Aids

Information about Aids

Published on February 19, 2012

Author: sarathy4

Source: authorstream.com

Content

PowerPoint Presentation: HIV By R.Parthasarathy History of HIV/AIDS: History of HIV/AIDS In 1981 Kaposi’s sarcoma Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia In 1983 Luc Montagnier and Françoise Barré-Sinoussi isolated retrovirus from lymphadenopathic patients. Named it as lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV). History of HIV/AIDS: History of HIV/AIDS In 1984 In 1986 Robert Gallo and colleagues, isolated and cultured certain retrovirus. Named it as human T cell lymphotrophic virus – III or HTLV - III International Committee on Virus Nomenclature give a generic name Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Structure: Structure Subgroup: lentivirus. Family: Retroviridae. Sperical enveloped virus. 90-120nm 2 identical +ve sense ssRNA, Three enzymes Reverse transcriptase (RT) Protease (PR) Integrase (IN) Viral gens and antigen: Viral gens and antigen Structural genes Functions Gag Determines the core and shell of the virus. P55 (p15,p18,p24) -p24 detected in the early stage of infection (before antibodies) pol Codes polymerase reverse transcriptase and protease P31,p51,p66 env Determines the synthesis of envelope glycoprotein gp160 - gp120 which forms the surface spike (72) - gp 41 which forme transmembrane protein. Non structural g enes Functions Tat (trans activating gene) Enchance all viral genes Nef ( - ve factor gene) Rev ( regulator of viral gene) Regulates viral replication Enchace the expression of structural protein Vif (viral infectivity factor) Influence infectivity of viral particles. Vpu and vpx (1&2) Enchance maturation and release of virus Viral gens and antigen: Viral gens and antigen Non structural g enes Functions vpr Stimulate promoter region LTR sequence Contain sequence giving promoter, enhancer and integration signals. Viral classification and subtypes Mode of transmission: Mode of transmission Types of exposure Chance of infection per exposure( ApproX ) Blood and blood products >90% Tissue and organ donation 50-90% Sexual transmission 0.1 – 1.0% Through injections and injuries 0.5 – 1.0% Mother to fetal baby 30% Lab dignosis: Lab dignosis Screening, measuring the antibodies to Hiv using ELISA Confirmed by western Blot Treatment Nucleoside and non nucleoside analogues - inhibits reverse transcriptase enzyme. Eg: Zidovudine (Azidothmidine, AZT), Didanosine, Zalcitabine, lamivudine PowerPoint Presentation: Protease inhibitors - inhibits protease enzyme Eg : sanquinavir , Ritonavir , indinavir HAART(highly active antiretroviral therapy) - combined therapy Treatment References: References Anathanarayan and paniker’s , Text book of microbiology, 7 th edition. Sherrai medical microbiology, 5 th edition. Net sources www.avert.com www.cdc.com

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