AI

Information about AI

Published on April 30, 2008

Author: Spencer

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Artificial Intelligence:  Artificial Intelligence Presentation by: Joshua Milstein, Victor Abbott, Jeffrey Walczak, Charlotte Collins, and Jennifer Graven The history of artificial intelligence:  The history of artificial intelligence History of ai:  History of ai What is AI? -Intelligence exhibited by an artificial entity. -A system that perceives an environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success based on information given by a programmer. -It is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, software, games, and toys. History of ai:  History of ai Important people in the early study of AI Alan Turing -Father of modern computer science -Concept of the algorithm -In mathematics, an algorithm is a definite list of well-defined instructions for completing a task that will proceed through a series of consecutive states, eventually terminating in an end-state John McCarthy -Professor of Computer Science at Stanford University -Coined the term Artificial Intelligence in 1955 -His research area has been the formalization of common sense knowledge History of ai:  History of ai Robotics -Machines that usually mimic human motion to perform automated tasks -Robots can be given perception systems that allow observation and reaction to their environment. History of ai:  History of ai Early Robots with AI -1969: Shakey, a robot, combines locomotion, perception and problem solving -1979: The first computer-controlled autonomous vehicle, the Stanford Cart, is built. -Lester Earnest -Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory History of ai:  History of ai Games: Pac-Man -AI gives each enemy ghost its own particular behavior and movements: -Shadow: RED - chases after Pac-Man all the time. -Speedy: PINK - Very fast but moves in a random manner. -Bashful: BLUE - Shy at first but becomes aggressive when Pac-Man gets close. -Pokey: ORANGE - Slow and moves in a random manner -The AI gives unpredictability of movement and behavior giving the ghosts an “inner life” History of ai:  History of ai Toys Tomagotchi -A handheld digital pet created in 1996 -Created by Aki Maita and sold by Bandai. Furby -A toy robot made by Tiger Electronics -Original release in 1998 through 2000 -Created by Dave Hampton and Caleb Chung -Furby includes both sensors and affectors. -Enabling it to "sense" information from the environment and permit a response to the environment. -These are toys that learn in increasingly more and more complex ways, exhibiting what we can call artificial intelligence. What is artificial intelligence?:  What is artificial intelligence? What is ai?:  What is ai? What is artificial intelligence? -Defined as, “The study of intelligent behavior and the attempt to find ways in which such behavior could be engineered in any type of artifact.” -Basically, “putting human intelligence into a machine” What is ai?:  What is ai? The Problem -Human intelligence is currently not fully understood -There is no method of determining when a machine is actually intelligent What is ai?:  What is ai? The Divisions -AI’s definition leads to divisions in what AI refers to -Two General Types: -Weak AI -Strong AI What is ai?:  What is ai? Weak AI -Weak AI refers to AI that only simulates human thoughts and actions -Actions, decisions, and ideas are programmed into it -They mimic humans based on their programming -All current forms of AI are Weak AI What is ai?:  What is ai? Strong AI -Strong AI refers to AI that matches or exceeds human intelligence -Example: The robots from the movies Matrix, Terminator, I Robot, etc. -Also called “True AI,” as they are truly intelligent -They don’t just simulate humans, they are intelligent on their own What is ai?:  What is ai? Strong AI Characteristics -Independent reasoning -Able to learn freely and adapt -Self-aware -Free will What is ai?:  What is ai? The Problem (again) -To create strong AI, we need to know what intelligence is -Without that understanding, we won’t know when AI reaches that level -Currently, our only reference is human intelligence, which we don’t fully understand What is ai?:  What is ai? The Question: Is this machine intelligent or not? -This question currently does not have a yes or no answer. -John McCarthy’s explanation: “Intelligence involves mechanisms, and AI research has discovered how to make computers carry out some of them and not others. If doing a task requires only mechanisms that are well understood today, computer programs can give very impressive performances on these tasks. Such programs should be considered “somewhat intelligent” Examples of Current artificial intelligence:  Examples of Current artificial intelligence Current AI:  Current AI AI in your everyday life Cars Self-parking Cruise control Speech recognition Banks Monitoring for fraud Cell Phones Voice recognition Internet Search Engines Safety Vision recognition for life-guarding Sports Physical exams Current AI:  Current AI Intelligent Homes Passive infrared sensors Temperature sensors Water heating control Central heating control Magnetic door and window contacts Electricity and light sensors Current AI:  Current AI Military -Unnamed aerial vehicles -Autonomous submersibles -Unmanned surveillance in shallow waters Current AI:  Current AI Medicine Computer enabled overlays (used during surgery) Learning Retinal Implant System Hearing aids Current AI:  Current AI Toys 20Q (20 Questions ball) Roboraptor, Pleo and Rex Aibo Lego Mindstorms Amazing Amanda doll Current AI:  Current AI Intelligent Games Computer Chess -explores huge numbers of potential future moves by both players but has taught us little about human-like intelligence Herzog Zwei and Dune II -the first games to use AI, but were very unsuccessful Battle Cruiser3000AD and Creatures -first to use neural networks and emergent behavior Far Cry -exhibited very advanced AI for its time, although this made minor glitches more apparent Half- Life -first combat oriented game to incorporate a significant amount of Artificial Intelligence into its game play The Future of artificial intelligence:  The Future of artificial intelligence FUTURE of AI:  FUTURE of AI Predicting the Future -Predicting the future is always a hit and miss proposition, writes Kevin Anderson. FUTURE of AI:  FUTURE of AI Gradual Change -Despite the rapid advance of technology, the advent of strong AI will be a gradual process -"The road from here to there is through thousands of these benign steps," said by Mr. Kurzweil, author of two books on AI FUTURE of AI:  FUTURE of AI The Near Future -Right now, Dr Brooks says that artificial intelligence is about at the same place the personal computer industry was in 1978 -In 1978, the Apple II was a year old and Atari had just introduced the 400 and 800 FUTURE of AI:  FUTURE of AI Jobs/Work -Even now we have Robots taking over jobs. -Right now Japan uses about 320 robots of all sorts per 10,000 employees, while Germany uses 148 industrial robots per 10,000 employees, Italy 116, Sweden 99 and between 50 and 80 each in the United States. FUTURE of AI:  FUTURE of AI The Chinese Room The Chinese Room argument makes the claim that, if a machine acts intelligently then it has a "mind", "understanding" and "conscious experience". FUTURE of AI:  FUTURE of AI The Distant Future -“A.I. and Robots are running 40 years behind computers,” said Dr Harvey -Although they are far behind it will only be a matter of time before they become as regular as cell phones are in your everyday life FUTURE of AI:  FUTURE of AI AI is everywhere -In fact, artificial intelligence already inhabits our lives -“Fuel injection systems in our cars use learning algorithms. Jet turbines are designed using genetic algorithms, which are both examples of AI,” says Dr Rodney Brooks, the director of MIT's artificial intelligence laboratory. FUTURE of AI:  FUTURE of AI The Artificial World We Live In -A article written by Doug Yurchey -“The Universe is unreal. Life is unreal. Nature is not natural. Do we really live in The Matrix?” Questions:  Questions Who coined the term ‘Artificial Intelligence’? Alan Turing John McCarthy (X) Jeffrey Walczak _______ is a toy that has both sensors and affectors. (Furby) All forms of current artificial intelligence are ________ artificial intelligence. (weak) _______ AI is another name for Strong AI. (True) _______ was the first combat oriented game to incorporate a significant amount of Artificial Intelligence into its game play. (Half Life) ________ enable surgeons to do their work in 1/3 less time and to undertake operations that would have been too risky otherwise. (Computer enabled overlays) Dr Harvey says that AI and robots are running ______ years behind computers. (40 ) The ________ argument makes the claim that, if a machine acts intelligently then it has a "mind", "understanding" and "conscious experience". (Chinese Room) (*extra questions are in black)

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