Published on December 29, 2007
Slide1: The New Face of Japanese Politics? Slide2: Strong contender: prime ministerial hopeful Junichiro Koizumi accepts flowers at a reception hosted by a faction of his Liberal Democratic Party at a Tokyo hotel. Mr Koizumi quit his faction to gain broader appeal. Slide3: End to faction friction probably fiction Factions are not separated by ideology, because Japanese politics is less about policies than personalities. The factions thrive on personal relationships. New members of the LDP join one of the factions and give the faction leader their loyalty and vote. In return, they are given political support and campaign funds. They work their way up through the faction until they become a senior member or even faction leader, and the name of the faction changes. Slide4: Tanaka Makiko and Koizuimi Junichiro Slide5: Firebrand lashes 'indecisive' PM Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi has suffered a potentially devastating attack on his reform credentials by the woman who propelled him to power: his former foreign minister, Makiko Tanaka. In the first interview since her dramatic midnight sacking sent the cabinet's ratings tumbling by more than 20 per cent, Ms Tanaka accused the Prime Minister of being envious, indecisive and a prisoner of the faction system he promised to destroy. Slide6: Firebrand lashes 'indecisive' PM She accused Mr Koizumi of allowing his cabinet to be run by one of the most reviled faction bosses in the LDP - former prime minister Yoshiro Mori. Her tenure in office was plagued by battles with LDP leaders and bureaucrats who were not used to dealing with a minister who did not take orders. They leaked stories about her tantrums, but when she complained, a senior figure in the Mori action told her the best way to ensure civil servants' loyalty was to do what they said. Bevy of ninja 'assassins' to serve 'last samurai' Koizumi in election: Bevy of ninja 'assassins' to serve 'last samurai' Koizumi in election Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi has staked his political future on the poll and his prime weapon for defeating high profile defectors from the Ruling Liberal Democratic Party who oppose his plan to privatize Japan's postal system is a bevy of the best and brightest daughters of the Land of the Rising Son. Koizumi insiders say the result of the Sept. 11 poll will “hinge on female voters,” and the prime minister sees the women running on his side as “shikaku (刺客)," a term that literally means assassins, but is being used in this election to describe "killer candidates." "The LDP is no longer a liberal or democratic party," he (Kobayashi, a rebel) protested at a recent press conference between the two candidates (Kobayshi and Koike). So, Koizumi seems to be changing the faction based structure of the LDP.: So, Koizumi seems to be changing the faction based structure of the LDP. But who wants to rewrite the constitution? His Successor: Shinzo Abe: His Successor: Shinzo Abe Politics: Politics Democratic miracle; Tatemae: structure of government; Honne: functioning of government; Issues: from cold war to corruption and environment. Slide11: Japan’s Political System Slide12: The Parties in the System Slide13: The Bureaucrats in the System How democratic is Japan?: How democratic is Japan? Are individual rights protected? Is the will of the people adequately transmitted through the politicians to be made into laws? How does group orientation persist in a democratic system? Does the the party system and bureaucratic administration support or hinder democracy? Are the issues the Japanese are concerned about dealt with effectively? Democratic Miracle: Democratic Miracle Democracy was an alien concept to Japan, but it had… Foundations of stable governance: political unity, administrative efficiency, ethical rationale. Capacity for change: regional differences, tradition of borrowing, peaceful rotation of leadership, emperor based shift, entrepreneuralism. Forced democratization: to repeal the unequal treaties; American constitution and institutions, entrance fee into Western alliance Tatemae: the structure of the government system: Tatemae: the structure of the government system Sovereign Power: from Emperor (天皇 tenno) to constitution (憲法 kenpo) The Diet (Kokkai国会): houses of representatives (Shugiin 衆議院) and councilors (Sangiin 参議院), representation for laws and cabinet appointments The Executive: Prime Minister (総理大臣 soridaijin), cabinet (内閣 naikaku) and bureaucracy The Judiciary (司法部 Shihobu): constitutionality of laws and investigative courts Local Government (自治体 chijitai): prefectures and municipalities, elections and local issues, taxes and central control Slide17: Article 9 Of the Japanese Constitution: Renunciation of War Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based on justice and order, the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as means of settling international disputes. In order to accomplish the aim of the preceding paragraph, land, sea, and air forces, as well as other war potential, will never be maintained. The right of belligerency of the state will not be recognized. Individual Rights: Individual Rights Article 11. The people shall not be prevented from enjoying any of the fundamental human rights. These fundamental human rights guaranteed to the people by this Constitution shall be conferred upon the people of this and future generations as eternal and inviolate rights. Article 12. The freedoms and rights guaranteed to the people by this Constitution shall be maintained by the constant endeavor of the people, who shall refrain from any abuse of these freedoms and rights and shall always be responsible for utilizing them for the public welfare. Article 13. All of the people shall be respected as individuals. Their right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness shall, to the extent that it does not interfere with the public welfare, be the supreme consideration in legislation and in other governmental affairs. Article 14. All of the people are equal under the law and there shall be no discrimination in political, economic or social relations because of race, creed, sex, social status or family origin. Individual rights expressed through…: Individual rights expressed through… Article 15. The people have the inalienable right to choose their public officials and to dismiss them. Article 21. Freedom of assembly and association as well as speech, press and all other forms of expression are guaranteed. Article 24. Marriage shall be based only on the mutual consent of both sexes and it shall be maintained through mutual cooperation with the equal rights of husband and wife as a basis. With regard to choice of spouse, property rights, inheritance, choice of domicile, divorce and other matters pertaining to marriage and the family, laws shall be enacted from the standpoint of individual dignity and the essential equality of the sexes. Article 26. All people shall have the right to receive an equal education correspondent to their ability, as provided by law. Article 28. The right of workers to organize and to bargain and act collectively is guaranteed. Article 29. The right to own or to hold property is inviolable. Property rights shall be defined by law, in conformity with the public welfare. The Gift from Beate Sirota Gordon: The Gift from Beate Sirota Gordon Born in Vienna, the daughter of a famed Russian-Jewish pianist, she spent her childhood in pre-war Tokyo, where her father was invited to teach at a prestigious music academy. In 1938, she was sent to California to study at Mills College, renowned for its strong ideas on women's rights. Fluent in six languages, she joined the US war information office when America joined the war. She returned to Japan on Christmas Eve, 1945, to search for her parents who had stayed there and were imprisoned because of their background. One of only a few Americans fluent in Japanese and well versed in the culture, she landed a job with General Douglas MacArthur, in the department that drafted a new Japanese constitution - in seven days. She was assigned to the civil rights section, where she drafted women's rights articles. She was only 22. She knew exactly what it was like to be a Japanese woman at that time, having witnessed the reality of their pre-war life under the rule of their fathers and husbands. Unless women were happy, she thought, there would be no true peace in Japan, and sexual equality was a prerequisite. Alas, most of her drafts on women's rights were deleted at the screening stage despite her tearful pleas - except for Article 24. It defined sexual equality in marriage, in the choice of a spouse, property rights, inheritance, divorce, and so on - all revolutionary changes from pre-war Japan. Slide21: Constitution Legislative Executive Judiciary Generic Outline of Government Institutions Roles of Constitutions: Establish the rights and obligations of the people Separate and designate the powers of government Slide22: Regional/Local Governments 47 Prefectures (Governors & Assemblies) Cities, Towns, Villages (Mayors and Councils) Structure of Government Slide23: Japan’s Political System House of Representatives and House of Councillors Japan’s Electoral Systems: Japan’s Electoral Systems Slide25: Legislative Procedure Slide27: Government Administered Space Slide28: Number of Local Civil Service Employees (as of April 1, 2002) Honne: functioning of government: Honne: functioning of government Party factions Elections and electioneering Policy formulation & legislative deal making Honne: functioning of government: Honne: functioning of government Party (党派 toha) factions (派閥habatzu): The LDP’s internalized factions leader-follower groups, advancement ladder, party consensus formation, The externalized factions of the old left and the new center Slide31: The Political Spectrum Left Right LDP Old Left New Center Extreme Right Authoritarian, nationalistic, capitalistic Authoritarian, nationalistic, state ownership Center: democratic, market economics, progressive social policies Old left = Communists, Socialists, Democratic Socialists New center =Democratic party of Japan, New Komeito, Liberal Party, Social Democratic Party, 21st Century club Extreme left Old Center Right: Liberal Democratic Party House of Representatives (Sept 2005): House of Representatives (Sept 2005) House of Councillors (Sept 2005): House of Councillors (Sept 2005) Honne: functioning of government: Honne: functioning of government Elections and electioneering: The new balance between minority representation and change; disproportional representation; local connections (the Koenkai 後援会) and party discipline; money needs and noise. Honne: functioning of government: Honne: functioning of government Policy formulation & legislative deal making: short duration ministers, continuous bureaucracy, bureaucratic control of Prime Minister’s Office, bureaucratic turf wars, business governance and quasi-business operation interest group bargaining political party compromise Slide38: Issues: from cold war confrontation to corruption and environment. Cold war: ideological separation of parties to alignment on market principles Corruption: transformation in perception of politician, bureaucrat and business relations; to policy based politics Environment: central vs. local approaches, e.g. nuclear power vs. local political power The Rise of China: economic threat, resources, history, trade Others: the American alliance, the Constitution, decentralization, deregulation, recession, education, women’s rights, aging population etc. Teacher temper over Japan flag lawsSome see Koizumi's dispatch of troops to Iraq as a sign of rising nationalism in Japan.: Teacher temper over Japan flag laws Some see Koizumi's dispatch of troops to Iraq as a sign of rising nationalism in Japan. But for some in Japan, the flag of the rising sun and the lyrics to the "Kimigayo (The Emperor's Reign)" anthem are painful reminders of the militant nationalism that led to World War II. Now, the government says public school teachers must honor the flag, stand-up and sing the anthem at school ceremonies, whether or not they agree. If not, they may be fired. Teacher temper over Japan flag laws: Teacher temper over Japan flag laws The enforcement of the law, which was put forth in 1999 by then prime minister Keizo Obuchi, comes at a unique time in Japan's post-WWII history. Current Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi has recently sent troops from its Self Defense Force to Iraq, amid much public fear the soldiers could be drawn into conflict which would go against Japan's pacifist 1947 constitution. In April, around 180 teachers at metropolitan senior high schools or schools for disabled children were reprimanded for behaving "unprofessionally" during graduation ceremonies the previous month, the education board said. English teacher Toru Kondo has repeatedly refused to stand for the anthem. "Please stand up but don't force people who don't like to stand up and sing the national anthem," he said. "I will not stand up, never stand up." Some parents fear the effect the rules will have on their children."These are my children. They are not the hostages or resources of the Tokyo Board of Education," one mother says. SCMP Tuesday, May 11, 2004Japan's main opposition leader stands down: SCMP Tuesday, May 11, 2004 Japan's main opposition leader stands down Naoto Kan has stepped down as leader of Japan's largest opposition party because he missed 10 months of mandatory pension payments, throwing his party into turmoil two months before elections. Mr Kan's resignation after 17 months as head of the Democratic Party of Japan follows Yasuo Fukuda quitting the post of chief government spokesman on Friday after disclosing he skipped pension contributions for more than three years. Revelations that ministers and lawmakers from at least three parties failed to pay pension contributions has sparked public discontent at a time when Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi's government is trying to raise payments and slash retirement payouts. How democratic is Japan?: How democratic is Japan? Are individual rights protected? How does group orientation persist in a democratic system? Is the will of the people adequately transmitted through the politicians to be made into laws? Does the bureaucratic administration support or hinder democracy? Are the issues which concern the Japanese dealt with effectively? Slide43: Japan’s Voting Rate Slide44: Minbo no Onna (anti-extortion woman) “Minbo: criminal acts disguised as civil law actions” Storyline: Abuse of the law by Yakusa (gangsters) to extort money from a hotel and use of the law by hotel staff to fight back What expectations are both sides counting on? How does the lawyer enlist the help of the courts and police? How is local citizens power expressed in the movie? Where do you see the extreme right wing?