AGU 2002

Information about AGU 2002

Published on October 3, 2007

Author: Techy_Guy

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Slide1:  References and Publications Fuller, R.D and D.J. Stensrud, 2000: The relationship between tropical easterly waves and surges over the Gulf of California during the North American monsoon. Mon. Wea. Rev. 128 (8): 2983-2989. Gochis, D.J., W.J. Shuttleworth, Z-L. Yang, 2002a: Sensitivity of the modeled North American Monsoon regional climate to convective parameterization. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130: 1282-1298. Gochis, D.J., J.-C. Leal, C.J. Watts, and W.J. Shuttleworth, 2002b: NAME Surface Raingage Network Station Files. Technical Document, available from authors upon request.   Gochis, D.J. and W. J. Shuttleworth, 2002c: The hydrometeorological response of the modeled North American Monsoon to convective parameterization. In Press, J. of Hydrometeorology Acknowledgements Support for this work was provided in part by the NOAA Joint CLIVAR/PACS-GEWEX/GAPP North American Warm Season Precipitation Initiative: Contract No. NA16GP2002 and by the Advanced Study Program at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. 1NCAR/ASP/RAP (E-mail: [email protected]); 2IMADES, Hermosillo, Son. MX; 3HWR, Univ. Arizona; 4ITSON, Obregon, Son. MX Precipitation from the North American Monsoon system provides a critical water resource for much of southwestern North America. Proceeding southward from the southern Rocky Mountains into southwestern Mexico selected streamflow hydrographs (See Figure 1) reveal an increasing summer signal in the monthly percent of annual flows. In convectively driven regimes such as the NAM, understanding the time and space critical precipitation characteristics is essential for developing increased predictability in streamflow and ultimately on water resources. ABSTRACT Although existing surface networks and the recent development of satellite-derived precipitation products have elucidated some features of convective activity over the core region of the North American Monsoon (NAM), a detailed examination of the spatial and temporal structure of such activity has, until recently, been prohibited by the lack of a surface observation network with adequate temporal and spatial resolution. Specifically, the current network of sparsely spaced climate stations in the rugged terrain of northwestern Mexico inhibits a detailed diagnosis of the timing, intensity, and duration of convective rainfall in general, and of the topographic-convective relationship in particular. This, in turn, limits the development of the predictive skill needed for weather risk mitigation and the dynamic management of water resources. This presentation details the installation and maintenance of an enhanced surface raingage network in the core region of the North American Monsoon, in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) mountains of northwestern Mexico. Data obtained from this network has proven invaluable for the purposes of diagnosing the topographic dependency of diurnal convective precipitation and providing a rich, time-dependent, verification database for mesoscale hydrometeorological modeling efforts in the NAM region. Additionally, the enhanced observing network supported under this contract will provide important 'ground-truth' data for remote sensing platforms deployed as part for the North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) field campaign during the summer of 2004. Brief, descriptive analyses are presented using data collected during the 2002 NAM, which has proven to be a drier than normal year, and plans for future enhancements are outlined. MOTIVATION… Project Research Goals: To install, maintain, and collect data from a new network of rain-gages comprising multiple transects accessible by road that sample the intensity of and topographic influence on precipitation in the Sierra Madre Occidental mountains of Northwest Mexico. To make hydrologically relevant analyses of the data from the new observation network, including the derivation of intensity-duration-frequency analyses and definition of the observed precipitation gradient relative to topography. Table 1. Summary Installation Data and Wet-Day Analysis for PHASE 1 Gages, Summer 2002 Figure 2. PHASE 1 Raingages (blue circles) and instrumentation expected to be deployed during the NAME Intensive Observation Program (IOP) in July-Aug 2004. Figure 2b. Overlay of PHASE 1 gages with topography divided into 500m elevation bands Figure 3. The Relation of the Percent of Wet-Days to Elevation There appears to be a general relationship between elevation and the frequency of precipitation events 0.254mm (0.01 in). This relationship is not linear, though, as maximum wet-day occurrence appears to exist around 1500-2500m in elevation, well below the height of the highest terrain in the SMO. PHASE 1 Activities: The Diurnal Cycle of Precipitation: PHASE 2 Activities – Spring 2003 The elevation gradient along the western slope of the SMO is steep. From Fig. 2b, there is comparatively little terrain in the 1000 m- 1500 m elevation band. Valley elevations lie between 400-1000 m (orange and green colors) while plateau and ridgeline elevations are over 1500 m. Consequently, sampling in the 1000-1500 m band is deficient and complicates the precipitation-elevation relationship in Fig. 3. PHASE 2 enhancements will increase sampling in this interval. As can be seen from Fig. 2, the currently installed network consists primarily of multiple West-East transects which follow regional transportation corridors. These corridors provide access through the formidable Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) mountains. While the network does not present an optimal configuration for measuring the spatial (i.e. horizontal) distribution of convective rainfall, it provides effective longitudinal and elevation sampling of precipitation at instantaneous rates while maintaining accessibility to measurement sites for protection, routine maintenance and downloading of data. Twenty-one of the new raingages are collocated with existing daily-observation climate stations operated by the Comission Nacional del Agua (CNA), which facilitates error checking and quality control in the processing of precipitation data. Installing a portion of the new raingages within existing CNA enclosures also provides improved security and maintenance of the overall observation network, which increases its long-term viability. Therefore, the network configuration presents a practical compromise between fulfilling the specified scientific objectives and limiting equipment and labor expenditures. In addition to the automatic, tipping-bucket raingage network, 12 bulk rainfall collectors were deployed at selected sites for the collection and analysis of stable isotopes. They can potentially serve as atmospheric and terrestrial tracers of moisture sources, paths and processes. These sites, shown as white squares on Figure 1, are intended to sample the longitudinal and elevational gradient of stable isotope content in monsoon rainwater, most prominently O18. Figure 4a shows the diurnal cycle for hourly precipitation for all days of record while Figure 4b shows the same diurnal cycle for wet days only. From both figures, it is clear that there is a distinct precipitation maximum in the early afternoon, beginning around 1300 LST, and continuing until early evening, around 1800 LST. The exact timing of the maximum is dependent upon elevation. The highest mean rain rates in the all-day diurnal cycle (Figure 4a) are on the order of 0.55 mm/hr, and occur in El. Bands 4 and 5 (1500 m - 2000 m and 2000 m - 2500 m, respectively). The wet-day diurnal cycle averages shown in Figure 4b show several differences from the all-day averages in Figure 4a. Most remarkable is the large increase in peak mean hourly rain rate in the lowest elevation band (El. Band 1, 0-500 m) which now possesses the highest average peak rate at over 1.1 mm/hr. Increases in mean rain rate occur within all elevation bands, but the effect is clearly most pronounced in El. Band 1. This indicates that while precipitation may be less frequent at lower elevations, there is a tendency for such events to be of greater intensity. Approximately 50 additional gages will be installed during the spring of 2003, which will increase the number of tipping-bucket gages in the network to 100. Proposed locations for new raingage sites are shown as yellow dots in Figure 2a. One additional ‘super-transect’ will be installed, which will proceed from the southern coast of Sinaloa, near Mazatlan, northeastward to the capitol city of Victoria de Durango. This addition will form the fourth super-transect, which completely traverses the Gulf of California coastal plain and the cordillera of the SMO. Continued installation of small transects inland from the coast is planned as well. Combined with the larger super transects these smaller transects provide the dual benefit of characterizing the precipitation gradient along the western slope of the SMO as well as enhancing latitudinal coverage of propagating disturbances, such as ‘gulf surges’, (e.g. Fuller and Stensrud, 2000) which move in parallel to the axis of the Gulf of California. Remaining gages will fill critical gaps in the existing network. For reference, several remote sensing platforms, which are expected to be operational during the NAME Intensive Observation Period (IOP) in the summer of 2004, are shown in Figure 2a. Deployed radars, in particular, will provide valuable information on the 3-dimensional distribution of rainwater, which, when properly calibrated by surface raingages, yield detailed information on land-falling precipitation characteristics across the core NAM region. David J. Gochis1, Juan-Carlos Leal2, W. James Shuttleworth3, Christopher J. Watts2, Jaime Garatuza Payan4 Fig. 1

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