APSA 2004 Powerpoint Presentation 05x

Information about APSA 2004 Powerpoint Presentation 05x

Published on October 4, 2007

Author: Marigold

Source: authorstream.com

Content

The ‘Australian Settlement’ in the Countryside: Small farmers and the rise of statutory marketing in Australia.   Nicholas Harrigan :  The ‘Australian Settlement’ in the Countryside: Small farmers and the rise of statutory marketing in Australia.   Nicholas Harrigan Statutory marketing affected majority of farmers between WWII and 1988. Dismantled over last 20 years by neoliberal reforms Parallels other aspects of Australian Settlement, such as tariffs and arbitration. Questions What are the origins of statutory marketing? How does it relate to the rest of the Australian Settlement? Slide2:  Existing literature argues small farmers incorporated in early 1920s: First Coalition government Economic Concessions to early Country Parties. This paper argues: Key issue for small farmers was grower-controlled statutory marketing Not resolved till 1940s Origins of the Australian Farmer:  Origins of the Australian Farmer By 1890, 30 years of land reform had sent agriculture backwards Key event was the balance of payments crisis of the late 1880s and 1890s. State activism to create Australian agriculture: wheat, dairy, fruit, sugar. By World War One, this had created a class of small farmers Slide4:  Interest and Dividends due overseas as a percentage of Exports. 1861 1866 1871 1876 1881 1886 1890 (A) Exports (£ million) 17.4 19.5 22.9 25.6 26.9 20.8 28.2 (B)Interest and dividends due overseas (£ million) 0.6 1.53 2.22 3.32 4.86 8.09 11.74 B as percentage of A 3.4% 7.8% 9.7% 13.0% 18.1% 38.9% 41.6% Slide5:  Formation of ‘mass-based’ farmers’ organisations that formed the Country Parties. Organisation Year Formed Issue around which it formed NSW FSA* 1893 Land Reform Qld Farmers’ Union 1911 Arbitration for Ag. Workers WA FSA 1912 Arbitration for Ag. Workers SA FSA 1915 Wartime Wheat Pools Vic. Farmers’ Union 1916 Wartime Wheat Pools Australian FFO^ 1916 Wartime Wheat Pools * FSA = Farmers’ and Settlers’ Association ^ FFO = Federal Farmers’ Organisation Slide6:  Origin of statutory marketing: state intervention during World War One. Farmers demanded maintenance during peacetime under grower-control. This drove the rise of the Country Parties in late 1910s, early 1920s. Two responses to Country Parties: Non-labor (Nationalists, then UAP): Political coalition with Country Parties Minimal concessions of statutory marketing Labor Party Radical statutory marketing legislation Attempt to demobilise and destroy Country Parties Slide7:  Neither strategy succeeded Labor Party: Stopped by legislative councils Didn’t hold Federal power for long enough in 1920s and 30s. Non-labor: Country Parties compromised by ‘rural elite’ and parliamentarians tied to the Nationalists/UAP Abandonment of statutory marketing by Country Party/Coalition, provided material base for radical small farmer breakaways: ‘independent farmers’ organisations’ Slide8:  Statutory Marketing legislation vetoed by the Legislative Councils State Govt Year Nature of Legislation Vic. * 1921 Compulsory Wheat Pooling NSW ALP 1921 Compulsory Wheat Pooling WA ALP 1925 omnibus – similar to Qld Primary Producers’ Pools Act WA ALP 1934 omnibus – similar to Qld Primary Producers’ Pools Act Tas ALP 1935 omnibus – similar to Qld Primary Producers’ Pools Act * ALP and CP had a majority in the lower house, but the Nationals were a minority government   Statutory Marketing legislation vetoed by the Senate Government Year Nature of Legislation Scullin – ALP 1930 4s. / bushel. Guarantee to Wheat Growers Scullin – ALP 1931 Compulsory National Wheat Pool Slide9:  Campaign by ‘independent farmers’ organisations’ lead to: 1935 Dunstan Country Party government in Victoria Near split of Federal Coalition in 1939, on day WWII broke out. Vote by Alex Wilson, ‘independent country party’ candidate, to bring Curtin government to power in 1941 Curtin and Chifley entrenched a radical, grower-controlled, statutory marketing By the end of 1940s their was bipartisan support for statutory marketing. Slide10:  Commonwealth referenda which would have specifically given the Federal Government the power to make laws with respect to the organised marketing of agricultural products. Year Government Result 1937 Lyons (UAP-CP) Defeated Add Section 92A, excluding laws by Federal Parliament with respect to marketing from the ‘free trade’ provisions of Section 92. 1944 Curtin (Labor) Defeated Grant the Federal Government post-war reconstruction powers which included ‘(iii) Organised marketing of commodities’. 1946 Chifley (Labor) Defeated Amend Section 51 to grant the Federal Government power over ‘organised marketing of primary produce’, ‘notwithstanding anything contained in Section 92 of this constitution.’

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