worldview 4. Determinism and imminent expectation of the kingdom of God, which involves God’s prefixed plan of history, calculations about the end of history, and its periodization (four, seven, or twelve periods). Apocalyptic Worldview:  Apocalyptic Worldview B. Klaus Koch: [J. Christiaan Beker, Paul the Apostle, 136] 1. An urgent expectation of the impending overthrow of all earthly conditions in the immediate future. 2. The end appears as a vast cosmic catastrophe. 3. The time of this world is divided into segments. 4. The intro of an army of angels and demons to explain the course of historical events and the happenings of the end time. 5. Beyond the catastrophe a new salvation arises, paradisal in character and destined for the faithful remnant. Apocalyptic Worldview:  Apocalyptic Worldview 6. The transition from disaster to final redemption takes place by means of an act issuing from the throne of God, which means the visibility on earth of the kingdom of God. 7. The frequent introduction of a mediator with royal functions. 8. “The catchword glory is used wherever the final state of affairs is set apart from the present and whenever a final amalgamation of the earthly and heavenly spheres is prophesied.”

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IHEP in EGEE ver4

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PACS

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Management Structure Syria

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DHS COPLINK Data Mining 2003

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national holocaust memorial day

Chapter 14 Powerpoint
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Chapter 14 Powerpoint

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Roman Spring 2006
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Portfolio INFANZIA

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Rejmanek Honza Poster 20061110

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Session 2 Mr Hotta ENUM 07

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embrapa1

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ICOPS agarwal 2007 v6

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