a brief history of surfing

Information about a brief history of surfing

Published on February 4, 2008

Author: Bertrando

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Lane Hollister login: lhollist sid: W0159947 date: June 6, 2006 Hw #7 can be seen at: http://people.uscs.edu/~lhollist/ :  Lane Hollister login: lhollist sid: W0159947 date: June 6, 2006 Hw #7 can be seen at: http://people.uscs.edu/~lhollist/ surfing:  surfing Origins Surfing Equipment Surfing Culture Surfing Conditions Origins :  Origins People were surfing in Hawaii by AD 400, but nobody knows when this practice started. Captain James Cook, a British sea captain and explorer, was the first European to witness surfing in Hawaii in the late 1770s. When the missionaries from the United States arrived in 1821, Hawaiian traditions and cultural practices were forbidden or discouraged, which included leisure sports like surfing and holua sledding. By the twentieth century, surfing, along with other traditional practices, had all but disappeared from widespread practice. Some Hawaiians continued to practice the sport and art of crafting boards from local woods. At the start of the twentieth century, Hawaiians living close to Waikiki began a revival of surfing, possibly in protest to the illegal overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom, and they re-established surfing as a sport. In 1908, the sport of surfing reached California, and it then began to spread to other parts of the United States and other countries. Duke Kahanamoku, "Ambassador of Aloha," Olympic medalist, and avid waterman, rightfully introduced surfing to the world, although authors like Jack London wrote about the sport after having attempted surfing on his visit to the islands. Surfing Equipment :  Surfing Equipment Surfing can be done on various pieces of equipment, including surfboards, bodyboards, wave skis, kneeboards and surf mat. Most modern surfboards are made of polyurethane foam (with one or more wooden strips or "stringers"), fiberglass cloth, and polyester resin. An emerging surf technology is an epoxy surfboard, which are stronger and lighter than traditional fiberglass. Equipment used in surfing includes a leash (to keep a surfer's board from washing to shore after a "wipeout", and to prevent it from hitting other surfers), surf wax and/or traction pads (to keep a surfers feet from slipping off the deck of the board), and "fins" (also known as "skegs") which can either be permanently attached ("glassed-on") or interchangeable. In warmer climates swimsuits, surf trunks, or boardshorts are worn; in cold water surfers can opt to wear wetsuits, boots, hoods, and gloves to protect them against lower water temperatures. Surfing Culture:  Surfing Culture Competitive surfing is a comparison sport. Riders, competing in pairs or small groups, are allocated a certain amount of time to ride waves and display their prowess and mastery of the craft. Competitors are then judged according to how competently the wave is ridden, including the level of difficulty, as well as frequency of maneuvers. There is a professional surfing world surfing championship series held annually at surf beaches around the world. Although competitive surfing has become an extremely popular and lucrative activity, both for its participants and its sponsors, the sport does not have its origins as a competitive pursuit. It is common to hear debate rage between purists of the sport, who still maintain the ideal of "soul surfing", and surfers who engage in the competitive and, consequently, commercial side of the activity. A non-competitive adventure activity involving riding the biggest waves possible (known as "rhino hunting") is also popular with some surfers. A practice popularized in the 1990’s has seen big wave surfing revolutionized, as surfers use jet skis to tow them out to a position where they can catch previously unrideable waves (see tow-in surfing). These waves were previously unrideable due to the speed at which they travel. Some waves reach speeds of over 60 km/h; jetskis enable surfers to reach the speed of the wave thereby making them rideable. Jet skis not only allow surfers to ride these waves but allow them to survive wipeouts. In many instances surfers would not survive the battering of the "sets" (groups of waves together) without drowning. Many surfers are seen as territorial, hence the expression "locals only.” The expression "Surf Nazi" appeared in the 1980s to describe territorial and authoritarian surfers. Other surfers, however, known as "soul surfers", hold less aggressive views towards others. These surfers see surfing as more than a sport; it is an opportunity to harness the waves in and to relax and forget about their daily routines. This type of surfing has seen a rise in popularity recently. Global warming, environmental damage, and increasing riparian development may continue to increase pressure on the sport. Global warming may produce bigger waves...or a return, through altering ocean currents, to a new ice age. Oil spills and toxic algae growth can threaten surfing regions. And, many wealthy homeowners have tried to prevent free access to beaches in violation of English and American common law traditions, in which "the strand" is not private property. Some of these stresses may be overcome by building of artificial reefs for surfing. Several have been built in recent years, and there is widespread enthusiasm in the global surfing community for additional projects. However, environmental opposition and rigorous coastal permitting regulations is dampening prospects for building such reefs in some countries, such as the United States Surf Conditions:  Surf Conditions There are a number of factors that influence the shape and quality of breaking waves. These include the bathymetry of the surf break, the direction and size of the swell, the direction and strength of the wind and the ebb and flow of the tide. Swell is generated when wind blows consistently over a large area of open water, called the wind's fetch. The size of a swell is determined by the strength of the wind and the length of its fetch. So, surf tends to be larger and more prevalent on coastlines exposed to large expanses of ocean traversed by intense low pressure systems. Local wind conditions affect wave quality, since the rideable surface of a wave can become choppy in blustery conditions. Ideal surf conditions include a light to moderate strength "offshore" wind, since this blows into the front of the wave. Nowadays, however, surf forecasting is aided by advances in information technology, whereby mathematical modelling graphically depicts the size and direction of swells moving around the globe.

Related presentations


Other presentations created by Bertrando

intro to electric propulsion
16. 01. 2008
0 views

intro to electric propulsion

CHEP04 OpenScientist
10. 01. 2008
0 views

CHEP04 OpenScientist

Alkanes
16. 01. 2008
0 views

Alkanes

laughing matter
17. 01. 2008
0 views

laughing matter

Mullins rev
17. 01. 2008
0 views

Mullins rev

GATBook PRESS Presentation
24. 01. 2008
0 views

GATBook PRESS Presentation

e3 chap 16
04. 02. 2008
0 views

e3 chap 16

complex sentences
29. 01. 2008
0 views

complex sentences

ttxpresentation1
06. 02. 2008
0 views

ttxpresentation1

Lecture 26 0
07. 02. 2008
0 views

Lecture 26 0

Inspiration lindberg
07. 02. 2008
0 views

Inspiration lindberg

Lecture 17 Power Point
07. 02. 2008
0 views

Lecture 17 Power Point

ErgonomicsinRTW
05. 03. 2008
0 views

ErgonomicsinRTW

Heirs of God ppt
15. 01. 2008
0 views

Heirs of God ppt

Meso
12. 02. 2008
0 views

Meso

ifilm media kit
19. 03. 2008
0 views

ifilm media kit

midterm
21. 03. 2008
0 views

midterm

Adriannes Presentation
03. 04. 2008
0 views

Adriannes Presentation

030806 garton
28. 03. 2008
0 views

030806 garton

596 ARP Draft Rpt CID
08. 04. 2008
0 views

596 ARP Draft Rpt CID

CivRtsSec3
16. 04. 2008
0 views

CivRtsSec3

EUROPEAN ECONOMIC SURVEY 2003en
23. 04. 2008
0 views

EUROPEAN ECONOMIC SURVEY 2003en

LSE140206
24. 04. 2008
0 views

LSE140206

20010503e1a
07. 05. 2008
0 views

20010503e1a

roots part2
02. 05. 2008
0 views

roots part2

CELA Post Test Training
11. 01. 2008
0 views

CELA Post Test Training

Chap5 96
04. 02. 2008
0 views

Chap5 96

BeckerDFPPT
14. 01. 2008
0 views

BeckerDFPPT

latinapncsy
15. 01. 2008
0 views

latinapncsy

LAT EQUIP RQMNTS CE CS
21. 01. 2008
0 views

LAT EQUIP RQMNTS CE CS