Published on December 24, 2007
SOL Review: SOL Review United States History: 1877 to the Present Slide2: Equator (0 degrees latitude): an imaginary line that divides the Earth into northern and southern hemispheres. Map Skills Slide3: Prime Meridian (0 degrees longitude): an imaginary line that divides the Earth into eastern and western hemispheres. Slide4: Parallels Meridians Coordinates Slide5: Coordinates= 10 N, 0 o o What are the coordinates for the green dot? Understanding Maps: Understanding Maps Compass Rose (shows cardinal directions) Scale (Measures Distance) Title of map (subject of the Map) Key or Legend (explains symbols) Insert Map (small map within a larger map) Slide7: Northeast Southeast Midwest Southwest Rocky Mountains Pacific How can we group the United States? Noncontiguous Slide8: Why did the people moving west see the Great Plains not as a “treeless wasteland” but as a vast area to be settled? Flatlands that rise gradually from east to west Land eroded by wind and water low rainfall Frequent dust storms Barbed wire Steel plows Dry Farming Sod Houses Beef cattle raising Wheat Farming Windmills Railroads Slide9: Iron ore How did advances in transportation link resources, products, and markets? Transportation of resources (e.g., train) Moving natural resources (e.g., copper and lead) to eastern factories Moving iron ore deposits to sites of steel mills (e.g., Pittsburg) Transporting finished products to national markets E = Still Mills + Pittsburg Train Examples of Manufacturing areas: Examples of Manufacturing areas Automobile Industry – Detroit Textiles Industries – New England Steel Industry -- Pittsburg Slide11: Why did westward expansion occur? Opportunities for land ownership Technological advances, including the Transcontinental Railroad Possibilty of wealth---discovery of Gold and Silver Adventure A new beginning for former slaves Reason for increased immigration: Reason for increased immigration choices Reasons why cities developed: Reasons why cities developed Specialized industries including steel (Pittsburg), meat packing (Chicago) Movement of Americans from rural to urban areas for job opportunities Immigration from other countries Inventions that contributed to great change and industrial growth: Inventions that contributed to great change and industrial growth Lighting and mechanical uses of electricity (Thomas Edison) Telephone service (Alexander Graham Bell) Slide15: Rapid Industrialization and Urbanization caused immigrant neighborhoods and tenements to become overcrowded Slide16: What efforts were made to solve the immigration problems? Settlement Houses, such as Hull Houses were built (Jane Addams) Political machines that gained power by attending to the needs of new Immigrants (e.g., jobs, housing) Learn (sewing, cooking, and, English) Slide17: Interaction and conflict between different cultural groups Indian policies and wars -Reservations -Battle of Little Bighorn -Chief Joseph Discrimination against immigrants -Chinese -Irish Slide18: Tenements and Ghettos Political corruption (political machines) Challenges faced by cities Racial segregation- Jim Crow Laws: Racial segregation- Jim Crow Laws Based upon race Directed primarily against African Americans, but other groups also were kept segregated “Jim Crow” laws were passed to discriminate against African Americans. (unequal opportunities in housing, work, education, and government) African American Response: African American Response Reasons for rise and prosperity of big business: Reasons for rise and prosperity of big business Factors resulting in growth of industry: Factors resulting in growth of industry Access to raw materials and energy Availability of work force Inventions Financial resources Examples of big business Railroads Oil Steel Postwar changes in farm and city life: Postwar changes in farm and city life Mechanization (e.g., the reaper) had reduced farm labor needs and increased production. Industrial development in cities created increased labor needs. Negative effects of industrialization: Negative effects of industrialization Child labor Low wages, long hours Unsafe working conditions Rise of organized labor: Rise of organized labor Formation of unions—Growth of American Federation of Labor Strikes—Aftermath of Homestead Strike Progressive Movement workplace reforms: Progressive Movement workplace reforms Improved safety conditions Reduced work hours Placed restrictions on child labor Women’s suffrage: Women’s suffrage Increased educational opportunities Attained voting rights Women gained the right to vote with passage of the 19th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America. Susan B. Anthony worked for women’s suffrage. Temperance Movement: Temperance Movement Composed of groups opposed to the making and consuming of alcohol Supported 18th Amendment prohibiting the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcoholic beverages Reasons for the Spanish American War: Reasons for the Spanish American War Protection of American business interests in Cuba American support of Cuban rebels to gain independence from Spain Rising tensions as a result of the sinking of the U.S.S. Maine in Havana Harbor Teddy Roosevelt and the Rough Riders Exaggerated news reports of events (Yellow Journalism) Results of the Spanish American War: Results of the Spanish American War The United States emerged as a world power. Cuba gained independence from Spain. The United States gained possession of the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Reasons for U.S. involvement World War I: Reasons for U.S. involvement World War I Inability to remain neutral German submarine warfare— sinking of Lusitania U.S. economic and political ties to Great Britain World War I Opponents : World War I Opponents U.S. leadership as the war ended: U.S. leadership as the war ended At the end of World War I, President Woodrow Wilson prepared a peace plan that called for the formation of the League of Nations, a peace-keeping organization. The United States decided not to join the League of Nations. Results of improved transportation brought by affordable automobiles: Results of improved transportation brought by affordable automobiles Greater mobility Creation of jobs Growth of transportation-related industries (road construction, oil, steel, automobile) Movement to suburban areas Slide35: Invention of the airplane Wright brothers Use of the assembly line Henry Ford Communication changes: Communication changes Ways electrification changed American life: Ways electrification changed American life Prohibition: Prohibition Prohibition was imposed by a constitutional amendment that made it illegal to manufacture, transport, and sell alcoholic beverages. Results of Prohibition: Results of Prohibition Great Migration north: Great Migration north Jobs for African Americans in the South were scarce and low paying. African Americans faced discrimination and violence in the South. African Americans moved to northern cities in search of better employment opportunities. African Americans also faced discrimination and violence in the North. New York Cultural climate of the 1920s and 1930s: Cultural climate of the 1920s and 1930s Harlem Renaissance: Harlem Renaissance African American artists, writers, and musicians based in Harlem revealed the freshness and variety of African American culture. Popularity of these artists spread to the rest of society. Causes of the Great Depression: Causes of the Great Depression People over speculated on stocks, using borrowed money that they could not repay when stock prices crashed. End of the Roaring 20’s The Federal Reserve failed to prevent the collapse of the banking system. High tariffs strangled international trade. Stock Market Impact on Americans: Impact on Americans Major features of the New Deal: Major features of the New Deal Social Security Federal work programs Environmental improvement programs Farm assistance programs Increased rights for labor Franklin D. Roosevelt Causes of World War II: Causes of World War II Political instability and economic devastation in Europe resulting from World War I Worldwide depression High war debt owed by Germany High inflation Massive unemployment Continued causes of World War II: Continued causes of World War II Rise of Fascism Fascism is a political philosophy in which total power is given to a dictator and individual freedoms are denied. Fascist dictators included Adolf Hitler (Germany), Benito Mussolini (Italy), and Hideki Tojo (Japan). These dictators led the countries that became known as the Axis Powers. The Allies: The Allies Democratic nations (the United States, Great Britain, Canada) were known as the Allies. The Soviet Union joined the Allies after being invaded by Germany. Allied leaders included Franklin D. Roosevelt and later Harry S. Truman (United States), Winston Churchill (Great Britain), Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union) (The Big Three) Gradual change in American policy from neutrality to involvement: Gradual change in American policy from neutrality to involvement Isolationism (Great Depression, legacy of World War I) Economic aid to Allies Direct involvement in the war War in the Pacific: War in the Pacific Rising tension developed between the United States and Japan because of Japanese aggression in East Asia. On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked the United States at Pearl Harbor without warning. Roosevelt -“A day that will live in infamy.” The United States declared war on Japan. Germany declared war on the United States. Slide51: December 7, 1941—A Day of Infamy Major events and turning points of World War II: Major events and turning points of World War II Germany invaded Poland, setting off war in Europe. The Soviet Union also invaded Poland and the Baltic nations. Germany invaded France, capturing Paris. Germany bombed London and the Battle of Britain began. The United States gave Britain war supplies and old naval warships in return for military bases in Bermuda and the Caribbean. World War II--Pacific: World War II--Pacific Japan bombed Pearl Harbor. After Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, Germany declared war on the United States. The United States declared war on Japan and Germany. The United States was victorious over Japan in the Battle of Midway. This victory was the turning point of the war in the Pacific. Pearl Harbor Midway WWII Ends: WWII Ends Germany invaded the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union defeated Germany at Stalingrad, marking the turning point of the war in Europe American and Allied troops landed in Normandy, France, on D-Day to begin the liberation of Western Europe. (Treaty of Versailles) The United States dropped two atomic bombs on Japan (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) in 1945, forcing Japan to surrender and ending World War II. The Holocaust: The Holocaust Anti-Semitism Aryan supremacy Systematic attempt to rid Europe of all Jews Tactics (Propaganda) Boycott of Jewish stores Threats Concentration Camps: Concentration Camps Segregation Imprisonment and killing of Jews and others in concentration camps Liberation by Allied forces of Jews and others in concentration camps Home Front during WWII: Home Front during WWII American involvement in World War II brought an end to the Great Depression. Factories and workers were needed to produce goods to win the war. Thousands of American women took jobs in defense plants during the war (e.g., Rosie the Riveter). Rationing and Workers on the Home Front: Rationing and Workers on the Home Front Americans at home supported the war by conserving and rationing resources. The need for workers temporarily broke down some racial barriers (e.g., hiring in defense plants) although discrimination against African Americans continued. Japanese Americans on the Home Front: Japanese Americans on the Home Front While many Japanese Americans served in the armed forces, others were treated with distrust and prejudice, and many were forced into internment camps. Europe Rebuilds after WWII: Europe Rebuilds after WWII Much of Europe was in ruins The United States wants to rebuild Europe and prevent political and economic instability. The United States instituted George C. Marshall’s plan to rebuild Europe (the Marshall Plan), which provided massive financial aid to rebuild European economies and prevent the spread of communism. Europe Divided: Europe Divided West Germany became democratic and resumed self-government after a few years of American, British, and French occupation. East Germany, Eastern Europe, and Central Europe remained under the domination of the Soviet Union and did not adopt democratic institutions. Japan: Japan Following its defeat, Japan was occupied by American forces. It soon adopted a democratic form of government, resumed self-government, and became a strong ally of the United States. Establishment of the United Nations: Establishment of the United Nations The United Nations was formed near the end of World War II to create a body for the nations of the world to try to prevent future global wars. Reasons for rapid growth of American economy following World War II: Reasons for rapid growth of American economy following World War II With rationing of consumer goods over, business converted from production of war materials to consumer goods. Americans purchased goods on credit. The workforce shifted back to men, and most women returned to family responsibilities. Rapid Growth of America Continued: Rapid Growth of America Continued Labor unions merged and became more powerful; workers gained new benefits and higher salaries. As economic prosperity continued and technology boomed, the next generation of women re-entered the labor force in large numbers. Cold War: Cold War State of tension between the United States and the Soviet Union without actual fighting that divided the world into two camps Origins of the Cold War: Origins of the Cold War Differences in goals and ideologies between the two superpowers—The United States was democratic and capitalist; the Soviet Union was dictatorial and communist. The Soviet Union’s dominated over Eastern European countries Cold War continued: Cold War continued American policy of containment (to stop the spread of communism) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) versus Warsaw Pact Major conflicts in the post-World War II era: Major conflicts in the post-World War II era South Korea and the United States resisted Chinese and North Korean aggression. The conflict ended in a stalemate. Korean War The Cuban Missile Crisis: The Cuban Missile Crisis Occurred when the Soviet Union placed missiles in Cuba. The Soviets removed the missiles in response to a U.S. blockade. “Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country”. Vietnam Conflict: Vietnam Conflict The United States intervened to stop the spread of communism into South Vietnam (Domino Theory). Americans were divided over whether the United States should be involved militarily in Vietnam. The conflict ended in a cease-fire agreement in which U.S. troops withdrew. Red’s Attack Communism Collapse of Communism in Europe: Collapse of Communism in Europe Breakup of the Soviet Union into independent countries Destruction of Berlin Wall New challenges: New challenges Role of U.S. military intervention Environmental challenges Global issues, including trade, jobs, diseases Factors leading to changing patterns in U.S. society: Factors leading to changing patterns in U.S. society Strong economy (healthy job market, increased productivity, increased demand for American products) Greater investment in education “The Baby Boom,” which led to changing demographics Factors leading to changing patterns in U.S. society continued: Factors leading to changing patterns in U.S. society continued Interstate highway system Evolving role of women (expected to play supporting role in the family, but increasingly working outside the home) Role of Eleanor Roosevelt in expanding women’s rights Changes in make-up of immigrants after 1965 (e.g., Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans) Policies and programs expanding educational and employment opportunities: Policies and programs expanding educational and employment opportunities G.I. Bill of Rights gave educational, housing, and employment benefits to World War II veterans. Truman desegregated the armed forces. Civil Rights legislation led to increased educational, economic, and political opportunities for women and minorities. Some effects of segregation: Some effects of segregation Separate educational facilities and resources for white and African American students Separate public facilities (e.g., restrooms, drinking fountains, restaurants) Social isolation of races Civil Rights Movement: Civil Rights Movement Opposition to Plessy v. Ferguson “Separate but equal” Brown v. Board of Education, desegregation of schools Civil Rights Movement Continued: Martin Luther King, Jr.—Passive resistance against segregated facilities; “I have a dream…” speech Civil Rights Movement Continued Civil Rights Movement Continued: Civil Rights Movement Continued Rosa Parks—Montgomery bus boycott Organized protests, Freedom Riders, sit-ins, marches Expansion of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Civil Rights Movement Continued: Civil Rights Movement Continued Civil Rights Act of 1964 Voting Rights Act of 1965 Changing role of women: Changing role of women Discrimination in hiring practices against women Lower wages for women than for men doing the same job Improved conditions Federal legislation to force colleges to give women equal athletic opportunities The Equal Rights Amendment, despite its failure, and a focus on equal opportunity employment created a wider range of options and advancement for women in business and public service. Industries benefiting from new technologies: Industries benefiting from new technologies Impact of new technologies on American life: Impact of new technologies on American life Increased domestic and international travel for business and pleasure Greater access to news and other information Cheaper and more convenient means of communication Greater access to heating and air-conditioning Decreased regional variation, resulting from nationwide access to entertainment and information provided by national television and computers.