Published on January 18, 2008
Capstone PDR: Capstone PDR Group: AquaLung Robin Elliott Greg Newcomb Wilfredo Oteromatos Mir Minhaz Ali Presentation Overview: Presentation Overview Purpose and History of Bronchoscope System Overview Hardware Assembly OS and Image processing software Time Chart Estimated Prototype COST Projected Product Revenue Technical Challenges Bronchoscope: An Overview: Bronchoscope: An Overview Bronchoscopy is a procedure to examine the bronchial tree Bronchoscope – leading invasive tool for evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the lung Catheter – a thin, tube like instrument inserted into the lungs with a small light and camera on the tip which transmits images Direct Examination, Diagnosis & Treatment Allows for removal of obstructions and foreign bodies Tissue may be biopsied (removed for microscopic observation) Bronchoscope: An Overview: Bronchoscope: An Overview Approximately 460,000 patients per year in U.S. Diagnosis of Lung Cancer, Unexplained collapse of the airways (atelectasis), tracheal narrowing (stenosis), Gastric content aspiration Treatment of Lung transplant complications and care, Cystic Fibrosis, AIDS, Airway inflamation, Injury due to noxious fumes A Brief History of Bronchoscopy : A Brief History of Bronchoscopy Gustav Killian (1860-1921) German Laryngologist 1895 – Experimented with a similar device Chevalier Jackson (1865-1958) Professor of Laryngology at the University of Pittsburgh Invented one of the two main types of bronchoscopes 1903 – Adapted the bronchoscope for use in surgical procedures Regarded as the ‘Father of Bronchoscopy’ Modern Bronchoscopy: Modern Bronchoscopy Camera and lens connected by fiber optics to either an eyepiece (left) or monitor (below) Catheter allows for: Power for light source and camera at tip Suction to collect biopsy samples Insertion of instrumentation (ie. nasotracheal tube) direct administration of drugs to specific regions of the lung Comes with some drawbacks… Contamination, Recalls, Lawsuits: Contamination, Recalls, Lawsuits 415 patients exposed to Pseudomonas bacteria 100 infected 2 fatalities Suspected Causes John Hopkins Outbreak Faulty sterilization Lengthy cleaning process for the catheter Contamination in a loose valve Product Recall Costly Litigation No Clear Solution for Bronchoscope makers Results New AquaLung Bronchoscope: New AquaLung Bronchoscope Problem: Bacteria contaminates the catheter Solution: Disposable catheter eliminates patient risk Problem: Lengthy sterilization delay patients and staff Solution: Simple snap-on/snap-off catheter increases patient throughput and eliminates hazardous sterilization chemicals Problem: Small eyepiece and/or bulky monitors prohibit viable use in ambulances Solution: Attaches directly to any Personal Computer with a USB port, easy user-interface and high portability Problem: No way to compare patient’s progress Solution: Save image electronically for future use System Overview: System Overview Imaging System: Imaging System Camera & Lens Assembly: Camera & Lens Assembly Original scope uses miniature CMOS video (NTSC) camera. For our prototype we will use inexpensive CCD objective system camera. The other end optical fiber will connected to super CCD area image sensor (S9737). Wavelength 400-1100nm S9737 CCD sensor is designed for low light level detection. Tube and Fiber Assembly: Tube and Fiber Assembly Standard SMA termination. 7000 Pixels ( 7000 pieces of fiber inside ) for a clear viewing. 0.5mm diameter glass fiber imaging bundle enables scope to bend around . Actual tube length is 790mm but for our prototype we will use 1 meter long for inexpensive termination. 2 high efficiency krypton light bulbs to illuminate the image. P.P.U. Layout: P.P.U. Layout Preliminary Processing Unit: Preliminary Processing Unit Optical receiver- obtains input from optical terminator and pass it to the Analog to Digital converter. CCD Sensor S9737-01 Analog to Digital converter- receives signal from Optical receiver and sends it to the Digital Signal Processing unit (DSP). USB interface (AT89C5131A-M)- sends data (in USB format) to a PC where the signal will be handled to capture and manipulate image. Miscellaneous-Power for head assembly. PC Processing: PC Processing Device Driver USB Operating System Image Processing Software User Interface Bronchoscope Device Driver: Bronchoscope Device Driver USB Interface to PC Plug and Play Capable Developed by Team AquaLung Operating System: Operating System All software will be developed to use with Microsoft Windows XP, the current market leader. Image Processing Software: Image Processing Software Functionality to Include Display Real-Time Image Zoom In/Zoom Out Save Crop and Rotate Color/Contrast Enhancement Mechanical Connections: Mechanical Connections The following mechanical connections must be maintained where the catheter can be detached. Power to the LEDs Fiber Optic cable to the camera A seal along the biopsy channel must be water-tight Cable to control the tip of the scope Time Chart: Time Chart Estimated Prototype Cost: Estimated Prototype Cost Projected Product RevenueAll Amounts in Millions: Projected Product Revenue All Amounts in Millions Technical Challenges : Technical Challenges CCD Sensor extremely sensitive to ESD. Focusing eye piece onto CCD window. USB Interfacing. Mechanical Connection (Air-Tight). High Complexity Image Processing Software. Window’s Device Drivers. Questions ??: Questions ?? AquaLung Capstone PDR: AquaLung Capstone PDR Robin Elliott Greg Newcomb Wilfredo Oteromatos Mir Minhaz Ali Thank You!