Published on August 14, 2007
What is Astrology?: What is Astrology? Astrology - the study of the interactions among the Stars and the Planets, based on intricate mathematical cycles. Astrology is an ancient science that predates both astronomy and psychology The idea of astrology is that the Sun, Moon and visible planets influence a persons character and life, the health of his beasts, the quality of his crops, and the weather; pretty much every aspect on life Astrology deals with the same sort of idea through the concept of karma: What you do in this lifetime determines what will happen to you in your next lifetime. Astrology does not tie you to being a certain way, and it doesn't predict everything about you. Astrology explains the energy in your life and its potential challenges and possibilities. Who, Where and When?: Who, Where and When? The earliest known astrological records date back to Babylon, 1645 BC, and the earliest horoscope to 410 BC The Babylonians are generally credited with the birth of astrology. Astrology's origins can also be traced to several other locations and cultures, including Egypt, which developed sophisticated timekeeping and calendar science; Greece, where Ptolemy authored influential astrological and astronomical texts; and Rome, where many of the most learned men-including two emperors-were astrologers who wrote laws and counseled citizens based on the Stars. It isn’t exactly known where astrology was first created. Some say it was Babylon, some Mesopotamia, others yet say astrology is Sumerian in origin. The Sumerian culture gave rise to the Babylonians and in effect gave them the belief system that spurred the beginning of astrology as it would be used in the West. Through the studies of Plato, Aristotle, and others, astrology came to be highly regarded as a science. It was soon embraced by the Romans (the Roman names for the zodiacal signs are still used today) and the Arabs and later spread throughout the entire world. What Happened?: What Happened? Astrology began to lose popular credibility when predictions about the Great Conjunction of 1524 failed to 'come true.' But it wasn't until the birth of Princess Margaret in 1930 that Astrology once again found widespread popularity. That year, the London Sunday Express ran an astrological profile of the princess to celebrate her birth- which began the newspaper horoscope column. What’s In Astrology?: What’s In Astrology? Astrology can be understood as a philosophy that helps to explain life, rather than a type of mysticism that can be used as a predictive tool. Instead of discussing what the Planets do to us, we can explain ourselves based on Planetary indications. The Signs work the same way: Each of the twelve Signs is a unique combination of one of the four Elements and one of the three Qualities. The Elements and Qualities demonstrate that we are all part of the environment. The four Elements and their corresponding Signs are: Fire (Aries, Leo and Sagittarius) Earth (Taurus, Virgo and Capricorn) Air (Gemini, Libra and Aquarius) Water (Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces). The Cardinal Signs are Aries, Cancer, Libra and Capricorn. The Fixed Signs are Taurus, Leo, Scorpio and Aquarius. The Mutable Signs are Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius and Pisces. Types of Astrology: Types of Astrology There are two major types of Astrology practiced today in the Western World: Tropical and Siderial. Tropical Astrology assigns the Signs based on their position in relation to the Spring Equinox, which marks the Astrological New Year and usually falls on March 21. Siderial Astrology assigns positions based on constellations, rather than in relation to the Equinox. The most popular form of traditional Western astrology is sun sign astrology, the kind found in the horoscopes of many daily newspapers. A horoscope is an astrological forecast. The term is also used to describe a map of the zodiac at the time of ones birth. Do You Believe?: Do You Believe? Astrology is believed by millions of people and it has survived for thousands of years In a poll done by Gallup, in September 1996, 1000 people were polled to see if they believed in paranormal things like UFO’s, channeling, and ghosts. The results for astrology came up as: Do you believe in astrology? Believe: 25% Not sure: 22% Don't believe: 52% Astrology Gone Famous?: Astrology Gone Famous? Sir Isaac Newton (1643 - 1727) - English mathematician and natural philosopher (physicist), who is considered by many the greatest scientist that ever lived. Studied at Cambridge. His findings of gravitation, calculus, and the spectrum helped him contribute to astrology Michel Nostradamus (1503-1566) - World's most famous authors of prophecies. Nostradamus enthusiasts have credited him with predicting a copious number of events in world history, including the French Revolution, the atomic bomb, the rise of Adolf Hitler, and allegedly the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center. Catherine de Medicis requested Nostradamus to write the horoscopes of her husband, King Henry II and her children William Lilly (1602-1681) - Foremost English astrologer of the 17th century.Lilly published many astrological almanacs and in 1647 wrote Christian Astrology, the most definitive work on astrology ever written in English. He is most famous for predicting the Great Fire of London in 1666. Horoscopes : Horoscopes A horoscope is a map of the zodiacal circle with the earth at the center. A horoscope is the forecast astrologers make based on the chart. The word horoscope comes from the Greek word horoskopos, which literally means hour watcher. There are twelve sun signs for horoscopes. The daily horoscope columns for the 12 zodiac signs are only based on an assumed month and day of birth which falls within a range of dates when the Sun is in a particular Sign. These horoscopes are only based on an estimate of where the Sun was located on your date of birth Proponents Case: Proponents Case Slide10: Astrology -The Greeks and Romans -Astrologers theories of the sun, planets, and stars have not changed! -In most charts planets such as Neptune, Uranus, and Pluto are not included. -However, some astrologers do use these planets in their readings. -Without change in their theories, Astrologers then have little error. Slide11: Magic The use of Magic -Astrologers used the night sky with magical views to understand the planets. -Lawrence Jerome (Astrologer) explains: The omen or magic object has certain physical properties that are related to the external world by analogy. For instance, the reddish color of the planet Mars means to the astrologer that it is magically related with blood, war and metal iron. . . Slide12: Logic and Science -The use of mathematics Horoscopes derived from the use of mathematics with the placement of the sun to the planets to earth. -Twelve Signs -The use of Science -The planets -Important for astrology studies Slide13: Horoscope Proponents -Pyramids, DNA, and the Elements -Horoscopes are known as a small part of macrocosmic DNA -Mandala (horoscopes)- a symbol of self entity. -Both Masculine and Feminine -The elements -The Triplicities -Three Signs belonging to each sign, many having similar characteristics of the same elements. Slide14: The Elements Slide15: Human Behavior -Perception -Horoscopes: Twelve Signs -Describes one’s personality traits, compatibility with other, personal life etc. -Example: Mirror Media’s influence -Magazines -Newspapers: two-thirds provide horoscopes Slide16: Linda Goodman Famous Astrologer -Wrote two books: -Sun Signs and Love Signs: A New Approach to the Human Heart -Sun Signs: first published in 1968. It made #1 in the New York Bestsellers list. This book brought astrology into the public eye. She was found to be one of the most talented astrologer in The Age of Aquariusâ (1970’s) Slide17: Beliefs -Who believes in astrology? Times took a poll: -15% of undergraduates -39% of all American adults Which is just about 66 million people Astrology: Astrology THE THREE UNKNOWN: THE THREE UNKNOWN URANUS- 1781 NEPTUNE- 1846 PLUTO- 1930 Slide20: ANCIENT ASTROLOGERS NEVER PREDICTED THE EXISTENCE OF THESE THREE OUTER PLANETS, UNTIL ASTRONOMERS DISCOVERED THEM. THE HISTORY IS INCONSISTENT WITH THE CLAIM THAT ASTROLOGY IS A PRECISE SCIENCE. IF IT IS CLAIMED THAT EACH PLANET HAS AN INFLUENCE IN HUMAN BEHAVIOR, THEN A PREDICTION OF EXISTING PLANETS SHOULD HAVE BEEN MADE A LONG TIME AGO. GOODMAN, ' A PLANET DOESN’T HAVE ANY ASTROLOGICAL INFLUENCE UNTIL IT IS DISCOVERED'. ASTROLOGERS ARE NOW SAYING THAT THERE ARE MORE THAN NINE PLANETS. STUDIES: STUDIES Shawn Carlson-Physicist. Gave 30 American and European astrologers the natal charts of 116 subjects. For each subject astrologers were given three personality profiles. Astrologers were to match the natal charts with the personality profiles. Astrologers stated they could match 50% of the subjects but they only managed to match 34%. As good as guessing. Slide22: Saint Augustine-Patriarch of a Roman Catholic Church. If stars determine our fate, then astral twins will lead the same sort of lives. Studied a pair of astral twins, a slave and an aristocrat. Destiny is not written in stars. Slide23: Bertram R. Forer (1949)- Psychologist Gave personality test to his students: ignored their answers and gave them all an identical response from a newspaper astrology column. They were asked to rate the description from 0-5 with 5 being the most accurate. The average evaluation was 4.26 Forer Effect (subjective validation): People tend to accept vague and generalized descriptions of their personalities without realizing that the same evaluation can apply to almost everyone else. PITTFALLS OF HUMAN PERCEPTION: PITTFALLS OF HUMAN PERCEPTION Selective thinking…person selects out favorable evidence for remembrance and focus, while ignoring unfavorable evidence for a belief. Forer Effect…tendency of people to rate sets of statements as highly accurate for them personally even though the statements could apply to many people. Confirmation Bias…one tends to notice and to look for what confirms one's beliefs, and to ignore, not look for, or undervalue the relevance of what contradicts one's beliefs. 'wishful thinking/magical thinking' QUESTIONS FOR THE BELIEVERS: QUESTIONS FOR THE BELIEVERS What is the likelihood that one-twelfth of the world’s population is having the same kind of day? Are all horoscopes done before the discovery of the three outermost planets incorrect? Why do different schools of astrology disagree so strongly with each other? Conclusion: Conclusion -The Ancient Art -Long history, well established -accuracy hasn't depleted -Mathematics -with the right calculations astrologers can accurately describe people and predict events -Human Behavior -coincides with the twelve signs -Faith in Astrology -Love -Daily decisions -President Regan Skeptics: Skeptics The three unknown planets. Why didn’t they know? Astrology has been adjusted throughout history, even though the planets have shifted. The numerous tests. Results suggest that the astrologers were only guessing. WHAT DO YOU THINK?: WHAT DO YOU THINK?