Published on July 16, 2014
Maths Presentation On Aryabhatta: Maths Presentation On Aryabhatta BY :- Class : VII Yash Goyal Biography: Biography PowerPoint Presentation: Name While there is a tendency to misspell his name as "Aryabhatta" by analogy with other names having the " bhatta " suffix, his name is properly spelled Aryabhata : every astro nomical text spells his name thus, including Brahmagupta 's references to him "in more than a hundred places by name". Furthermore, in most instances "Aryabhatta" does not fit the metre either. Time and place of birth Aryabhata mentions in the Aryabhatiya that it was composed 3,600 years into the Kali Yuga , when he was 23 years old. This corresponds to 499 CE, and implies that he was born in 476.  Aryabhata provides no information about his place of birth. The only information comes from Bhāskara I , who describes Aryabhata as āśmakīya , "one belonging to the aśmaka country." During the Buddha's time, a branch of the Aśmaka people settled in the region between the Narmada and Godavari rivers in central India; Aryabhata is believed to have been born there. PowerPoint Presentation: Other hypotheses It has been claimed that the aśmaka (Sanskrit for "stone") where Aryabhata originated may be the present day Kodungallur which was the historical capital city of Thiruvanchikkulam of ancient Kerala.  This is based on the belief that Koṭuṅṅallūr was earlier known as Koṭum - Kal -l- ūr ("city of hard stones"); however, old records show that the city was actually Koṭum-kol-ūr ("city of strict governance").. Similarly, the fact that several commentaries on the Aryabhatiya have come from Kerala has been used to suggest that it was Aryabhata's main place of life and activity; however, many commentaries have come from outside Kerala, and the Aryasiddhanta was completely unknown in Kerala Aryabhata mentions "Lanka" on several occasions in the Aryabhatiya , but his "Lanka" is an abstraction, standing for a point on the equator at the same longitude as his Ujjayini .  Education It is fairly certain that, at some point, he went to Kusumapura for advanced studies and lived there for some time.  Both Hindu and Buddhist tradition, as well as Bhāskara I (CE 629), identify Kusumapura as Pāṭaliputra , modern Patna .  A verse mentions that Aryabhata was the head of an institution ( kulapa ) at Kusumapura , and, because the university of Nalanda was in Pataliputra at the time and had an astronomical observatory, it is speculated that Aryabhata might have been the head of the Nalanda university as well.  Aryabhata is also reputed to have set up an observatory at the Sun temple in Taregana , Bihar.  Life: Life PowerPoint Presentation: Aryabhata (some time misspelled as ‘ Aryabhatta ’) was one of the first Indian mathematicians and astronomers belonging to the classical age. He was born in 476 BC in Tarenaga , a town in Bihar, India. It is however definite that he travelled to Kusumapara (modern day Patna) for studies and even resided there for some time. It is mentioned in a few places that Aryabhata was the head of the educational institute in Kusumapara . The University of Nalanda had an observatory in its premises so it is hypothesized that Aryabhata was the principal of the university as well. On the other hand some other commentaries mention that he belonged to Kerala. Work: Work PowerPoint Presentation: Aryabhata is the author of several treatises on mathematics and astronomy , some of which are lost. His major work, Aryabhatiya , a compendium of mathematics and astronomy, was extensively referred to in the Indian mathematical literature and has survived to modern times. The mathematical part of the Aryabhatiya covers arithmetic , algebra , plane trigonometry , and spherical trigonometry . It also contains continued fractions , quadratic equations , sums-of-power series, and a table of sines . The Arya-siddhanta , a lost work on astronomical computations, is known through the writings of Aryabhata's contemporary, Varahamihira , and later mathematicians and commentators, including Brahmagupta and Bhaskara I . This work appears to be based on the older Surya Siddhanta and uses the midnight-day reckoning, as opposed to sunrise in Aryabhatiya . It also contained a description of several astronomical instruments: the gnomon ( shanku-yantra ), a shadow instrument ( chhAyA-yantra ), possibly angle-measuring devices, semicircular and circular ( dhanur-yantra / chakra- yantra ), a cylindrical stick yasti-yantra , an umbrella-shaped device called the chhatra-yantra , and water clocks of at least two types, bow-shaped and cylindrical.  . [ PowerPoint Presentation: A third text, which may have survived in the Arabic translation, is Al ntf or Al- nanf . It claims that it is a translation by Aryabhata , but the Sanskrit name of this work is not known. Probably dating from the 9th century, it is mentioned by the Persian scholar and chronicler of India, Abū Rayhān al- Bīrūnī Aryabhatiya: Aryabhatiya PowerPoint Presentation: It is known that Aryabhatta has authored at least three astronomical books, in addition he also wrote some free stanzas. Among them “Aryabhatiya” is the only text that has survived to this day, whereas unfortunately his other works have been extinct. It is a small treatise written is 118 verses, which summarizes the Hindu mathematics of that time. This great mathematical masterpiece of the past starts with 10 verse introduction, which is then followed by mathematical section which is written in 33 verses that gives out 66 mathematical rules, but there is no proof to go with it. The mathematical part of the Aryabhatiya is about algebra, arithmetic, plane trigonometry and spherical trigonometry in addition to advanced mathematics on continued fractions, quadratic equations, sums of power series and a table of sines . PowerPoint Presentation: There is some argument over the claim of Aryabhatta being the inventor of place value system that made use of zero. Georges Ifrah , in his work ‘Universal history of numbers: From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998)’ writes in work, “..it is extremely likely that Aryabhatta knew the sign for zero and the numerals of the place value system”. Georges Ifrah has studied the works of Aryabhatta and found that the counting and mathematical work carried out by him would have been not possible without zero or place value system. Achievements: Achievements PowerPoint Presentation: The place-value system, first seen in the 3rd-century Bakhshali Manuscript, was clearly in place in his achievement. While he did not use a symbol for zero, the French mathematician Georges If rah argues that knowledge of zero was implicit in Aryabhata's place-value system as a place holder for the powers of ten with null coefficients However, Aryabhata did not use the Brahmi numerals. Continuing the Sanskritic tradition from Vedic times, he used letters of the alphabet to denote numbers, expressing quantities, such as the table of sines in a mnemonic PowerPoint Presentation: Aryabhata described a geocentric model of the solar system, in which the Sun and Moon are each carried by epicycles. They in turn revolve around the Earth. In this model, which is also found in the Paitāmahasiddhānta (c. CE 425), the motions of the planets are each governed by two epicycles, a smaller manda (slow) and a larger śīghra (fast). The order of the planets in terms of distance from earth is taken as: the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the asterisms." The positions and periods of the planets was calculated relative to uniformly moving points. In the case of Mercury and Venus, they move around the Earth Eclipses: Eclipses Solar and lunar eclipses were scientifically explained by Aryabhata . He states that the Moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight. Instead of the prevailing cosmogony in which eclipses were caused by pseudo-planetary demons Rahu and Ketu , he explains eclipses in terms of shadows cast by and falling on Earth. These will only occur when the earth-moon orbital plane intersects the earth-sun orbital plane, at points called lunar nodes Sidereal periods: Sidereal periods Considered in modern English units of time, Aryabhata calculated the sidereal rotation (the rotation of the earth referencing the fixed stars) as 23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4.1 seconds the modern value is 23:56:4.091. Similarly, his value for the length of the sidereal year at 365 days, 6 hours, 12 minutes, and 30 seconds (365.25858 days) . is an error of 3 minutes and 20 seconds over the length of a year (365.25636 days). Hope you like it….: Hope you like it….