6 WATER CYCLE

Information about 6 WATER CYCLE

Published on January 8, 2008

Author: Bruno

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Water:  Water David Cho Alex Giragosian James Kang What is Water?:  What is Water? Water - A clear, colorless, odorless, and tasteless liquid, H2O, essential for most plant and animal life and the most widely used of all solvents. The Water Cycle:  The Water Cycle It is made up of four parts: - evaporation (and transpiration) - condensation - precipitation - collection Evaporation:  Evaporation Evaporation is when the sun heats up water and turns it into vapor or steam. The water vapor or steam escapes from the water and goes into the air. Condensation:  Condensation Condensation is the process of air borne water vapor changing over to liquid water. It is the opposite of evaporation. Runoff:  Runoff Permeability is the measure of how easily something flows through a substance.The more permeable, the more precipitation seeps into the ground. If precipitation occurs faster than it can infiltrate the ground, it becomes runoff. Runoff remains on the surface and flows into streams, rivers, and eventually large bodies such as lakes or the ocean. Infiltrated groundwater moves similarily as it recharges rivers and heads towards large bodies of water. Precipitation:  Precipitation This happens when too much water has condensed and the air cannot hold it anymore.  The heavy clouds become filled with water and the water falls back to the earth as rain, hail, sleet or snow. Collection:  Collection Through precipitation, water falls down on oceans, rivers, and lakes. The water soaks or collects into the ground, becoming part of the groundwater or collecting into oceans. Facts about Water:  Facts about Water On the earth surface, water is found in three different forms: groundwater, fresh-water lakes, and rivers. 0.3 % is usable by humans 99.7% is unusable by humans There are 326,000,000 cubic miles of water in the world. Slide11:  Water can exist either as a solid (ice), a liquid (water), or a gas (water vapor). Water on the on surface of Earth is constantly changing between these three states. Ice can change to become water or water vapor. Water can change to become ice or water vapor. Water vapor can change to become ice or water. These continuous changes in state create a cycle of repeating events. Slide12:  Responding to heat energy from the Sun, water in oceans, lakes, swamps, rivers, plants and even in your body can turn into water vapor. Water vapor in the atmosphere condenses as it cools to form clouds. Once the droplets of condensed water vapor are too heavy to remain in the atmosphere, they fall to Earth as precipitation. Rain, snow, sleet, fog and dew are all forms of precipitation. Slide13:  Water is the only thing in nature that can be a gas, liquid, or solid. There is exactly the same amount of water now than there was when there were dinosaurs on the earth. Water keeps going around in a continuous cycle. Characteristics of Water:  Characteristics of Water Freezing point 0°C (32°F) boiling point 100°C (212°F) specific gravity (4°C) 1.0000 weight per gallon (15°C) 8.338 pounds (3.782 kilograms) Hydropower:  Hydropower Hydro power is a major source of California's and the nation's electricity. About 23 percent of the total electricity in California is from hydro -- 20 percent from large hydroelectric plants, and about three percent is from small hydro facilities, which are 30 megawatts or smaller in size. Nationally, hydro accounts for about 10 percent of the country's total electricity production -- about 77,000 megawatts. Electro-Power:  Electro-Power Hydroelectric power, a renewable resource, is generated when hydraulic turbines are turned by the force of moving water as it flows through a turbine. The water typically flows from a higher to a lower elevation. These turbines are connected to electrical generators, which produce the power. The efficiency of such systems can be close to 90 percent. http://www.consumerenergycenter.org/renewable/basics/hydro.html Ohio River Dam:  Ohio River Dam Ocean Turbine:  Ocean Turbine Loch Laggen Dam:  Loch Laggen Dam Distribution of Water:  Distribution of Water A Major Source of Wastage The major cause of these losses is the use of iron or reinforced cement pipes with overlapping joints which are sealed with tow. In time, the vibration of traffic, minor seismic activity and expansion and contraction from seasonal water temperature variations will create sufficient movement that the seals are no longer watertight. Even worse, glazed terra cotta pipes are also porous, where the glazing has been damaged: they are also provided in shorter lengths, so that there are more joints per kilometre Recycling of Water:  Recycling of Water Water is recycled throughout the cities and countries through filters and cleaning up in the waters. In some parts of the Chesapeake Bay, the water is said to have been used more than 7 times. Filtering of Water:  Filtering of Water Paper or fiber media – these use a paper or fiber media to trap particles. This is the least effectice form of filtration. But some chemicals may pass through Reverse Osmosis Filter:  Reverse Osmosis Filter These filters prodcue pure water by forcing untreated watre or tap water through a semi-permeable membrane. The membrane lets the water molecules pass through, but traps the impurities – and often some desirable minerals. This is a slow process for a residential-grade filter. It may only produce only a few quarts of pure water per day. Charcoal Filter:  Charcoal Filter These are used in icemaker filteres, under-counter filters, countertop filters, whole-house filters. These work on the principle of absorption. Large volumes of gagses, adhere to the charcoal. Its porosity gives it a very large “surface area” with which to absorb lots of impurities. Once with the impurities the filter stops to work and it will begin to stop Slide28:  Although H2O is considered to be pretty ordinary and dull, it happends to be one of the most remarkable substances in the world. Water may cause many countless lives while it could save and help many others. Water is a very important substance because it shows proof that there is life in that certain planet. Life cannot go on without water, which is why the question about water on Mars is a very important one. Slide29:  The hydrogen molecule H2O maybe a simple 3 atoms combined but it gets a more complicating as it goes along. The Hydrogen bond between the water molecules is one that cannot be found with out atoms Slide30:  Another special quality of the water molecule is the fact that it can connect with soo many, and it is all throughout the world. Even in our bodies, do these molecules roam and water also makes up more than 80% of the world. Bodies of Water in the U.S.:  Bodies of Water in the U.S. The Great Lakes: Superior, Michigan, Lake Huron, Erie, and Ontario, Lake Cora Lake Tahoe Lake Gogebic Lake Hamline The Great Lakes:  The Great Lakes stretches over more than 10 degrees longitude and 18 degrees latitude Contains 1/5 of the world's surface fresh water supply Holds an estimate of 6 quadrillion gallons of water Lake Superior:  Lake Superior Cora Lake:  Cora Lake How waves are formed in the Ocean:  How waves are formed in the Ocean Waves are an energy form It is formed through the friction between the wind and the surface of the water This creates small ripples that grow larger as the amount of time and distance grows If the body of water is larger, the wave becomes greater Water Pollution:  Water Pollution 10% of sewage remains untreated and drains into the water or seeps into the ground Lead can leak into drinking water from the pipes Organic chemicals such as benzene, dioxin, and pesticides also cause pollution in water Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 :  Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 signed into law on December 16, 1974 set limits on the amount of dangerous chemicals, bacteria, and metals in drinking water The purpose of this law is to ensure the quality of Americans' drinking water.  The Bad Side of Water:  The Bad Side of Water Hurricanes:  Hurricanes form in bodies of water that are prone to the heat of the sun. The sun heats up the water and causes the water to evaporate and form a hurricane. Evaporation from the seawater increases their power. They start rotating in a counter-clockwise spin around the eye Floods:  Floods Caused by the overflow of land or ocean waters, Unusual collection of surface waters or a mudflow Most floods develop over a series of days Bibliography:  Bibliography http://www.bergen.org/AAST/Projects/ES/WS/pollution.html www.epa.gov/region5/defs/html/sdwa.htm http://www.mvwa.us/drinkingact.htm http://www.sweetwatervisions.com/Pages/glinfo.html Slide43:  http://www.consumerenergycenter.org/renewable/basics/hydro.html http://www.fema.gov/kids/hurr.htm http://www.fema.gov/hazards/floods/

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