Applied Mechanics

Information about Applied Mechanics

Published on September 4, 2009

Author: ankush85

Source: authorstream.com

Content

SpaceTEC® Certification Readiness Course : www.spacetec.org SpaceTEC® Certification Readiness Course Applied Mechanics Introduction : www.spacetec.org Introduction Objective: Provide basis for demonstrating a basic knowledge which will allow you to: Interpret a basic drawing Produce a layout/template Fabricate a project Applied Mechanics Topics : www.spacetec.org Applied Mechanics Topics Machine Shop Safety Hand Tools Non-Cutting Cutting Drill Presses, Twist Drills, Drilling Holes Measurement Hardware and Materials Basic Calculations Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings Objectives : www.spacetec.org Objectives Recognize safe and unsafe work practices in a shop Identify and correct hazards in the shop area Perform your job in a manner that is safe for you and other workers Safety in the Shop : www.spacetec.org Safety in the Shop Must consider Personal protection and grooming Proper housekeeping Safe work practices Fire protection Personal Protection and Grooming : www.spacetec.org Personal Protection and Grooming Always wear approved eye protection Plain safety glasses with side shields Plastic safety goggles Face shields Note: Lenses MUST be made of approved safety shatterproof glass ! Personal Protection and Grooming : www.spacetec.org Personal Protection and Grooming Never wear loose clothing Remove wrist watches, rings and bracelets Never wear gloves when operating machinery Long hair must be protected by hair net or cap No canvas or open-toes sandals Housekeeping : www.spacetec.org Housekeeping Stop machine before cleaning it Keep machine, floors and hand tools clean Use brush and not cloth to remove chips Never use compressed air to remove chips from machine Safe Work Practices : www.spacetec.org Safe Work Practices Before operating any machine you must understand its mechanism and how to stop Always stop machine before measuring, cleaning, or making any adjustments Clamp all work securely in place prior to operation Use proper wrench for job Safe Work Practices : www.spacetec.org Safe Work Practices Pressured Lines Flexible pressurized lines Can Experience 5% to 8% growth Relieve Stress on fluid or pneumatic lines Bends in lines help take up surges Accumulators also take up surges Compressed air in the shop area Check filters for moisture Check operating pressure before using pneumatic tools Safe Work Practices. : www.spacetec.org Safe Work Practices. Cutting, Forming, Drilling, Sanding Always Wear eye protection/dust mask Place work in a suitable holder: Bench-mounted vise Soft metal caps over steel jaws to protect work When Cutting: Keep hands, fingers away from cutting surfaces When Drilling: Back up materials Don’t use your hands! Always know what is behind Keep work from spinning Place clamp or table stop on right-hand side of work Fire Protection : www.spacetec.org Fire Protection Always dispose of oily rags in proper metal containers Know location and operation of every fire extinguisher Know location of nearest fire exit from building Know location of nearest fire-alarm box and its operating procedure Hand Tools : www.spacetec.org Hand Tools Two Basic Types Noncutting Include vises, hammers, screwdrivers, wrenches and pliers Used basically for holding, assembling or dismantling parts Cutting Includes Chisels, Saws (Hacksaws), Hand Files, Punches, Reamers, tap and dies,etc. Hand Tools : www.spacetec.org Hand Tools Tool Inventory Tool Selection Non-Cutting Hand Tools : www.spacetec.org Non-Cutting Hand Tools Hammers and Mallets Metal-Head Hammers The Ball Peen Hammer Hammer head held in place by a wedge Face of the hammer is the striking surface The Ball Peen Hammer is the hammer most often used by machinists Non-Cutting Hand Tools : www.spacetec.org Non-Cutting Hand Tools Hammers and Mallets Soft-Faced Hammer Used for forming soft metals Striking easily-damaged surfaces Should Not be used for striking punches, chisels, bolts, or nails Dead Blow Hammer Non-Cutting Hand Tools : www.spacetec.org Non-Cutting Hand Tools Hammers and Mallets Mallet Hammer-like tool Made of hickory, rawhide, rubber, or plastic Used for shaping metal or wood-working Non-Cutting Hand Tools : www.spacetec.org Non-Cutting Hand Tools Screwdrivers Classified by shape, type of blade, and blade length Common – slotted head Phillips – head forms perfect cross Offset – used when vertical space is limited Sizes Flat screwdrivers are generally sized by width of blade or size screw it fits Almost all other types (Phillips, etc) are sized by point sizes Phillips #1, #2, #3, #4 are most common Screwdriver Drives : www.spacetec.org (a) Slotted, (b) Phillips, (c) Pozidriv, (d) Torx, (e) Hex, (f) Robertson, (g) Tri-Wing, (h) Torq-Set, (i) Spanner Screwdriver Drives Non-Cutting Hand Tools : www.spacetec.org Non-Cutting Hand Tools Screwdrivers Made for one purpose only – loosening or tightening screws When using a screwdriver, Select the largest blade that will fill the screw head Wrong size blade will damage screw head and screwdriver blade Non-Cutting Hand Tools : www.spacetec.org Non-Cutting Hand Tools Punches Center Used to start holes for drilling Automatic or manual Prick Used to transfer dimensions Tapered, or Drive Punch Used for driving out rivets, pins, bolts bound in holes Pin, or Drift Same as tapered only straight shank Non-Cutting Hand Tools : www.spacetec.org Non-Cutting Hand Tools Wrenches – designed to fit a nut or bolt head and exert a turning motion Open End – open parallel jaws on one or both ends Box End – box, or completely surround bolt head or nut Combination – open end on one end, box of the same size on the other Socket – square drive on one end that fits T, ratchet, screwdriver grip, speed handle Adjustable – one fixed jaw, one adjusted by thumbscrew Special Hook Spanner – curved arm with hook for slotted nuts Allen – six-sided bars shaped in an “L” Non-Cutting Hand Tools : www.spacetec.org Non-Cutting Hand Tools Torque wrench – precision tool to measure amount of turning or twisting force applied Deflecting beam Dial indicating Micrometer setting Torque wrench : www.spacetec.org Torque wrench Torque Wrench : www.spacetec.org Torque Wrench Torque Also known as twisting force Force X Distance (Moment) Used to deliver loads safely throughout a structure F, L, T, where: F = Force L = Lever length T = Applied Torque Torque Wrench : www.spacetec.org Torque Wrench Torque wrench extensions Increase lever length Increase applied force Require recalculation of applied force Formula: Where: A = Lever length of wrench B = Lever length of wrench plus extension Te = Required torque on bolt Tw = Torque reading on wrench dial Tw = Te X A B Torque Calculation w/Extension : www.spacetec.org Torque Calculation w/Extension Example: 40 ft lbs required torque on 3/8“ bolt 4 in. extension necessary at 45-degree angle resulting in 2” effective length increase on 18” torque wrench Tw = Te (40 ft lbs) X A (18 in.) B (18” + 2”) Tw = 720 = 36 ft lbs. 20 A = Lever length of wrench B = Lever length of wrench plus extension Te = Required torque on bolt Tw = Torque reading on wrench dial Non-Cutting Hand Tools : www.spacetec.org Non-Cutting Hand Tools Use of Machinist Vise 1. Open jaws (1) of vise wide enough to allow you to insert the object you want to clamp. CAUTION Use brass or copper caps on vise jaws to protect soft material when clamping. CAUTION Do not strike vise with a heavy object or try to hold large work in a small vise. Non-Cutting Hand Tools : www.spacetec.org Non-Cutting Hand Tools 2. Insert object (2) to be clamped between vise jaws and tighten handle (3). 3. Work should be held firmly in place, but the jaws should not be so tight that they mar the finish. A piece of rawhide or leather may be used to protect highly polished surfaces: NOTE When holding hard material in vise jaws tightened by hand, give the vise handle a sharp rap for final tightening. Use of Machinist Vise Non-Cutting Hand Tools : www.spacetec.org Non-Cutting Hand Tools Soldering Iron Preparation Place the soldering iron in its stand and plug in. The iron will take a few minutes to reach its operating temperature of about 400°C. Dampen the sponge in the stand. The best way to do this is to lift it out the stand and hold it under a cold tap for a moment, then squeeze to remove excess water. It should be damp, not dripping wet. Wait a few minutes for the soldering iron to warm up. You can check if it is ready by trying to melt a little solder on the tip. Wipe the tip of the iron on the damp sponge. This will clean the tip. Melt a little solder on the tip of the iron. This is called 'tinning' and it will help the heat to flow from the iron's tip to the joint. It only needs to be done when you plug in the iron, and occasionally while soldering if you need to wipe the tip clean on the sponge. Non-Cutting Hand Tools : www.spacetec.org Non-Cutting Hand Tools Soldering Iron Use Hold the soldering iron like a pen, near the base of the handle. Imagine you are going to write your name! Remember to never touch the hot element or tip. Touch the soldering iron onto the joint to be made. Make sure it touches the joint. Hold the tip there for a few seconds and... Feed a little solder onto the joint. It should flow smoothly. Apply the solder to the joint, not the iron. Remove the solder, then the iron, while keeping the joint still. Allow the joint a few seconds to cool before you move the joint Inspect the joint closely. Cutting Hand Tools : www.spacetec.org Cutting Hand Tools Hacksaw Blade teeth always face forward Low pressure, let blade do the work Hand Snips Straight – cutting straight lines Curved – cutting outside of curves Hawksbill – cutting inside of curves or radii Aviation – compound leverage-type for cutting aluminum alloy or stainless steel sheet Left-to-right (red) Right-to-left (green) Straight (yellow) Chisels : www.spacetec.org Chisels Hard steel cutting tool for cutting or chipping any material softer than itself Used for: Shearing rivets Splitting seized or damaged nuts from bolts Made of eight-sided tempered and hardened tool steel bar stock Cutting edge should be beveled 60-70 degrees for general use Types: Flat or cold Single or double bevel point Round nose Diamond point Files : www.spacetec.org Files Files are used for cutting, smoothing off, or removing small amounts of metal, wood, plastic, or other material. Files are made in various lengths, shapes, and cuts. Every file has five parts: the point (1), edge (2), face or cutting teeth(3), heel or shoulder (4) and tang (5). The tang is used to attach the handle Hand Files and File Card : www.spacetec.org Hand Files and File Card Types of Files Flat, mill, square, round or rattial, triangular, three square, half round, wood and vixen Most common is the mill, rattial and vixen Clean all files with a File Card File in forward direction only Keep file well oiled Files : www.spacetec.org Files Most Common files types Use and Care of Files : www.spacetec.org Use and Care of Files Apply pressure only on forward stroke Do not store files where they rub together or against other tools Never use file as pry bar or a hammer Do not knock file on vise or other metallic object to clean it (use brush or file card) Too much pressure also results in "pinning" which scratches work surface Small particles wedged between teeth Hand Cutting Tools : www.spacetec.org Hand Cutting Tools Reamers Used to bring hole to size and produce good finish Solid Hand Reamer Made of carbon steel or high-speed steel Available in inch sizes from .125 - 1.500 in. Metric from 1 – 26 mm in diameter Not adjustable and may have straight or helical flutes Reamer Use and Precautions : www.spacetec.org Reamer Use and Precautions Place end of reamer in hole and place tap wrench on square end of reamer Rotate reamer clockwise to align with hole Check reamer for squareness with work Use cutting lubricant where required Rotate reamer slowly clockwise and apply downward pressure Never turn reamer backward (counterclockwise), it will dull teeth Never attempt to remove too much material Frequently clear hole of chips Hand Cutting Tools : www.spacetec.org Hand Cutting Tools Taps and Dies Taps > used to make internal threads Dies > used to make external threads Taps : www.spacetec.org Taps Made from high quality tool steel, hardened and ground Two, three, or four flutes cut lengthwise across threads to form cutting edges Provide room for chips Admit cutting fluid to lubricate tap End of shank square so either a straight or t-handle tap wrench can be used to turn tap Taps : www.spacetec.org Taps Inch tap markings Major diameter Number of threads per inch Type of thread ½ in.—13 UNC ½ in. = major diameter of tap 13 = number of threads per inch UNC = Unified National Coarse (type of thread) Taps : www.spacetec.org Taps Taper Tapered from end six threads Used to start thread easily Used for tapping hole that goes through work as well as blind hole Plug Tapered for three threads Tread hole through workpiece Bottoming tap Not tapered but chamfered at end Used for threading to bottom of blind hole Tap Drill Size : www.spacetec.org Tap Drill Size Hole drilled to correct tap drill size Leave proper amount of material for tap to cut thread (75%) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. A = body size B = tap drill size C = minor diameter TDS = tap drill size D = major diameter of tap N = number of threads per inch Find tap drill size for a 7/8 in. –9NC tap Threading Dies : www.spacetec.org Threading Dies Used to cut external threads on round work Most common threading dies Adjustable split die Adjustable screw plate die Solid die Threading Dies : www.spacetec.org Threading Dies Solid die Used for chasing damaged threads May be driven by suitable wrench Not adjustable Adjustable split die Has adjusting screw that permits adjustment over or under standard depth of thread Fits into die stock To Thread With a Hand Die : www.spacetec.org To Thread With a Hand Die Chamfer end of workpiece with file or on grinder Fasten work securely in vise Select proper die and die stock Lubricate tapered end of die with suitable cutting lubricant Place tapered end of die squarely on workpiece Slide 48: www.spacetec.org Press down on die stock handles and turn clockwise several turns Check die to see that it has started squarely with work If not square, remove die and restart Turn die forward one turn and reverse it approximately one-half turn to break chip During threading process, apply cutting fluid frequently If thread must be cut to shoulder, remove die and restart it with tapered side of die facing up (complete the thread) Drill Presses : www.spacetec.org Used to drill precision holes Four main parts: Floor stand Adjustable table Adjustable spindle Electric motor Always clamp to drill press base Drill diameter has no bearing on drill speed Drill pressure is critical Hard and slow for hard metal; fast for soft Make sure drill bit is secured to the chuck Drill Presses Drill Press Photo : www.spacetec.org Drill Press Photo Twist Drills : www.spacetec.org Twist Drills Hardened shank contains flutes, which form cutting surfaces, flow cutting fluid, and provide for chip removal Included angle of bits: 135 degrees 118 degrees 90 degrees 60 degrees Note: Straight shank drill bits measure up to ½ inch Twist Drills Drilling Holes : www.spacetec.org Drilling Holes 135 degrees (included angle) High speed, low pressure for very hard materials 118 degrees (included angle) High pressure, low speed for steel 90 degrees (included angle) Used primarily for soft material Medium pressure Low pressure, high speed for aluminum 60 degrees (included angle) Used primarily for soft material Medium pressure Note: When drill point is about to break through material, reduce pressure Slide 53: www.spacetec.org Drilling Holes (Con’t) : www.spacetec.org Drilling Holes (Con’t) Locate/position hole Use center punch Drill pilot hole first # 40 bit Drill up to size (Square to material) If you are reaming, drill hole .0003 to .007 undersize then ream up to size Rotate reamer in cutting direction only when cutting or removing Aerospace Hardware : www.spacetec.org Aerospace Hardware Typical Types of Hardware Bolts Nuts Washers Screws Cotter pins and safety wire Rivets Turnlock fasteners Miscellaneous items such as 0-rings, crush washers, etc. Control cable hardware Fluid lines and fittings Electrical wiring and connectors Hardware : www.spacetec.org Hardware Bolts – Typical Head Markings Hardware : www.spacetec.org Hardware Bolts A bolt with a single raised dash is a AN corrosion resistant steel bolt An AN Clevis bolt is for shear applications only. This type of bolt is used only where shear loads occur and never in tension. It is often inserted as a mechanical pin in a control surface. They have a slotted headed A bolt head with a triangle, recessed or not, is a “Close Tolerance” bolt and must be driven into a hole. Aerospace Bolt ID : www.spacetec.org Aerospace Bolt ID Bolt Sizes “AN” represent Air Force – Navy standard for bolt If the letter "C" follows the AN designation (ANC) that identifies a stainless steel bolt. The letter "H" after AN (ANH) identifies a drilled head bolt. The first number after "AN" designates the diameter (1/16" increments) The last number, either single or double digit denotes length; a single digit denotes nominal length to the 1/8th of an inch; double digit numbers denote the first digit as a whole measure in inches, the second an additional nominal sizing to the 1/8 inch measure. The "A" at the very end of all the numbers designates that there will be no hole in the shank. Meaning that the hole is "Absent". Aerospace Bolt ID : www.spacetec.org Aerospace Bolt ID Bolt Sizes Example: AN4-8A AN means the bolt is manufactured according to Air Force-Navy specs. 4 identifies the diameter of the bolt shank in 1/16" increments 8 identifies the length of the shank in 1/8" increments A means the shank of the bolt is undrilled (no letter here means a drilled shank) Safety Wire : www.spacetec.org Safety Wire Items shall be safety wired in such a configuration that the safety wire shall be put in tension when the parts tend to loosen. Safety wiring is considered a redundant means of securing components to prevent the component from loosening should the primary retention capability fails during operation. Slide 61: www.spacetec.org Aircraft Circular AC 43.13-1B : www.spacetec.org Aircraft Circular AC 43.13-1B AC 43.13-1B covers all the aspects of general safety wire practices. Three common wire sizes 0.020, 0.032, 0.041. Safety wire shall be new for each application. Safety wire pliers : www.spacetec.org Safety wire pliers Four different types Wire : www.spacetec.org Wire Should be six to eight turns per inch. The pigtail S/B ¼-to ½-inch (three to six twists). Hardware : www.spacetec.org Hardware Rivets Shop head of a rivet is one and one-half (1½) larger than the shank The bucked end is also one and one-half (1½) the shank diameter Aluminum (2117-T) rivets are heat treated by manufacture and can be driven when used. They are known as field rivets Aluminum (2017–T) is a refrigerated rivet and must be driven within one hour. The (2024-T) is also a refrigerated rivet and must be driven within 10 to 20 minutes after removal from refrigeration. Aerospace Rivets : www.spacetec.org Aerospace Rivets Identification Types of Solid Shank Rivets Universal (AN470 or MS20470) Round Flathead Countersunk (AN426 or MS20426) Brazier Aerospace Rivets : www.spacetec.org Aerospace Rivets Head of solid shank rivets are marked to identify specific material of the rivet. 1100 very soft material (Plugs) 2017T and 2024T (Refrigerated) 5056T used to rivet magnesium Aerospace Rivets : www.spacetec.org Aerospace Rivets Rivet Installation Use a center punch to mark hole, then drill pilot hole Drill hole up to size Countersink for 100 degree rivet (Pg 542) Flat rivet set is used for installing countersunk rivets Rivet must be flush with material being riveted Universal Rivet, use slightly greater radius rivet set to install rivet Spacing is 3X rivet diameter Edge distance is minimum of 2x diameter Length of rivet protruding is 1 ½ diameter Bucked end is 1 ½ diameter When installing a rivet always use a slightly larger drill than rivet diameter! Slide 69: www.spacetec.org Aerospace Rivets : www.spacetec.org Aerospace Rivets Drill Bits to use for Rivet Installations See “Drill Sizes” #40 drill bit for 3/32 rivet #30 drill bit for 1/8 rivet #20 drill bit for 5/32 rivet #10 drill bit for 3/16 rivet Example: #10 drill bit measures .1935 3/16” rivet diameter is .1875 Aerospace Rivets : www.spacetec.org Aerospace Rivets Rivet Removal Center punch rivet first to indent the head, then drill center of rivet with one size smaller drill bit. Drill off the rivet head only! Knock out rivet with ball peen hammer using pin punch slightly smaller than rivet diameter Critical to keep hole the same diameter! Rivet Measurement : www.spacetec.org Rivet Measurement Rivet Measurement AN426AD-4-8 (Countersink) #4 is the diameter in 32nds #8 is the length in 16ths Rivet Pitch is distance between rivets in the same row Question: What would be the necessary length of the rivet to go through two ¼ inches pieces of 2024-T3 aluminum and be ready to drive? Rivet Measurement : www.spacetec.org Rivet Measurement Answer The total thickness is ½ inch or (16/32) plus we need the rivet to protrude 1 ½ diameter so we can buck or drive it. Therefore the total length of the rivet must be 1/8 X 1.5=.1875 or 3/16 (6/32). 6/32 + 16/32 = 22/32. The rivet would be an AN426AD-4-11 Basic Math : www.spacetec.org Basic Math Fractions Of the following fractions what one is most nearly to 0.17187? 11/64, 9/32 or 11/32 What do you have to do? - Multiplying using a Fractions 35 x 5/7 = _____ How did you arrive with the answer? Basic Math : www.spacetec.org Multiplication of Decimals 9.45 X 120 = ________ 2.13 x .203 = ________ Addition of Decimals 2.34 + 37.5 = ________ 2.34 + 37.5 + .09 = ________ Basic Math Basic Math : www.spacetec.org Multiplication of Decimals – Answer: 9.45 X 100 = 945 9.45 X 20 = 189 945 + 189 = 1134 2.13 X .200 = .426 2.13 X .003 = .00639 .426 + .00639 = .43239 Basic Math Basic Math : www.spacetec.org Addition of Decimals– Answer: 2.34 + 37.50 = 39.84 2.34 + 37.50 + .09 = 39.93 Basic Math Basic Math : www.spacetec.org Expressing a decimals as a percentage .90 as a percent Move the decimal two places to the right Affix the percent symbol to the right after dropping the decimal point .90 – 90. – 90% Expressing a percent as a decimal Keeping in mind that a percent is simply a decimal with the decimal point moved two places to the right, all that is necessary to express a percent as a decimal is to move the decimal point two places to the left Basic Math Basic Math : www.spacetec.org Basic Math Areas Volumes Area = pi r 2 Area = axb Volume = axbxc Volume = [pi] r2 h Basic Math : www.spacetec.org Basic Math Ideal Gas Law PV=nRT V=volume in liters n=moles of gas P=pressure in atm T=temperature in Kelvin's R is the molar gas constant For given gas R is constant and for given number of moles of gas the equation can be solved to relate pressure, temperature and volume between two different states Basic Math : www.spacetec.org Basic Math Gas Laws Examples: Container size of gas halved; temperature remains same Equation P1V1=P2V2 Basic Math : www.spacetec.org Basic Math Temperature conversion Fahrenheit and Celsius The equation relating the two is C = (F-32) * 5 / 9 From F to C:        - subtract 32        - multiply by 5        - divide by 9From C to F:        - multiple by 9        - divide by 5        - add 32 Basic Math : www.spacetec.org Basic Math Gearing Used to transmit power between shafts rotating usually at different speeds Two main types Spur gears – the larger Pinion gears – the smaller Pinion to Spur gear ratio: # of teeth on spur gear / # of teeth on pinion gear Ex: 150-tooth spur; 30-tooth pinion: 150/30 = 5 or 5 to 1; also expressed as a ratio, i.e. 5 : 1 Basic Measurement : www.spacetec.org Basic Measurement Measuring Tools, Torque and Gearing Basic Measurement : www.spacetec.org Basic Measurement The Micrometer Precision measuring instrument Handle with care Four types of Micrometers Outside Inside Depth Thread Basic Measurement : www.spacetec.org Most common: One inch, outside Micrometer Basic Measurement Basic Measurement : www.spacetec.org Basic Measurement Micrometer (Con’t) Used to measure Thickness Diameter Other items Storing a Micrometer Never tighten Anvil against Spindle, leave a small opening Store in a dry place, box, or pouch If dropped, check for accuracy with Gauge Block before using Basic Measurement : www.spacetec.org Basic Measurement How to use and read a Micrometer Hold frame in palm of hand with little finger or third finger inside the frame Tighten around object until ratchet clicks Micrometers with Vernier scale allow you to read the fraction of the division on the barrel scale One revolution of micrometer is 0.025 Gauge Block should be used to check calibration Basic Measurement : www.spacetec.org Basic Measurement Basic Measurement : www.spacetec.org Basic Measurement Basic Measurement : www.spacetec.org Basic Measurement Basic Measurement : www.spacetec.org Basic Measurement Basic Measurement : www.spacetec.org Basic Measurement Depth Micrometer Used to measure Holes Grooves Recesses When using a Depth Micrometer: Make sure base has a flat, smooth surface to rest on Hold firmly in place to prevent lift-off and ensure an accurate measurement Basic Measurement : www.spacetec.org Basic Measurement How to use and read a Depth Micrometer Graduations on the barrel are numbered in the opposite direction of those on an outside micrometer Pay attention to numbers you can’t see 4 tenths + 25 thousandths + 10 thousandths = 0.435 Basic Measurement : www.spacetec.org Basic Measurement Calipers Digital Dial Vernier Easy to read Can be used to measure Outside Inside Depth Basic Measurement : www.spacetec.org Basic Measurement Vernier Caliper: The main scale is divided in inches. Each inch is divided into 40 parts, like the sleeve on the micrometer Each division is equal to 0.025 inch A movable jaw that matches the fixed jaw slides along the main scale bar Contains 25 divisions that equal 24 divisions on the main scale Basic Measurement : www.spacetec.org Basic Measurement How to read a Vernier Caliper: Read the nearest number located on the main scale (in inches) and add to that the number of subdivisions. Make sure to read from the zero on the movable jaw Vernier scale and not the jaw edge! Scan down the movable jaw Vernier scale and select the number that matches up exactly with the main scale Add this number to the numbers from the main scale Basic Measurement : www.spacetec.org Basic Measurement Basic Measurement : www.spacetec.org Basic Measurement Ball gauges (Small Hole gauge) Used to measure small holes up to ½ inch in diameter Insert ball gauge into hole and tighten Remove ball gauge and use a micrometer to determine size of hole by measuring 90 degrees to separation (spilt) on the ball gauge Store with ball retracted (backed-off) Basic Measurement : www.spacetec.org Basic Measurement Telescoping Gauges Used to measure inside cylinders, typically up to six inches in diameter. Allow spring loaded “T” gauge to extend to inside opening Lock shaft Measure with micrometer Store with ‘T” gauge extended. Basic Measurement : www.spacetec.org Basic Measurement The steel rule Lengths vary – most common 6 in or 36 in Can be used as a straight edge Usually contains four scales, 1/32, 1/64, 1/10, 1/100. The fractional divisions of an inch are found by dividing the inch into equal parts: Halves, quarters, eights, sixteenths, thirty- seconds and sixty-fourths or Decimals of 100th of an inch Basic Measurement : www.spacetec.org Basic Measurement The Combination Set Basic Measurement : www.spacetec.org Basic Measurement Combination Set Can be used as a ordinary rule 16ths, 32nds scales Tri-square 90°, 45° angles, Bubble Level Protractor Precision angles Center head Used to find the center of an object Each head slides along the blade and can be locked in place Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings : www.spacetec.org 3 types of working drawings Detail drawing Single part Assembly drawing Two or more parts assembled together Installation drawing All necessary information for a part or an assembly to be installed on the vehicle/rocket/aircraft Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings : www.spacetec.org Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings Orthographic Projection, Six views Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings : www.spacetec.org Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings Lines Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings : www.spacetec.org Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings Lines Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings : www.spacetec.org Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings Title Block Name of the firm Name of the part The scale Name of the draftsmen, the checker and the person approving the drawing The date Drawing number Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings : www.spacetec.org Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings Title Block Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings : www.spacetec.org Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings Orthographic Projection, 3 views Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings : www.spacetec.org Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings : www.spacetec.org Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings Tolerance When a given dimension on a print shows the allowable variation, the plus (+) figure indicates the maximum and the minus (–) figure indicates minimum allowable variation. Also called the “the extreme permissible dimensions of the hole or part. Example: Using .225 + .0025 - .005 The hole could be as large as .2275 The hole could be as small as .2200 Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings : www.spacetec.org Blueprint Reading and Interpreting Technical Drawings Schematics diagrams do not indicate the locations of individual components in the vehicle or rocket, but do locate components with respect to each other Blueprint Reading and Schematics : www.spacetec.org Blueprint Reading and Schematics References : www.spacetec.org References Karr “Technology of Machine Tools” Navy Manual Tools and Their Uses AC 43.13-1B Acceptable Methods, Techniques, and Practices - Aircraft Inspection and Repair AC65-9A Airframe and Powerplant Mechanics General Handbook AC 65-15A [Large AC] Airframe and Powerplant Mechanics Airframe Handbook

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Balance Sheet

Balance Sheet Auditing
01. 07. 2009
0 views

Balance Sheet Auditing

BRANCH AND BOUND
05. 03. 2009
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BRANCH AND BOUND

THE  THREE  BRANCHES  OF GOVERNMENT
13. 06. 2009
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THE THREE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT

Structure of Atom
11. 05. 2009
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Structure of Atom

Compression Techniques
05. 03. 2009
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Compression Techniques

DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING
06. 03. 2009
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DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING

Quantum Mechanics
25. 08. 2009
0 views

Quantum Mechanics

Marketing Plan
19. 06. 2009
0 views

Marketing Plan

Book Keeping
24. 06. 2009
0 views

Book Keeping

DFDS
02. 10. 2008
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DFDS

Semiconductors
25. 04. 2009
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Semiconductors

Organic  Chemistry
28. 04. 2009
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Organic Chemistry

Atoms Molecules and Ions
17. 06. 2009
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Atoms Molecules and Ions

Covalent Bond
25. 04. 2009
0 views

Covalent Bond

Cost Accounting Standards
25. 06. 2009
0 views

Cost Accounting Standards

Crisis Management
19. 06. 2009
0 views

Crisis Management

Marketing
18. 03. 2009
0 views

Marketing

Business Strategy
27. 04. 2009
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Business Strategy

Time Management
23. 03. 2009
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Time Management

Networking Protocols
23. 05. 2009
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Networking Protocols

Network Layer
23. 05. 2009
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Network Layer

Final Accounts
24. 06. 2009
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Final Accounts

ARTIFICIAL  INTELLIGENCE
03. 04. 2009
0 views

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Play with C
08. 04. 2009
0 views

Play with C

Software Development Cycle
23. 03. 2009
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Software Development Cycle

THE GREEDY METHOD
06. 03. 2009
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THE GREEDY METHOD

JOB SEQUENCING
06. 03. 2009
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JOB SEQUENCING

Electricity and Magnetism
29. 04. 2009
0 views

Electricity and Magnetism

Optical Fiber
24. 05. 2009
0 views

Optical Fiber

Quality Assurance
06. 03. 2009
0 views

Quality Assurance

Object-oriented Design
11. 04. 2009
0 views

Object-oriented Design

A.R. Rahman
08. 03. 2009
0 views

A.R. Rahman

Hollywood Female Celebrities
13. 03. 2009
0 views

Hollywood Female Celebrities

Flow nets
04. 09. 2009
0 views

Flow nets

Energy and Nanotechnology
22. 11. 2009
0 views

Energy and Nanotechnology

LOGIC  DESIGN
06. 03. 2009
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LOGIC DESIGN

VB-IDE
06. 03. 2009
0 views

VB-IDE

DLF IPL FINAL
25. 05. 2009
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DLF IPL FINAL

MINIMUM SPANNING TREES
06. 03. 2009
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MINIMUM SPANNING TREES

CPU Scheduling
05. 03. 2009
0 views

CPU Scheduling

Virtual Memory
05. 03. 2009
0 views

Virtual Memory

POK
09. 05. 2009
0 views

POK

2D Transformations
05. 03. 2009
0 views

2D Transformations

Greedy Algorithms
05. 03. 2009
0 views

Greedy Algorithms

BACKTRACKING
05. 03. 2009
0 views

BACKTRACKING

DIVIDE And CONQUER
06. 03. 2009
0 views

DIVIDE And CONQUER

ELEMENTARY DATA STRUCTURES
06. 03. 2009
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ELEMENTARY DATA STRUCTURES

JPEG Compression
06. 03. 2009
0 views

JPEG Compression

Mpeg-compression
06. 03. 2009
0 views

Mpeg-compression

NP - HARD
06. 03. 2009
0 views

NP - HARD

TRAVELLING SALESPERSON PROBLEM
06. 03. 2009
0 views

TRAVELLING SALESPERSON PROBLEM

VBA Introduction
06. 03. 2009
0 views

VBA Introduction

Introduction to Java
09. 03. 2009
0 views

Introduction to Java

Java  Basics
09. 03. 2009
0 views

Java Basics

Heuristic Search
13. 03. 2009
0 views

Heuristic Search

HSM
19. 03. 2009
0 views

HSM

Tata's  Nano  Car
25. 03. 2009
0 views

Tata's Nano Car

Air Cranes
08. 04. 2009
0 views

Air Cranes

Newborn Care
10. 04. 2009
0 views

Newborn Care

Photosynthesis Process
10. 04. 2009
0 views

Photosynthesis Process

ActionScript
13. 04. 2009
0 views

ActionScript

Xml
15. 04. 2009
0 views

Xml

Snakes mis use
17. 04. 2009
0 views

Snakes mis use

Php Web Development
21. 04. 2009
0 views

Php Web Development

Cricket Intro
21. 04. 2009
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Cricket Intro

Cricket Umpiring and Rules
21. 04. 2009
0 views

Cricket Umpiring and Rules

Arm and Forearm
23. 04. 2009
0 views

Arm and Forearm

Elements Ions Isotopes
25. 04. 2009
0 views

Elements Ions Isotopes

Chemical Bond
25. 04. 2009
0 views

Chemical Bond

Discovering Newtons Laws
29. 04. 2009
0 views

Discovering Newtons Laws

FreeFall
29. 04. 2009
0 views

FreeFall

Digital photography
26. 04. 2009
0 views

Digital photography

Health Effects of Alcohol
26. 04. 2009
0 views

Health Effects of Alcohol

Poetry Terminology
27. 04. 2009
0 views

Poetry Terminology

Indian Force
05. 05. 2009
0 views

Indian Force

Machine Intelligence
14. 05. 2009
0 views

Machine Intelligence

Data Link Layer
16. 05. 2009
0 views

Data Link Layer

Database Development Cycle
15. 05. 2009
0 views

Database Development Cycle

Queue
15. 05. 2009
0 views

Queue

Presentaion Skills
23. 04. 2009
0 views

Presentaion Skills

Network Layers
23. 05. 2009
0 views

Network Layers

Narmada Dam, India
23. 05. 2009
0 views

Narmada Dam, India

User Datagram Protocol
24. 05. 2009
0 views

User Datagram Protocol

Linear Momentum
28. 05. 2009
0 views

Linear Momentum

Stack and Queue
04. 06. 2009
0 views

Stack and Queue

Information Management
19. 06. 2009
0 views

Information Management

Role of Senior Management
19. 06. 2009
0 views

Role of Senior Management

Wake Up India
07. 06. 2009
0 views

Wake Up India

Adobe Flex 3.0
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Adobe Flex 3.0

Adobe Flex Presentation
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Adobe Flex Presentation

Introduction to Adobe Flex
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Introduction to Adobe Flex

Adobe Flash Media Server
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Adobe Flash Media Server

Dreamweaver
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Dreamweaver

Adobe Flash
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Adobe Flash

Flash CS4 Professional
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Flash CS4 Professional

Adobe Flash Lite
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Adobe Flash Lite

Digital Camera
13. 06. 2009
0 views

Digital Camera

Mozilla_Firefox
15. 06. 2009
0 views

Mozilla_Firefox

Managerial Accounting
27. 06. 2009
0 views

Managerial Accounting

Accounting  Information  System
01. 07. 2009
0 views

Accounting Information System

RETAILING AND MARKETING
06. 07. 2009
0 views

RETAILING AND MARKETING

ACCOUNTING IN BUSINESS
05. 07. 2009
0 views

ACCOUNTING IN BUSINESS

STRATEGIC RETAIL MANAGEMENT
05. 07. 2009
0 views

STRATEGIC RETAIL MANAGEMENT

Reiki
01. 08. 2009
0 views

Reiki

Using Buttons in PowerPoint
26. 04. 2009
0 views

Using Buttons in PowerPoint

Nanotechnology  for  Students
21. 08. 2009
0 views

Nanotechnology for Students

NANOSCIENCE
25. 08. 2009
0 views

NANOSCIENCE

Fundamentals of Nanoscience
27. 08. 2009
0 views

Fundamentals of Nanoscience

Nanoscience in Nature
27. 08. 2009
0 views

Nanoscience in Nature

Accounts Payable Training
27. 06. 2009
0 views

Accounts Payable Training