# appendixanotes

Published on January 14, 2008

Author: Desiderio

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  11th Edition Appendix A Pricing Products and Services:  Pricing Products and Services Appendix A The Economist’s Approach to Pricing:  The Economist’s Approach to Pricing Elasticity of Demand The price elasticity of demand measures the degree to which the unit sales of a product or service is affected by a change in price. Price Elasticity of Demand:  Price Elasticity of Demand Demand for a product is inelastic if a change in price has little effect on the number of units sold. Example The demand for designer perfumes sold at cosmetic counters in department stores is relatively inelastic. Price Elasticity of Demand:  Price Elasticity of Demand Demand for a product is elastic if a change in price has a substantial effect on the number of units sold. Example The demand for gasoline is relatively elastic because if a gas station raises its price, unit sales will drop as customers seek lower prices elsewhere. Price Elasticity of Demand:  Price Elasticity of Demand As a manager, you should set higher (lower) markups over cost when demand is inelastic (elastic) Price Elasticity of Demand:  Price Elasticity of Demand Price Elasticity of Demand:  Price Elasticity of Demand Suppose the managers of Nature’s Garden believe that every 10% increase in the selling price of their apple-almond shampoo will result in a 15% decrease in the number of bottles of shampoo sold. Let’s calculate the price elasticity of demand. For its strawberry glycerin soap, managers of Nature’s Garden believe that the company will experience a 20% decrease in unit sales if its price is increased by 10%. Price Elasticity of Demand:  Price Elasticity of Demand For Nature’s Garden apple-almond shampoo. Price Elasticity of Demand:  Price Elasticity of Demand For Nature’s Garden strawberry glycerin soap. Price Elasticity of Demand:  Price Elasticity of Demand The price elasticity of demand for the strawberry glycerin soap is larger, in absolute value, than the apple-almond shampoo. This indicates that the demand for strawberry glycerin soap is more elastic than the demand for apple-almond shampoo. The Profit-Maximizing Price:  The Profit-Maximizing Price Under certain conditions, the profit-maximizing price can be determined using the following formula: The Profit-Maximizing Price:  The Profit-Maximizing Price Let’s determine the profit-maximizing price for the apple-almond shampoo sold by Nature’s Garden. The shampoo has a variable cost per unit of \$2.00. Price elasticity of demand = -1.71 The Profit-Maximizing Price:  The Profit-Maximizing Price Now let’s turn to the profit-maximizing price for the strawberry glycerin soap sold by Nature’s Garden. The soap has a variable cost per unit of \$0.40. Price elasticity of demand = -2.34 The Profit-Maximizing Price:  The Profit-Maximizing Price The 75% markup for the strawberry glycerin soap is lower than the 141% markup for the apple-almond shampoo. This is because the demand for strawberry glycerin soap is more elastic than the demand for apple-almond shampoo The Profit-Maximizing Price:  The Profit-Maximizing Price This graph depicts how the profit-maximizing markup is generally affected by how sensitive unit sales are to price. The Profit-Maximizing Price:  The Profit-Maximizing Price Nature’s Garden is currently selling 200,000 bars of strawberry glycerin soap per year at the price of \$0.60 a bar. If the change in price has no effect on the company’s fixed costs or on other products, let’s determine the effect on contribution margin of increasing the price by 10%. The Profit-Maximizing Price:  The Profit-Maximizing Price Contribution margin will increase by \$1,600. The Absorption Costing Approach:  The Absorption Costing Approach Under the absorption approach to cost-plus pricing, the cost base is the absorption costing unit product cost rather than the variable cost. Setting a Target Selling Price:  Setting a Target Selling Price Here is information provided by the management of Ritter Company. Assuming Ritter will produce and sell 10,000 units of the new product, and that Ritter typically uses a 50% markup percentage, let’s determine the unit product cost. Setting a Target Selling Price:  Setting a Target Selling Price Ritter has a policy of marking up unit product costs by 50%. Let’s calculate the target selling price. Setting a Target Selling Price:  Setting a Target Selling Price Ritter would establish a target selling price to cover selling, general, and administrative expenses and contribute to profit \$30 per unit. Determining the Markup Percentage:  Determining the Markup Percentage The markup percentage can be based on an industry “rule of thumb,” company tradition, or it can be explicitly calculated. The equation to calculate the markup percentage is: Determining the Markup Percentage:  Determining the Markup Percentage Let’s assume that Ritter must invest \$100,000 in the product and market 10,000 units of product each year. The company requires a 20% ROI on all investments. Let’s determine Ritter’s markup percentage on absorption cost. Determining the Markup Percentage:  Determining the Markup Percentage Markup % on absorption cost (20% × \$100,000) + (\$2 × 10,000 + \$60,000) 10,000 × \$20 = Problems with the Absorption Costing Approach:  Problems with the Absorption Costing Approach The absorption costing approach assumes that customers need the forecasted unit sales and will pay whatever price the company decides to charge. This is flawed logic simply because customers have a choice. Problems with the Absorption Costing Approach:  Problems with the Absorption Costing Approach Let’s assume that Ritter sells only 7,000 units at \$30 per unit, instead of the forecasted 10,000 units. Here is the income statement. Problems with the Absorption Costing Approach:  Problems with the Absorption Costing Approach Let’s assume that Ritter sells only 7,000 units at \$30 per unit, instead of the forecasted 10,000 units. Here is the income statement. Target Costing:  Target Costing Target costing is the process of determining the maximum allowable cost for a new product and then developing a prototype that can be made for that maximum target cost figure. The equation for determining the target price is shown below: Target cost = Anticipated selling price – Desired profit Reasons for Using Target Costing:  Reasons for Using Target Costing Two characteristics of prices and product costs: The market (i.e., supply and demand) determines price Most of the cost of a product is determined in the design stage Target costing was developed in recognition of these two characteristics. Reasons for Using Target Costing:  Reasons for Using Target Costing Target costing was developed in recognition of the two characteristics shown on the previous screen. More specifically, Target costing begins the product development process by recognizing and responding to existing market prices Reasons for Using Target Costing:  Reasons for Using Target Costing Target costing focuses a company’s cost reduction efforts in the product design stage of production. Target Costing:  Target Costing Handy Appliance feels there is a niche for a hand mixer with certain features. The Marketing Department believes that a price of \$30 would be about right and that about 40,000 mixers could be sold. An investment of \$2,000,000 is required to gear up for production. The company requires a 15% ROI on invested funds. Let see how we determine the target cost. Target Costing:  Target Costing Each functional area within Handy Appliance would be responsible for keeping its actual costs within the target established for that area. End of Appendix A:  End of Appendix A

04. 02. 2008
0 views

09. 01. 2008
0 views

09. 01. 2008
0 views

14. 01. 2008
0 views

17. 01. 2008
0 views

17. 01. 2008
0 views

18. 01. 2008
0 views

22. 01. 2008
0 views

04. 02. 2008
0 views

04. 02. 2008
0 views

05. 02. 2008
0 views

10. 01. 2008
0 views

25. 01. 2008
0 views

10. 01. 2008
0 views

11. 01. 2008
0 views

31. 01. 2008
0 views

07. 02. 2008
0 views

14. 02. 2008
0 views

20. 02. 2008
0 views

08. 01. 2008
0 views

05. 03. 2008
0 views

15. 01. 2008
0 views

21. 03. 2008
0 views

03. 04. 2008
0 views

28. 03. 2008
0 views

08. 04. 2008
0 views

16. 04. 2008
0 views

17. 04. 2008
0 views

23. 04. 2008
0 views

24. 04. 2008
0 views

24. 01. 2008
0 views

07. 05. 2008
0 views

02. 05. 2008
0 views

23. 01. 2008
0 views

12. 02. 2008
0 views

28. 02. 2008
0 views

22. 01. 2008
0 views

13. 01. 2008
0 views

06. 02. 2008
0 views

20. 02. 2008
0 views

09. 01. 2008
0 views

20. 01. 2008
0 views

11. 02. 2008
0 views

10. 03. 2008
0 views

11. 01. 2008
0 views