6 Macabrey

Information about 6 Macabrey

Published on October 17, 2007

Author: Malden

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Slide1:  The role of bioethanol in tomorrow fuels - The Swiss etha+ project case  Conference « Frontiers of Research in Industrial Ecology » University of Lausanne, November 27 – December 1, 2006 On behalf of Alcosuisse, Planair SA, N. Macabrey, Project manager Structure of the presentation:  Structure of the presentation Future of the mobility Biofuels Bioethanol Project etha+, multi-raw material plant Pilot phase – essEnce5, Ethanol85 and FFV Producing ethanol in Switzerland, why? Future steps Slide3:  Future of the mobility How to face the lack of crude oil? Slide4:  No easy way to substitute oil: Oil is “miraculous” energy source (abundant, easy to collect, easy to transform) Oil is used in mobility, heating, chemistry (fossil fertilizers, plastics) Mobility management is a complex problem linked to: Local economy Land development policy and tax difference Political measures Technique Energy source Key aspects Substitutes to oil:  Substitutes to oil No unique solution -> need of a bundle of energy ways Consumers habits and political strategy: land development policy / use of NTIC Increasing public transport services Reducing mean consumption values of the vehicle (downsizing, use of more efficient vehicles, hybrid cars, …) Use of alternative « fuels » : electricity battery, natural gas, « hydrogen » Use of biofuels (bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas) and flexible vehicles Slide6:  2. Biofuels Slide7:  The prefix « bio » in biofuels indicates that raw material comes from biomass (do not confuse with biological agriculture way of production). Biofuels are renewable energy products. The production of biofuels is in growth for 4 main reasons: Reduction of greenhouse gases (natural disaster, Kyoto commitments) Rarefaction of oil (peak oil) and governments will to reduce the oil dependency Oil price (10 $ barrel in 1998, ->70 $ in 2006) New markets for agricultural products in the north hemisphere Biofuels, why? CO2 emissions : still far from the objectives (Switzerland):  CO2 emissions : still far from the objectives (Switzerland) Production of biofuels: main processes :  Production of biofuels: main processes Source ENERS et LASEN-EPFL European Union – a gamble on biofuels:  European Union – a gamble on biofuels 2001 0.3% 2005 2.0% 2010 5.75% 2015 7.0% 2020 8.0% Part of biofuels Slide11:  Production plants (bioethanol and biodiesel) in EU (existing or projected in 2003 ) Slide12:  3. Bioethanol Slide13:  What is bioethanol? Bioethanol is a liquid biofuel made from starch plants, sugar plants or cellulose plants. This ethylic alcohol is produced by fermentation of sugar contained in vegetal raw material (sugar beat, cereals, potatoes, whey, Jerusalem artichokes, grass, wood,…) C2H5OH Produce of energy plants (efficiency):  Produce of energy plants (efficiency) Ethanol produced from wood (steps):  Ethanol produced from wood (steps) Then distillation and finally dehydration in order to increase the alcohol rate (99.7% vol.) and to purify the product Slide16:  Brazil and the USA are the main ethanol producers in the world. Europe started later but is now on the way. World production: round 30 billions of litres (2005) Introduction of supporting measures (transparent or unofficial) Industrial development (USA, EU, BR) Agricultural development (USA, EU, BR) Exemption of taxes (USA, EU, CH?) Obligatory addition (Germany, BR) Custom duty (USA, EU) Bioethanol worldwide Slide17:  Benefits of the bioethanol use – CO2 CO2 balance per litre of fuel (Life cycle assessment) Benefits of the bioethanol use - energy:  Benefits of the bioethanol use - energy Energy balance (consumption of non-renewable primary energy) Slide19:  4. Projet etha+ -> Multi-raw-material plant Goals of Alcosuisse:  Goals of Alcosuisse Introducing bioethanol fuel in Switzerland (frame conditions, production, distribution) To substitute all the petrol sold in Switzerland with a mix of petrol and ethanol (essEnce5, essEnce10, Ethanol85) before 2010 To produce part of this ethanol needs in Switzerland (if possible) To open up new ways of treating downgraded agricultural products, surplus (new markets for Swiss agriculture) and wood-cellulose material To favour productions which respect criteria of sustainable development Slide21:  Project etha+ : Forecasted production and import 2005 - 2012 etha+® a project based on 4 pillars:  etha+® a project based on 4 pillars gsgd Frame conditions Production and Distribution chain UMMP Multi-raw material plant Pilot projects Project etha+ : Strategy Removal of tax Standards Volatility Raw material By-products Technologies Site Chain Impact Business plan Finance Tests Techniques Preparing the market 2 types of projects: - essEnce5 - BioEthanol85 Evolution of the Swiss conditions:  Evolution of the Swiss conditions => Modification of the law about petroleum products taxation. Debate on Parliament =>Neutral tax exemption of biofuels since ….? => « climate centime » from 01.01.06 to 12.31.07 (experimental!) => Guarantee given by the car manufacturers => Tax exemption for 8 mio litre/year for a pilot production by Borregaard (max. 32 mio de l/year), => Permission OFEV (volatility) => Distribution test since January 2005 => essEnce5 conforms to the standard SN EN 228 => Development of the multi-raw material plant Basic idea of Alcosuisse for the Swiss production:  Basic idea of Alcosuisse for the Swiss production To use the downgraded agricultural products, surplus and waste (no competition for land use, favourable LCA, interesting price) To use several raw material in order to produce all year long and to reduce stock expenses To avoid obstacles (political level, opposition) Valorisation of by-products  Multi-raw material plant (UMMP) Multi-raw material plant:  Multi-raw material plant Raw material: Downgraded potatoes Downgraded cereals and those from mills Beet molasses (by-product from the production of sugar) Whey and fruit juices (non-marketed fruits) Valorisation of by-products: DDGS of cereals: animal feed Residues of potatoes: fertiliser Liquor of molasse: animal feed Other approach: valorisation in energy production (methanisation) Planning parameters and constrains:  Planning parameters and constrains Choice of the raw material and use period (necessary parameter) : Price and availability of raw material To reduce the stock needs Specific production costs Technological know how To limit the throwing out (waste water) Opportunity to valorise de by-products UMMP: typical production cycle:  UMMP: typical production cycle Slide28:  Multi-raw material plant: site of Delémont 50 mio de l/year 4.5 ha Slide29:  UMMP etha+ Alcosuisse Capacity : 1'500 hl/24h Surface used : 42'700 m2 Delivery & expedition : > 90% rail Stock raw and by-products : 3-4 days Reduction of CO2 emission (LCA) : 2.0 - 2.5 kg CO2/litre EtOH Cereals 42'400 t/a Molasses 92'000 t/a Potatoes 55'000 t/a DDGS 15'350 t/y Vinasses 58% 56'500 t/y DDGS-potatoes 4'700 t/y Bioethanol 50.106 litre/y Employee Approx. 50 Heat 170 GWh/y Electricity 21GWh/y Water 708.103 m3/y

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