Published on February 4, 2008
PREHISTORIC, NEAR EASTERN, & AEGEAN ART: PREHISTORIC, NEAR EASTERN, & AEGEAN ART PREHISTORIC: PREHISTORIC When did humans start creating works of art? What did these look like? And WHY? PREHISTORIC: PREHISTORIC subjects: hunt, fertility style/ forms: animals quite NATURALISTIC, human figures STYLIZED (i.e., “conventional” rather than “naturalistic”) key concepts: art reflecting the struggle for survival PALEOLITHIC (25000-8000 BC): PALEOLITHIC (25000-8000 BC) Earliest surviving examples are from Paleolithic (last ice age) era (25,000 - 8,000 BC [BCE]). They are usually in protected areas as caves etc. made by the hunters & gatherers Lascaux Cave Paintings images of hunt Style: vivid, naturalistic (different level of rendition from a simple outline to naturalistic details) Slide5: Technique: earth pigments, charcoal, animal fat applied w/ fingers, primitive brushes, or by blowing pigment through a tube [reed, bone] located far from the entrance - in darkness Function: most likely used for ritual “prayer for good hunt” , control of the animal spirit (that would also explain why humans are less naturalistic) Painting (chpt. 8, pp.130-142) : Painting (chpt. 8, pp.130-142) pigment, binder, vehicle, support, ground, glazing, direct painting, impasto, cartoon Watercolor (quash gum arabic binder) Tempera (egg yolk binder) Oil (oil - usually linseed - binder) Acrylic (synthetic polymer binder) Encaustic (bee wax binder) Fresco (lime binder: true “buon fresco” & dry “secco fresco”) PREHISTORIC sculpture: PREHISTORIC sculpture Bison Statue of a Woman (so-called “Venus”), Willendorf, Style? Naturalistic vs. stylized? Technique? Function? Purpose, concerns? Most likely the “ideal of fertility” connected with survival (as in the above) Sculpture (chpt.13, pp.212-228): Sculpture (chpt.13, pp.212-228) freestanding (in the round) vs. relief Modeling (manipulative & additive) Casting (replacement, lost-wax technique) Carving (subtractive) Constructing and Assembling Kinetic sculpture Site-specific sculpture NEOLITHIC (8000-3200 BC): NEOLITHIC (8000-3200 BC) subject.: man centered, agriculture style/ forms: stylized, beginning of permanent architectural structures key concepts: concern shifting from physical life to issues of the human spirit. Also concerns regarding cycles of nature due to agriculture and domestication of animals. Neolithic cont.: Neolithic cont. Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain, England technique? MEGALITHIC (large stones) art religious significance; related to summer solstice (sun worship?) and positions of other celestial bodies through the course of the year; i.e., implies importance of seasons for harvest etc. (early agrarian societies) NEAR EASTERN: Sumerian, Assyrian & Early Persian (3200-323 BC): NEAR EASTERN: Sumerian, Assyrian & Early Persian (3200-323 BC) subject: worshipers, legends, battles, fantastic scenes, etc. style/ forms: large massive regularized forms, intricate details key concepts: Succession of many related civilizations. Images centered on display of power, secular and sacred. Mesopotamia (map): Mesopotamia (map) “land between the rivers” Tigris and Euprathes politically tumultuous region with a number of subsequent cultures who used many advances from the previous ones while adding their own “touch” SUMERIA: SUMERIA ca. 3500 BC first city states function of art related to the polytheistic religion, i.e. to the divinity (NOT necessarily represented by living king) local to each place who controlled all forces of nature as well as all potential of the city including peoples work etc. “Theocratic Socialism” a planned society centered around temple as the center of administration (need for record-keeping) first writing in CUNEIFORM (wedge-shaped characters/ pictographs) Ziggurat, Ur: Ziggurat, Ur ZIGGURAT, an artificial ‘mountain’ for the gods (probably an inspiration for the proverbial tower of Babel - excessive pride to reach the heaven) made of bricks; meeting place of the god and priests ‘half-way to heaven’ *Worshipers and Deities, Abu Temple, Tell Asmar VOTIVE FIGURES (works marked by asterisk are not in your book and will not appear on your tests): *Worshipers and Deities, Abu Temple, Tell Asmar VOTIVE FIGURES (works marked by asterisk are not in your book and will not appear on your tests) Stone sculpture; worshipers are a stand-in for the real people - perpetual prayer (votive images); not a likeness; the exaggerated eyes “window of the soul” image of god[s] is more abstract and larger HIERARCHICAL SCALE used to indicate relative importance and to differentiate between mortals and deities or mortals of different social status ASSYRIAN : ASSYRIAN largely adapted Sumerian style but instead the deity; Kings became the focus expressing the power of the rule on different levels Head of Akkadian Ruler Lyre, sound box decorative, stylized, centralized,, clearly organized EGYPTIAN ART: EGYPTIAN ART subj: focus on semidivine ruler Pharaoh and afterlife Style: highly stylized...following strict CANON (i.e. set of rules), closed form, CUBICAL PERSPECTIVE key concept: Permanence history is divided into DYNASTIES *Pallet of Narmer Old Kingdom: *Pallet of Narmer Old Kingdom HIERARCHICAL SCALE King deified; already composite view: continues for “ever” Although not used for “underlings” performing physical activity Style: Disciplined, rational orderliness of the design, ground lines, pictorial surface divided into regular bands (REGISTERS) highly stylized...following strict CANON (i.e. set of rules), closed form, CUBICAL PERSPECTIVE Cult of the Dead: Cult of the Dead All preoccupation of this life was to ensure safety and happiness in the afterlife no real dualistic distinction between body & soul. KA (soul) could continue to live on after death of the body but the body must have been as intact as possible (Mummification), furthermore a statue of the deceased in the round would be provided in case the body would disintegrate for Ka to inhabit basically very “physical” effort to ensure immortality (yet because of the contains almost from the start plundering of the tombs); provisions for Ka - food, utensils, cloths, etc. Funerary districts: all funerary monument of the west bank all working temples on the east bank : Funerary districts: all funerary monument of the west bank all working temples on the east bank Most famous burial cites are the are the pyramids at Giza cf. (compare to) Ziggurat of Menkaure of Khafre of Khufu (oldest and largest) base side 775', high 450' 2.3 million stones, average 2.5 tons Temple of Queen Hatshepsut Statuary: : Statuary: King Micerinus and Queen Khamerernebty same idea of idealization befitting the divine king, generalized anatomy, in step but no movement of pelvis. Frontal, bilaterally symmetrical, all movement is suppressed (and with it the flow of time). The body is attached to the back slab w/o projecting breakable parts (closed form); preference for the hardest stones (diorite) hard to work with bronze tools; finished through abrasion Egyptian Architecture:: Egyptian Architecture: *Temples PYLON temple corridor along the central longitudinal AXIS colonnaded courtyard þ HYPOSTYLE hall (CLERESTORY) þ shrine: progression of the “experience” COLUMNS - papyrus-like 2 types = bud, flower Slide23: POST AND LINTEL technique on posts - impost stone (limited span of space because stone has a low TENSILE STRENGTH) Painting : Painting everyday activities for Ka’s amusement, style essentially same as in sculpture; important humans are stylized, some natural elements are rendered with great detail (even though somewhat life-less) Hunt Pond in a Garden *AEGEAN ART: *AEGEAN ART MINOAN subj: marine life and themes from nature style/forms: fluid, active, large palace structures key concepts: Presumed non-military, seafaring culture, focus on life experience Slide26: Palace of Minos, Knossos, Crete Legend of Minotaur, labyrinth (“lybros”) *Bull Leaping, Knossos, FRESCO style: active, pinched waist * Octopus Vase fresco a secco = pigment applied on a dry wall buon fresco = wet-on-wet (intonaco) intonaco - fine, smooth plaster arriccio - binder plaster underlying masonry MYCENAEAN: MYCENAEAN subj: heroic/warrior themes style/forms: massive stone structures key concepts: warrior culture who eventually overrun more advanced Minoans (possibly ancestors of Greeks--referred to by Homer’s poems) *Lion Gate, Mycenae, Greece CORBELED ARCH / VAULT, CYCLOPEAN CONSTRUCTION Slide28: *Treasury of Atreus, Mycenae, THOLOS (“BEEHIVE”) TOMB * Vepio Cup essentially Minoan style (Mycenaean style early dominated by Minoan culture) GREEK ART: GREEK ART ARCHAIC subj: mythological scenes, unknown men and women style/form: progressively more naturalistic, BLACK & RED-FIGURE vases; DORIC, IONIC, CORINTHIAN ORDER in architecture key concept: beginning of colonization, strong individualism, “materialistic” view leading toward ANTHROPOMORPHICATION of religion and naturalistic viewing of the world Archaic sculpture: Archaic sculpture Kouros KUcf. Egyptian sculpture Kore from Chios originally most of the Greek sculpture was painted Greek pottery Exekias, Achilles and Ajax Playing Droughts, Amphora cf. Red-figure version. increasing naturalism, limited by the nature of the medium GREEK CLASSICAL ART: GREEK CLASSICAL ART subj: athletes, gods (and mix) style/form: naturalistic, strive for “ordered” IDEAL perfection of the natural. DORIC, IONIC, CORINTHIAN ORDER in architecture.Doric order soon replaced by Ionic one. Sculpture essentially 2-D even though carved in the round. key concepts: “perfect,” rational and reserved attitude (ETHOS - character), rather unemotional, without much action. Time of political stability and “democracy.” Classical sculpture: Classical sculpture *Kritios Boy, c.480 BC cf. Kuros CONTRAPPOSTO Riaci Warriors & detail stresses naturalism *Polykleitos, Doryphoros (Spearbearer), CHIASTIC POSE (“X”) - refined contrapposto, CANON (expression of perfect proportions) Architecture : Architecture Parthenon, Kallikrates & Iktinos, Doric ORDERS: DORIC, IONIC, CORINTHIAN NAOS/ CELLA, PEDIMENT, CAPITAL, ENTABLATURE FLUTING, FRIEZE, TRIGLYPH, METHOPE SYMMETRY, HARMONY : SYMMETRY, HARMONY Illusionistic adjustments (exaggerated) of Parthenon’s elevation Slide35: Illusionistic adjustments (exaggerated) of Parthenon’s ground plan Architectural sculpture: Architectural sculpture Phidias?, Three Godesses PHIDIAN DRAPERY Frieze, Horsemen fluid movement mixed with composed restrain (NARRATIVE, CONTINUOUS NARRATIVE) * Nike fastening her Sandal Late Classical Sculpture: Late Classical Sculpture Praxiteles, Hermese with the Child Dionysus, increasing idealization and beautification, progressively increasing interactions of the figures with the environment but not yet truly emotional Venus de Medici HELLENISTIC ART: HELLENISTIC ART subj: important individuals style/form: dramatic, active, emotional (PATHOS), forms influenced by non-Greek cultures, 3-D. key concept: expansion of Greek culture under Alexander the Great. Greek aesthetics mix with eastern motifs and sensibilities. Hellenistic Sculpture: Hellenistic Sculpture * Lysippos, Apoxyomenos (the Scraper), first sculptor who exploited truly 3-D viewing cf. Doryphoros *Winged Victory of Samothrace, 3-78, active, dramatic, interaction with the environment * Veiled Dancer, corkscrew pose, non-Greek influences Hellenistic Architecture and Architectural Sculpture: Hellenistic Architecture and Architectural Sculpture Altar of Zeus and Athena, Pergamon, Turkey + detail of the Battle (Gigantomachy) action spilling into the viewers space, emotional (PATHOS), somewhat organized by “flattening” against the background Laocoon Hellenistic Painting: Hellenistic Painting Battle of Alexander and Darius, 1st c. mosaic copy of a 4th c. painting MOSAIC For better understanding, “Snow-ball” you knowledge on conceptual level by comparing the concepts from different periods, i.e., Egyptian art with Greek art, etc., in order to see the cultural heritage as well as the stylistic innovations.