Published on October 22, 2007
America vs. The World: America vs. The World A History of American Foreign Policy Jonathan Hill Kelley Losik David Simnick Eric Vong Slide2: American foreign policy can be divided into four different sections: Isolationism Imperialism (Expansion) Idealism (Preservation) Globalization Isolationism: Isolationism Defined: a national policy of abstaining from political and economic relations with other countries . “It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world.” – George Washington, Washington’s Farewell Address, 1796 Throughout American history it has been our tendency to want to take care of matters at home before aboard. Either for economic security, the fear of getting involved with other nations and their agendas, or the desire to chose the road less traveled; American as well as Americans have a strong preference for Isolationism. Through these next couple slides, you will see the patterns of isolationism within US history. Slide4: French Revolution- Proclamation of Neutrality in 1793 shows that Washington believes that the young nation is not strong enough to engage in a European war Jay Treaty (1794)- Britain enters a treaty with America that ends its offensive practice of searching and seizing American ships and impressing seamen into the British navy Washington’s Farewell Address (1796)- Washington stresses the importance of neutrality to the American people Embargo Act of 1807- Jefferson administration passes embargo forbidding all exports Non-intercourse Act of 1809- Replaces Embargo Act of 1807, limits trade with only Britain and France Monroe Doctrine (1823)- President James Monroe releases a statement to the world that declares that the Western Hemisphere is no longer open for colonization or intervention Immigration Act of 1882- First immigration restriction law that forbids the entrance of paupers, criminals, and convicts into the United States Slide5: Declaration of Neutrality (1914)- President Wilson declares America’s neutrality regarding the conflict arising between European powers U.S.’s rejection of the League of Nations (1919)- United States rejects the peace terms in the League of Nations, turning inwardly on itself Fordney-McCumber Tariff Law (1922)- Congress passes tariff that raises duties to shut out cheap goods sent from Europe Emergency Quota Act of 1921- European immigrants are restricted to 3% of their nationality who had been living in the United States in 1910 Immigration Act of 1924- Replaced Emergency Quota Act of 1921; quota’s were replaced to 2% of nationality living in the United States in 1890 Seventh Pan-American Conference in London (1933)- Roosevelt rejects the Conference’s efforts to stabilize nation’s currencies for fear of it effecting America’s recovery form the Great Depression Slide6: Neutrality Act of 1935- Roosevelt declares United States neutrality regarding relations with Europe and Asia Second Neutrality Act (1936)- Roosevelt reaffirms United States’ neutrality Third Neutrality Act (1937)- Roosevelt, again, reaffirms United States neutrality Neutrality Act of 1939- Hitler declares war, Unites States re-declares neutrality Imperialism(Expansion): Imperialism (Expansion) Defined: The policy of extending a nation's authority by territorial acquisition or by the establishment of economic and political hegemony over other nations. “We are Anglo-Saxons, we must obey our blood and occupy new markets, and if necessary, new lands.”-Senator Albert Beveridge, 1898 Like a child who wants to prove himself to the older kids on the playground, America, as a new nation wanted to size up to it’s powerful European neighbors right after its conception. By moving the Indians on reservations to gain more land, provoking wars with Mexico, or believing in a “Caucasian Burden” our nation has proven to be quite the expansionist power: which sometimes leads to Imperialism. In the next couple of slides you will be given a time line of our Nation’s history with this style of Foreign Policy. Slide8: Pinckney’s Treaty (1795)- Fearing Anglo-American alliance, Spain gives the United States the privilege of free travel on the Mississippi and through Florida Treaty of Greenville (1795)- Defeated Shawnee, Wyandot, and other Native American peoples cede Ohio to the United States Louisiana Purchase (1803)- United States purchases Louisiana Territory from France, doubling the size of the nation Invasion of Canada (1812)- United States troops invade Canada for revenge of the impressments of American sailors, sparking the War of 1812 Florida Purchase Treaty (1819)- Spain cedes Florida to the United States Russo-American Treaty (1824)- United States and Russia agree upon a border fixed at the 54 40’ line Annexation of Texas (1845)- United States admits Texas into the union Annexation of Oregon (1846)- United States enters treaty with Britain that divides Oregon Territory at the 49th parallel Slide9: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo-Mexican Cession (1848)- United States enters agreement with Mexico (after the Mexican War) that declares the Rio Grande as the southern border of Texas and annexes the California and New Mexico Territories to the U.S. Gadsden Purchase (1853)- United States acquires land in southern New Mexico and Arizona for the purpose of railroad development Midway Annexation (1867)- United States purchase Alaska from Russia Annexation of Hawaii (1898)- United States annexes Hawaii Spanish-American War (1898)- United States acquires Cuba and the Philippines Hay-Paunceforte Treaty(1901)- United States acquires the right to build a canal through Panama Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1903)- President Theodore Roosevelt reinstates the Monroe Doctrine to include the United States’ promise to intervene on behalf of the Latin American countries Great White Fleet (1907)- President Theodore Roosevelt send the navy’s finest on a tour around the world to demonstrate the United States power United States’ Era of Imperialism (1898-1912)- United States intervenes in a number of different countries:: United States’ Era of Imperialism (1898-1912)- United States intervenes in a number of different countries: CHINA 1898-1900 Troops Boxer Rebellion fought by foreign armies. PHILIPPINES 1898-1910(-?) Naval, troops Seized from Spain, killed 600,000 Filipinos. CUBA 1898-1902(-?) Naval, troops Seized from Spain, still hold Navy base. PUERTO RICO 1898(-?) Naval, troops Seized from Spain, occupation continues. GUAM 1898(-?) Naval, troops Seized from Spain, still use as base. NICARAGUA 1898 Troops Marines land at port of San Juan del Sur. SAMOA 1899(-?) Troops Battle over succession to throne. NICARAGUA 1899 Troops Marines land at port of Bluefields. PANAMA 1901-14 Naval, troops Broke off from Colombia 1903, annexed Canal Zone 1914-99. HONDURAS 1903 Troops Marines intervene in revolution. DOMINICAN REP. 1903-04 Troops U.S. interests protected in Revolution. Slide11: KOREA 1904-05 Troops Marines land in Russo-Japanese War. CUBA 1906-09 Troops Marines land in democratic election. NICARAGUA 1907 Troops "Dollar Diplomacy" protectorate set up. HONDURAS 1907 Troops Marines land during war with Nicaragua. PANAMA 1908 Troops Marines intervene in election contest. NICARAGUA 1910 Troops Marines land in Bluefields and Corinto. HONDURAS 1911 Troops U.S. interests protected in civil war. CHINA 1911-41 Naval, troops Continuous occupation with flare-ups. CUBA 1912 Troops U.S. interests protected in Havana. PANAMA 19l2 Troops Marines land during heated election. HONDURAS 19l2 Troops Marines protect U.S. economic interests. NICARAGUA 1912-33 Troops, bombing 20-year occupation, fought guerrillas. Slide12: MEXICO 19l3 Naval Americans evacuated during revolution. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 1914 Naval Fight with rebels over Santo Domingo. MEXICO 1914-18 Naval, troops Series of interventions against nationalists. HAITI 1914-34 Troops, bombing 19-year occupation after revolts. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 1916-24 Troops 8-year Marine occupation. CUBA 1917-33 Troops Military occupation, economic protectorate. Idealism(Preservation): Idealism (Preservation) Defined: The act or practice of envisioning things in an ideal form. “We are glad, now that we see the facts with no veil of false pretense about them, to fight thus far for the ultimate peace of the world and for its liberation of its peoples, the German peoples included: for the rights of nations great and small and the privilege of men everywhere to choose their way of life and of obedience.”-President Woodrow Wilson, War Message to Congress, 1917 Imagine a world were people didn’t starve, handshakes were exchanged instead of bullets, and nations lent a hand when its citizens were in harms way. This at times became the policy of how America danced on the world stage. Idealism came in the form of how Wilson wanted a league, our arsenal of democracy fought, or Kennedy’s desire for peace. In the next couple of slides watch how this most peculiar policy emerged. Slide14: Root-Takahira Agreement (1908): United States enters pledge with Japan to respect Pacific possessions Wilson’s 14 Points (1918): President Woodrow Wilson proposes fourteen points, including the most important one: “making the world safe for democracy” Dawes Plan of 1924: Charles Dawes creates a plan for the rescheduled German reparations and opens a way for further private loans to Germany Attack on Pearl Harbor (1941): United States unites as country prepares to go to war to against Japan to avenge the attacks on Pearl Harbor Formation of the United Nations (1945)- United States contributes to the formation of a world congress with the hopes of preventing another world war and allowing countries to have a place to settle disputes U.S.’s recognition of Israel (1948): United States supports the creation of a Jewish state, Israel, which effects American foreign policy in the Middle East for decades Slide15: North Korea invades South Korea (1950)- United State’s send troops to defend South Korea from North Korea’s Communism McCarran Internal Security Act (1950)- Congress passes an act that declares it unlawful to conspire to establish a totalitarian dictatorship or to conceal membership of the American Communist Party Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1963)- United States signs treaty with Britain and the Soviet Union that bans the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, in space, or in water Vietnam War begins (1965)- United States enter war with North Vietnam to defend South Vietnam from falling to Communism Globalization : Globalization Defined: growth to a global or worldwide scale “The free peoples of the world look to us for support in maintaining their freedoms. If we falter in our leadership, we may endanger the peace of the world-and we shall surely endanger the welfare of our own Nation.”-President Harry S Truman, The Truman Doctrine, 1947 Although this rhetoric at the time was used for the containment of Russia’s expansion during the cold war. The improvement of technology and the spread of communication has lead to “borderless world” we live in today. See as the next couple slides depict how America has taken an increasing role outside of our boarders. Slide17: Macon’s Bill No. 2 (1810)- Congress passes bill that reinstates trade with Britain and France Wilson's Failed Points (1919)- Wilson tries to form the League of Nations to use globalization for the betterment of the world. Formation of the United Nations (1945)- United States contributes to the formation of a world congress with the hopes of preventing another world war and allowing countries to have a place to settle disputes Cold War begins (1945)- United States enters conflict with the Soviet Union (one of the U.S.’s reactions to the spread of Communism from Russia) The Truman Doctrine (1947)- United States declares its resistance to Communism and pledge to defend other nations from it (Doctrine is a result of the spread of Communism to Turkey and Greece) Formation of NATO (1949)- United States joins with 10 other European nations and Canada to form the North Atlantic Treaty Organization North Korea invades South Korea (1950)- United State’s send troops to defend South Korea from North Korea’s Communism U.S. resists Communism (1956)- United States tries to convince other European nations to attack Communism if needed Slide18: Cuban Embargo (1959)- Fidel Castro becomes leader of Cuba and converts nation to Communism; United States cuts off trade with Cuba as a result Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1963)- United States signs treaty with Britain and the Soviet Union that bans the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, in space, or in water Vietnam War begins (1965)- United States enter war with North Vietnam to defend South Vietnam from falling to Communism Nixon visits China (1972)- President Richard Nixon meets with Chairman Mao to discuss arms control over Soviet Union Turnover of Panama Canal (1978)- United States Senate votes to turn over the Panama Canal to Panama on the future date December 31, 1999 Egyptian-Israeli Agreement (1978)- President Jimmy Carter arranges peace settlement between Egypt and Israel, Egypt is the first Arab nation to formally recognizes Israel as a country Soviet Union Embargo (1980)- United States places technology and grain embargo on USSR’s invasion of Afghanistan U.S.’s invasion of Grenada (1983)- United State send troops to Grenada to prevent the establishment of a strategic Communist military base in the Americas Slide19: U.S.’s invasion of Grenada (1983)- United State send troops to Grenada to prevent the establishment of a strategic Communist military base in the Americas Reagan-Gorbachev meeting (1987)- President Ronald Reagan meets with Soviet Union leader, Mikhial Gorbachev, in Iceland to construct an agreement to destroy all intermediate-range missiles U.S.’s invasion of Panama (1989)- United States sends troops to Panama to remove the autocratic leader, Manuel Noriega, and to set up a new government Foreign Policy Doctrines: Foreign Policy Doctrines Monroe Doctrine (1823): written by Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, it declared that the United States was opposed to attempts by a European power to interfere in the affairs of any republic in the Western Hemisphere. Manifest Destiny (Mid to late 1800’s): expressed the popular belief that the United States had a divine mission to extend its power and civilization across North America. This doctrine is most often associated with westward expansion, and policies with the American Indian. New Imperialism/International Darwinism (late 1800’s): with the closing of the frontier in 1890, American industries needed to expand, and imperialistic rhetoric became prevalent among expansionists. Big-Stick Policy (1901-1908): Theodore Roosevelt’s policy of “walk softly and carry a big stick, and you will go far” dominated American foreign policy, especially in Latin America. Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1904): TR’s doctrine stated that the United States will intervene to insure that all debts owed by Latin American nations are repaid to European powers. This extended America’s influence in Latin America. Dollar Diplomacy (1909): Taft’s policy of try to promote U.S. trade by supporting American enterprises abroad. Slide21: Lodge Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1912): introduced by Senator Henry Cabot Lodge (R-MA), stated that non-European powers would be excluded from owning territory in the Western Hemisphere. Moral Diplomacy (1913): Wilson’s doctrine (with William Jennings Bryan as Secretary of State): hoped to demonstrate that the United States respected other nations’ rights and would support the spread of democracy. Good-Neighbor Policy (1933): FDR promised to be good neighbors with other nations of the Western Hemisphere. Arsenal of Democracy (1940): FDR explained his doctrine for WWII when he stated, “We must be the great arsenal of democracy.” Containment (1947): Truman believed that communism needed to be contained and that as soon as it couldn’t expand, it would collapse. Truman Doctrine (1947): Truman pledged American support for ‘free nations’ against totalitarian and communistic regimes. Dulles’ Diplomacy (1950’s): advocated a “new look” to foreign policy that challenged the USSR and China; eventually dropped as too extremist. Eisenhower Doctrine (1957): pledged economic and military aid to any Middle Eastern country threatened by communism. Nixon Doctrine (Early 1970’s): pledged support to future Asian allies, without the extensive use of U.S. ground troops. Human Rights Diplomacy (1976): Carter’s foreign policy, reminiscent of Wilsonesque ideals. American Foreign Policy:A Chronological Timeline: American Foreign Policy: A Chronological Timeline DBQ #1-Pres. Wilson’s Policies in World War I: DBQ #1- Pres. Wilson’s Policies in World War I DBQ #2-U.S. Response to Japanese and German Aggression in World War II : DBQ #2- U.S. Response to Japanese and German Aggression in World War II DBQ #3-Pres. Johnson’s policies during the Vietnam War: DBQ #3- Pres. Johnson’s policies during the Vietnam War Websites to Explore: Websites to Explore http://www.zmag.org/CrisesCurEvts/interventions.htm - This web page contains a list of United States’ interventions since 1890. http://americanhistory.si.edu/militaryhistory/ - This web page is from the American History Museum, it explains every war that America has been apart of since 1776. http://www.amforeignpolicyii.bravepages.com/ - This web page contains a brief overview of the United States’ foreign policies. http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/teddy.html - This web page supplies a short summary of the United States’ intervention in Latin America. http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/toc.html -This web page contains an outline of the United States’ “Age of Imperialism” http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1330.html - This web page discusses President Wilson’s Idealistic ideas, including The Fourteen Points and the Treaty of Versailles http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1601.html - This web page reviews a history of Isolationism in the United States http://www.historyteacher.net – This is a great website for you to use to study for the Advanced Placement United States History exam. Website includes review quizzes, D.B.Q.’s, and web links. Bibliography: Bibliography A Brief History of American Foreign Policy. <http://www.amforeignpolicyii.bravepages.com> A People’s History of the United States: 1492 – Present. Howard Zinn. American Foreign Policy Council. <http://www.afpc.org> American History. <http://www.historynet.com> American History Archives. <www.libraryofcongress.gov> American History from About. <http://www.americanhistory.about.com> America’s Library. <http://www.americaslibrary.gov> HistoryTeacher.net. <http://www.historyteacher.net> Outline of American History. <http://www.usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/history/toc.htm> National Committee on American Foreign Policy. <http://www.ncafp.org> National Museum of American History. <http://www.americanhistory.si..edu> The American Pageant: A History of the Republic. Thomas A. Bailey, David M. Kennedy. United States Department of State. <http://www.state.gov> United States Foreign Policy. <http://www.lib.mich.edu/govdocs/forpol.html> United States History: Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination. John J. Newman, John M. Schmalbach. Slide43: Summary America has gone through many different periods of Foreign Policy; sometimes even overlapping each other. Through Isolationism, Imperialism, Idealism, and Globalization: America has come to be the only superpower left standing today. As for the future, we can only limit our realization of tomorrow by our doubts of today (FDR). Congratulations, Your now more prepared to take the AP Exam… Have fun! Slide44: If all else fails, for your preparation for the AP exam on matters concerning America’s foreign policy: Study this carefully!