Published on October 17, 2007
Automation Examples1.2 Exemples de sites automatisés Beispiele Automatisierungssysteme: Prof. Dr. H. Kirrmann EPFL /ABB Research Center, Baden, Switzerland Industrial Automation Automation Industrielle Industrielle Automation Automation Examples 1.2 Exemples de sites automatisés Beispiele Automatisierungssysteme 2007 March HK Examples of Automated Plants: Examples of Automated Plants 1 Introduction 1.1 Automation and its importance 1.2 Applications of automation 1.3 Types of Plants and Control 1.3.1 Open Loop and Closed Loop Control 1.3.2 Continuous processes 1.3.2 Discrete processes 1.3.3 Mixed processes 1.4 Automation hierarchy 1.5 Control System Architecture Cars: Cars traditional: appliances control (windows, seats, radio,..) motor control (exhaust regulations) critical new applications: ABS and EPS, brake-by-wire, steer-by-wire (“X-by-wire”) increased safety ? extreme price squeezing 2001 US model: 19% of the price is electronics, tendency: +10% per year. Rail vehicles: Rail vehicles display unit vehicle control unit DU TCU DU TCU VCU radio link there are more than 20 interconnected computers on a locomotive brakes signaling traction control unit diagnostics energy Benefits: reduce operation costs, faster diagnostics, better energy management, automatic train control. VCU SBB 460 Airplanes: Airplanes “avionics”: flight control (safe flight envelope, autopilot, “engineer”) flight management flight recording (black boxes, turbine supervision) diagnostics “fly-by-wire” high reliability Launch vehicles: Launch vehicles serial data buses ( 23 shared, 5 dedicated ) GPC 5 IOP 5 GPC 4 IOP 4 GPC 3 IOP 3 GPC 2 IOP 2 GPC 1 IOP 1 Intercomputer (5) Mass memory (2) Display system (4) Payload operation (2) Launch function (2) Flight instrument (5;1 dedicated per GPC) Flight - critical sensor and control (8) Control Panels CPU 1 CPU 2 CPU 3 CPU 4 CPU 5 Robots: Robots extension limited to 2-3 m (portal robots 10-20m) frequent reprogramming for new tasks, tooling simple embedded computer, hierarchical control Substations: Substations First function: protection of the elements (lines, transformers, generators) very high speed response Second Function: control (remote or local) to guarantee power flow safe operation (interlocking) Pharmaceutical Industry: Pharmaceutical Industry Inventory Recipe management Packaging Sampling Tracking & tracing Comply with government rules: Typical of batch processes. Manufacturing: Manufacturing Flexible Automation: Flexible Automation numerous conveyors, robots, CNC machines, paint shops, logistics. Download from production management, connection to administration Warehouses: Warehouses extreme dependency on the availability of the control system Connection to * supply chain management, * order fulfilment * customer relationship and * commercial accounting (SAP) Printing machines: Printing machines tasks of control system: motor control (synchronisation of the printing cylinders) ink and water control paper web control (reelstands (Rollenwechsler, bobines), web tension, emergency knife) interface to operator (commands, alarms) production preparation and statistics - up to the press room very high requirements on availability: two hours delay and the production is lost. Oil & Gas, petrochemicals: Oil & Gas, petrochemicals "upstream": from the earth to the refinery down-sea control "downstream": from the oil to derived products special requirement: extreme explosive environment distribution special requirement: high pressure, saltwater, inaccessibility explosive environment with gas. special requirement: environmental protection Switzerland: Colombey, Cressier Chemical industry: Chemical industry e.g. LONZA logistics, local control of reactors Characterized by batches of products, reuse of production reactors for different product types (after cleaning). Process Industry: Process Industry Metals and Minerals Glass production Chemical …. Process Industry = industries de transformation, Verfahrenstechnik (one of the many meanings of “process”) Cement Continuous flow of materials, often 24 hours a day Steel mills: Steel mills particularity: synchronization of the motors in the rolling mill Cement Works: Cement Works Control tasks: Oven rotation and temperature control fuel supply, silos, transport belts, grinding mills, pollution monitoring, quality supervision, filler stations,... Switzerland is leading nation in Europe (Holcim, Jura, …) The rotating oven is the heart of the cement process: the grinded kiln is burnt and comes out as chunks later reduced to powder. Mining: Mining Building Automation: Building Automation basics: fire, intrusion, climate, energy management HVAC = Heat, Ventilation and Cooling = air conditioning visitors, meeting rooms, catering,…. low price tag Automation of Building Groups: Automation of Building Groups EPFL Airports: Airports large building automation system: fire, security access, energy, lighting, air conditioning, communications, traffic control luggage control in Zurich-Airport Traffic control: Traffic control fire intrusion energy water ventilation pollution monitoring cameras light control traffic jams prevention,.... (Tunnel Letten near Zurich) Harbours: Harbours from ship planning to crane manipulation and stock control Water treatment: Water treatment (fresh and waste water) manage pumps, tanks, chemical composition, filters, movers, quality... auxiliaries: methane electricity generation Power plants: Power plants tasks: fuel supply primary process control (steam, wind) personal, plant and neighbourhood safety monitoring environmental impact electricity generation (voltage/frequency) energy distribution (substation) 24 / 365 availability Hydro - river - dams - storage dams Thermo - coal - gas - atom - solar - waste Alternative - wind - photo-voltaic Waste treatment, incinerators: Waste treatment, incinerators raw material supply burning process smoke cleaning environmental control co-generation process (steam, heat) ash analysis ash disposal Power transmission network: Power transmission network Power Plant Centrale, Kraftwerk switchyard, postes HT Schaltfeld SS Regional Control Center Regional Control Center PP Substation ( Unterstation , sous-station) SS SS PP SS PP SY SY PP Huge number of "points" (power plants, transformers, breakers, substations) lying 2km to 2000 km apart. All time-critical operations executed locally in the substations and power generation units. International Control Center National Control Center SS Substation Swiss electricity interconnection network: Swiss electricity interconnection network Pipelines: Pipelines particularities: long-range communication system, safety, explosive environment Assessment: Assessment Name the applications you remember and indicate at least one task for the control system What could be the order behind the plant types that were presented ?