Published on May 8, 2008
第六讲 国际政治经济学中的贸易体系 Trade : 第六讲 国际政治经济学中的贸易体系 Trade Ⅰ. 国际领域内的贸易 Trade in the International rena Ⅱ. 文选讲读 Selected Reading Explanation Are Your Wages Set in Beijing? Ⅰ. 国际领域内的贸易: 当代自由贸易的缘起 当代自由贸易体制的发展 世界贸易组织的三项基本准则 GATT 和WTO的成功 乌拉圭回合谈判的重点 新的贸易壁垒 国际贸易领域内的争论焦点 Ⅰ. 国际领域内的贸易 当代自由贸易的缘起: 当代自由贸易的缘起 The international trade regime (GATT) constructed under American leadership after World War II and now embodied in the World Trade Organization (WTO) has facilitated the emergence of the most open international economy in modern history. WHY US led to build a free trade regime? WHY US led to build a free trade regime? : WHY US led to build a free trade regime? 1.The experience of Great Depression of the 1930s Protectionism – Depressions – International political instability – World War II. 2.To compete with Soviet Union. Bipolar system caused US to unite its alliance through free trade in terms of EONOMIC Affairs, the foundation of political stability in the Western Alliance. Drawing on these beliefs, the United States led the postwar fight for a new trade regime, to be based on the economic principle of comparative advantage. Money and Finance in the International Arena 当代自由贸易体制的发展: 当代自由贸易体制的发展 From the Plan of International Trade Organization (ITO) to The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) The Havana Charter chartered ITO completed in 1947 was not supported by US so it was died quick and quite. GATT was drawn up in 1947 to provide a basis for the trade negotiations and was finally replaced by the WTO in 1995. Since 1947, there have been eight rounds of negotiations, each resulting in a new treaty. 世界贸易组织的三项基本准则: 世界贸易组织的三项基本准则 The WTO is based on three primary norms. all members agree to extend unconditional most-favored-nation (MFN) status to one another.无条件最惠国待遇 the norm of reciprocity 互惠准则 “safeguards,” or loopholes (漏洞) and exceptions to other norms, are recognized as acceptable if they are temporary and imposed for short-term-balance of payments reasons. 各国因进口大增影响收支平衡时可以有例外 GATT 和WTO的成功: GATT 和WTO的成功 The GATT and WTO have been extremely successful in obtaining the declared goal of freer trade. Kennedy Round (1967): Tariffs declined to 10% in advanced countries Tokyo Round (1979): Tariffs reduced to 5% in these same countries Uruguay Round (1993): reduced remaining tariffs by a further 40% GATT 和WTO的成功: GATT 和WTO的成功 These significant reductions initiated an era of unprecedented growth in international trade, which continues today. (The growth of world trade is faster than the growth of world GDP) Trade increasing mainly in advanced countries Rapidly increasing in intra-firm trade (the exchange of goods within, rather than between, corporations) 乌拉圭回合谈判的重点: 乌拉圭回合谈判的重点 Issues of services and agricultural trade, which the Uruguay Round focused, were made onto the trade liberalization agenda. Limiting the regulations on services trade and reducing the agricultural subsidies can return to trade based on the principle of comparative advantage. 新的贸易壁垒: 新的贸易壁垒 While tariffs have been declining and trade increasing, however, new threats have emerged to the free-trade regime. Industry demands for some form of protection have multiplied in nearly all countries, and increasingly, governments have sought to satisfy these demands for protection through nontariff barriers to trade (NTB) such as voluntary export restraints etc. 国际贸易领域内的争论焦点: 国际贸易领域内的争论焦点 free trade versus protection influences of international trade on political cleavages within states trade and wages nontariff barriers and combination of domestic societal and “statist” variables regional trade agreements and domestic societal factors Ⅱ. Selected Reading Explanation : Ⅱ. Selected Reading Explanation Are Your Wages Set in Beijing? Richard B. Freeman Summary Richard B. Freeman : Richard B. Freeman Richard B. Freeman holds the Herbert Ascherman Chair in Economics at Harvard University. He is currently serving as Faculty Co-Chair of the Harvard University Trade Union Program. He is also director of the Labor Studies Program at the National Bureau of Economic Research, Senior Research Fellow in Labour Markets at the London School of Economics' Centre for Economic Performance, and visiting professor at the London School of Economics. Summary : Summary This article examines the growing literature and debate on the effect of trade on wages and employment. The author argues that there are good economic reasons for expecting trade to lead to the “immiseration of low-skilled workers in developed or capital-abundant states.” Factor prices, including wages, in different national markets that are open to trade should tend to converge. But trade cannot itself account for the scope of the existing problems, such as the falling of the wages of unskilled workers as well as the increasing of unemployment level in developed countries. Summary : Summary On the one side of the new debate are those who believe in factor price equalization – that in a global economy, the wages of workers in advanced countries. They fear that the wages or employment of the less skilled in advanced countries will be driven down due to competition from low-wage workers overseas. On the other side of the debate are those who reject the notion that the traded goods sector can determine labor outcomes in an entire economy or who stress that the deleterious effects of trade on demand for the less skilled are sufficiently modest to be offset readily through re-distributive social policies funded by the gain from trade.