Andean Civilizations

Information about Andean Civilizations

Published on February 13, 2008

Author: Urania

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Andean Civilizations:  Andean Civilizations Early Cultures Formative Moche: Classic Post-Classic Peru:  Peru South American Civilizations:  South American Civilizations Formative  CHAVIN 900 BCE to 500 BCE highlands of Andes flourished at this time great ceremonial center Classic MOCHICA 300 - 700 CE started on coast shifted to highlands from coast NASCA 200-600 CE Post Classic TIAHUANCO 600-1000 CE in the Andes Mts. HUARI 700 - 1000 CE CHIMU 1350-1450 in the Andes Mts. INCAS 1100 Cuzco starts 1450-1533 Empire Early Cultures:  Early Cultures El Paraiso, Peru (after 7,000 B.C.):  El Paraiso, Peru (after 7,000 B.C.) 7,000 B.C. Coastal Peru Subsistence Fish and Shellfish-Marine, Deer, Sm mammals, birds-Interior Valleys Later-(ca 5,000 B.C.) Marine and plant products Jicama, Achira (squash and tubors) first, permanent year round settlements El Paraiso Site:  El Paraiso Site 2 km from coast 9 large stoen structures (ca 140 acres) some 980 by 325 feet in size structures have several rooms, stone walls faced with mud and painted red, black and white. Cotton nets one room had cotton, wool and needles (weaving area?) Moseley-Maritime Hypothesis Complex cultures arose due to abundance of marine resources Similar to NW coast of US. Abandoned ca. 1500 B.C. Formative:  Formative Chavin de Huantar, Peru (1,000-100 B.C.):  Chavin de Huantar, Peru (1,000-100 B.C.) Andean Highlands earliest Andean center 10,000 feet above sea level, 100 acres. Chavin horizon (culture) Artistic style found in artifacts on highlands and coast Combines people, snakes, jaguars, caymans and birds with geometric designs. Chavin de Huantar Architecture:  Chavin de Huantar Architecture Stone platforms covering one acre Largest was Castillo (new Temple), 45 feet high. Platforms not solid but composed of many rooms, exterior faced in granite. Old Temple-u shaped, inside was large white granite object, 13 feet long. pillar with Great Image, pointed at both ends and fastened to floor and ceiling. Carved in bas-relief. Classic:  Classic Moche Nasca The Moche culture:  The Moche culture Lambayeque Valley from 100 to 700 AD. A culture that has left impressive archaeological sites and some of the most outstanding pottery to be seen in Peru's museums, is named after the river which flows into the ocean just south of Trujillo.  The word Mochica has been used interchangeably with Moche and refers to a dialect spoken in the Trujillo area at the time of the conquest, though not necessarily spoken by the Moche people. Moche is now the preferred usage. Moche Social Structure:  Moche Social Structure The most important people, especially the priests and warriors, were members of the urban classes and lived closest to the large ceremonial pyramids and other temples.  They were surrounded by a middle class of artisans and then, in descending order: farmers and fishermen, servants, slaves and beggars. The priests and warriors were both honored and obeyed. They are the people most frequently shown in ceramics, which depict them being carried in litters wearing particularly fine jewelry or clothing. Their authority is evident from pots showing scenes of punishment, including the mutilation and death of those who dared to disobey.  Moche Ceramics and Metallurgy:  Moche Ceramics and Metallurgy Clothing, musical instruments, tools and jewelry are all frequent subjects for ceramics. As there was no written language, most of what we know about the Moche comes from this wealth of pottery.  The ceramics also show us that the Moche had well-developed weaving techniques but, because of rare rainstorms every few decades, most of their textiles have been destroyed.  Metalwork, on the other hand, has survived. They used gold, silver and copper mainly for ornaments but some heavy copper implements have also been found. Sipan Site, northern part of Peru:  Sipan Site, northern part of Peru http://www.spiritsoftheearth.com/sipan.html Lord of Sipan:  Lord of Sipan Half god, half man, king among his people, a privileged person, a noble, a warrior, lord over the lords of his time, the Lord of Sipan was revealed to the world in the last years of the 20th century. He reigned approximately 200 A.D. and died about 40 years of age. Lord of Sipan:  Lord of Sipan A re-creation of the tomb, aids and wives were buried with him. The Moche believed in the afterlife and many of their pottery remains show people in a meditative pose. http://www.spiritsoftheearth.com/sipan.html Lord of Sipan: Reconstruction:  Lord of Sipan: Reconstruction Nazca:  Nazca Located on the south coast, began in 100 BC and was greatly influenced by Chavin and Paracoa, but it reached its height between the 3rd and 9th centuries AD. It was militaristic and aristocratic, with a strong social class structure. They built underground acqueducts to bring water from the mountains for agriculture. Nasca is best known for the Nasca Lines, geometric designs and animals constructed by paths across the desert and best seen from the air. Their purpose is not known but some archaeologists believe they are related to the mountain gods. Nazca Textiles:  Nazca Textiles http://ibelgique.ifrance.com/nazcagre21/histoire.htm Nazca Lines:  Nazca Lines Hummingbird Bird:  Bird Lizard:  Lizard Spider:  Spider Fish:  Fish Post-Classic:  Post-Classic TIAHUANCO (Tiwanaku) HUARI CHIMU Tiwanaku:  Tiwanaku http://www.tiwanakuarcheo.net/1_main/cuerpo2.html#intro Tiwanaku:  Tiwanaku The Tiwanaku polity dominated the south central Andes between ca. AD 400-1000. The population settling the Tiwanaku core area came to dominate the region as the capital of the most important polity by A.D. 400. Tiwanaku Architecture:  Tiwanaku Architecture http://www.jqjacobs.net/andes/tiwanaku.html Tiwanaku Ceramics:  Tiwanaku Ceramics http://www.jqjacobs.net/andes/tiwanaku.html Stone Carvings at Tiwanaku:  Stone Carvings at Tiwanaku http://www.jqjacobs.net/andes/tiwanaku.html Huari:  Huari Huari culture is a sythesis of the Huanta, Nasca and Tiahuanaco cultures. The civilization covered an area from the Moche in the north to Arequipa in the south. The Huari culture is considered to be one of the greatest cultures in ancient Peru, not only for its technical advances but for its influence. Some archaeologists believe the Huari created an empire before the Inca. They expanded their territory through war and spread the worship of the sun associated with Tiahuanaco. As they expanded they built huge cities to control their territories, built roads for communication, and spread the Quechua language. Huari Culture:  Huari Culture http://www.crystalinks.com/preinca.html The Chimu:  The Chimu The next important period in the Trujillo area, the Chimu, lasted from about 1000 AD to 1470 AD. The Chimu built a capital at Chan Chan, just north of Trujillo. Chan Chan is the largest pre-Columbian city in Peru, covering about 28 sq km, and is estimated to have housed about 50,000 people.  The Chimu preceded the Incas who conquered them in 1465-1470. Chan Chan:  Chan Chan http://www.anthroarcheart.org/chanchan.htm Mud walls, Chan Chan:  Mud walls, Chan Chan http://www.anthroarcheart.org/chanchan.htm Chan Chan:  Chan Chan http://www.anthroarcheart.org/chanchan.htm Similarities with Mesoamerican Civilzations:  Similarities with Mesoamerican Civilzations Powerful Rulers Food Production Hierarchy Elaborate Ceremony and Ritual Religion with human sacrifice Elaborate Cities and architecture Differences from Mesoamerican Civlizations:  Differences from Mesoamerican Civlizations Cities shorter lived Not core like Basin of Mexico, power shifted between coast and Highlands Animal Domestication more important-llama, alpaca, guinea pigs. Paved road system No writing system Numerical apparatus-quipu (knot) Better preservation Adobe houses Textiles Human remains-mummies

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