Aristotle 1

Information about Aristotle 1

Published on July 11, 2014

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PowerPoint Presentation: CSS PMS By Mian Waqas CSM IAS Aristotle Aristotle (Realist) (Important only in PMS/Logic): Aristotle (Realist) (Important only in PMS/Logic) Discuss critically Aristotle's Metaphysics. PMS—2012 What is Logic? Evaluate in brief Aristotelian Logic. CSS-2002,2006, 2008 Describe Aristotle’s View of Causation. CSM (Civil Service (Main) Exams, 2009 Similarities between Plato & Aristotle: Similarities between Plato & Aristotle Both Plato & Aristotle believe in: Objectivity (universality) of philosophy Value of objective knowledge (or of ultimate causes Dist. b/w knowledge (eternal) & opinion (changing) Distinction b/w knowledge and experience Knowledge begins in wonder Philosophy is the mother ( highest ) of All sciences Philosophical method ( dialectical method ) PowerPoint Presentation: Plato Aristotle Philosophy covers moral, practical, theoretical aspects of knowledge Philosophical discussion is intellectual discourse He used (analytic) dialectical method Ideas are separate from objects He has less factual interest (but more ideal one) Being poet, he used myths, imagination, poetry and mysticism He used extraordinary poetic language Philosophy covers only theoretical aspect Philosophy also deals with phenomena ( actual things and every day life) He improved dialectical method by adding method of observation to it. And he made it scientific and technical method. Ideas cannot be separated from things. He wanted to get accurate scientific knowledge. Rather than style, he focused on meaning , communication and understanding of language. He separate art and reason . Dissimilarities between them Q. Critically Discuss Aristotle’s Theory of Knowledge? PMS—2012: Q. Critically Discuss Aristotle’s Theory of Knowledge? PMS—2012 He covered not only philosophy, ethics, logic, metaphysics, but also naturals sciences. Logic: Aristotle is founder father of traditional Logic. Logic is science of reasoning . It is an ORGANON (instrument) to achieve correct knowledge . It is science of all sciences because it is a tool of scientific research and thinking. Subject Matter of Logic: Subject Matter of Logic Aristotle’s Logic: Aristotle’s Logic “He says Logic studies thought ” Thought means not process but product of thought Concept (Term) Judgment (Proposition) Inference (argument) Concept: Concept Property of mind Picture of a thing in mind A mental image E.g., table, chair, pen, book term: term Concept when expressed in language is called Categorematic : term by itself; man, table Syncategorematic : not term by themselves; “the”, “an”, “all”, “only”, “of” Acategorematic : used in neither case, hurrah!, “Alas” Singular and general terms: Singular and general terms Particular term, socrates , Ravi, Lahore Universal terms, man, cricket, university Judgment : Judgment Relationship of affirmation/negation b/w two terms Intellectual activity Comparison/ evaluation of particular effects of an experience Psychological activity of awareness of objects and relationships Proposition : Proposition Judgment expressed in language A statement that can be true or false is called Witten or spoken statement in language 3 parts: Subject Predicate copula Proposition: Proposition A logical sentence. It consists of 2 terms (subject & Predicate). Subject and predicate are two class which are related are linked through copula. Example of Proposition : Subject copula Predicate All Men are Mortal. Inference : Inference Combination of more than 1 propositions Mental activity Where some propositions are given ( premises ) , and other follows from them ( conclusion ). All men are mortal and Socrates is a man. (Given) Therefore, All men are mortal. (following) Inference : Inference “A inference or reasoning is a process of transition from known /perceived facts (Premises) to unknown or unperceived things. You see smoke and infer/ reason that there is a fire. Argument: Argument Categorical Syllogism: Categorical Syllogism Syllogism : a deductive argument consisting of two (2) premises and one (1) conclusion is called Syllogism. Categorical Syllogism: A syllogism with three (3) propositions & three (3) different terms (Major, Minor & Middle). Each of these terms appears twice. All Men are Mortal Aslam is a man Therefore, Aslam is mortal Major Term, Minor term & Middle Term: Major Term, Minor term & Middle Term All CSPs are intelligent. Major Premise Some people are not CSPs . Minor Premise Some People are not intelligent . Conclusion Minor Term Major Term Middle Term Categories: Categories His categories are part of his metaphysics. Categories are fundamental concepts and basic features of reality because without categories our thought is impossible. Substance : a thing what it is (e.g. Man) Quality : how a thing is constituted (e.g. white) Quantity : how large a thing is (e.g. 2 yards long) Relation : how it is related (e.g. greater) Space : where it is (e.g. in the Lyceum) Time : when it is (e.g. yesterday) Position : What postures it assume (e.g. lies, sits) State : the condition it is in (e.g. armed) Activity : what it does (e.g. burns) Passivity : what is suffers (e.g. is burned) Criticism: Criticism Aristotle’s Categories are criticized by stoics (happiness can be achieved by accepting pain), Neo-Platonists (who combine Platonism with mysticism), Plotinus, Kant, Hegel, J.S. Mill . They hold that classification of categories is only based on linguistic expediency. He gives no arguments to prove these categories. Q. Critically discuss Aristotle’s metaphysics. (Theory of form & Matter): Q. Critically discuss Aristotle’s metaphysics. (Theory of form & Matter) Study of the nature of being or substance is called metaphysics. For Plato: substance is Universal. For Aristotle: substance is concrete individual Aristotle’s Criticism on Plato’s Theory of Ideas: Aristotle’s Criticism on Plato’s Theory of Ideas Abstract ideas can’t cause concrete things Ideas are static & eternal so can’t explain motion & change. Ideas cannot explain particular things Ideas are re-duplications of things “things are copies of ideas” explains nothing Plato separates essence from thing itself, which is actually not possible. Form & Matter: Form & Matter Matter : Something of which a thing is made. Form : which someone imposes on matter. To understand it, his theory of causation is imp. b/c concepts of matter and its cause are interlinked. To explain, we need to know “ why” & “How” an event occur. Four types of Causes (1) Material (2) Efficient (3) Forma (4) Final So a thing has two aspects (Material & Formal). Matter and form are inseparable . An object can’t exists without both form and matter. PowerPoint Presentation: Form ( cubeness ) is universal, matter (sugar cube) is particular. Both are arranged in ascending order as Substances with max. matter & min. form are arranged at bottom ; those with equal matter & form are at intermediate level; God (pure form, without any matter) is at top who sets the world in motion. Features of God (Pure Form): Features of God (Pure Form) God is Prime mover God is apex of world process (highest manifestation God is formal cause of the world God is Efficient cause of the world God is Final cause of the world Q. State & examine Aristotle’s theory of causation.: Q. State & examine Aristotle’s theory of causation. Four causes: Example of Table Material Cause: (matter such as wood ) Efficient Cause (for change/movement, Carpenter ) Formal Cause ( Idea/form of Table ) Final Cause ( Purpose to be achieved)  Goodbye :  Goodbye  For Classes: Mian Waqas Haider (0345-4740019) : For Classes: Mian Waqas Haider (0345-4740019) [email protected] For further guidance , Don’t hesitate to Join “CSS Philosophy Circle“ on https://www.facebook.com/groups/314643702035263/?ref=br_tf

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