Autism 06 BU handout

Information about Autism 06 BU handout

Published on June 15, 2007

Author: Me_I

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Slide1:  Investigations of Grammar in Autism: Knowledge of Passives and Binding Alexandra Perovic1, Nadya Modyanova1, Ellen Hanson2, Leonard Rappaport2, Ken Wexler1 1Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2Children’s Hospital Boston Experiment I: Passives two choice picture task actional verbs: kiss, push, hold non-actional verbs: love, see, a. Active c. Active remember Marge pushes Homer. Lisa loves Bart. b. Passive d. Passive Homer is pushed. Bart is loved. Homer is pushed by Marge. Bart is loved by Lisa. (6 items in each condition) Summary and Interpretation of Results Passives: Children with autism perform poorer than verbal and non-verbal MA-matched controls on all types of passives: short and long, of actional and non-actional verbs. TD controls show difficulties with passives of non-actional verbs only, in line with reports in the literature. Children with autism lack A-chains. Due to underdeveloped grammar, they cannot even resort to a linguistic strategy of interpreting non-actional passives as adjectival passives. Binding: Children with autism show some difficulties interpreting personal pronouns, just like the TD controls, but show severe difficulties interpreting reflexives, unlike either verbal or non-verbal MA matched controls. Children with autism cannot interpret the syntactic relation between the reflexive and its antecedent. Their interpretation of coreference however is in line with MA-matched TD controls.  The fact that participants with autism performed worse than even their verbal MA-matched controls suggests that grammar is specifically impaired in this disorder. References Borer, H., andamp; Wexler, K. (1987). The maturation of syntax. In Roeper andamp; Williams (eds), Parameter Setting, 23-172. Dordrecht: Reidel. Chien, Y-C. andamp; Wexler, K. (1990). Children’s knowledge of locality conditions in binding as evidence for the modularity of syntax and pragmatics. Language Acquisition 1 (3): 225-295. Churchill D.W. (1972). The relationship of early infantile autism and developmental language disorders of childhood. Journal of Autism and Child Schizophrenia 2: 182-197. Hirsch, C. andamp; Wexler, K. (2004). Children’s passives and their resulting interpretation. Paper presented at GALANA 2004. Kjelgaard M. andamp; Tager-Flusberg, H. (2001). An investigation of language impairment in autism: Implications for genetic subgroups. Language and Cognitive Processes 16: 287-308. Roberts, J., Rice, M. andamp; Tager-Flusberg, H. (2004). Tense marking in children with autism. Applied Psycholinguistics 25: 429-448. Tager-Flusberg, H. (1981). Sentence comprehension in autistic children. Applied Psycholinguistics 2: 5-24. Is grammar impaired in autism? Standard view: Functional aspects of language are impaired (pragmatics, conversational skills, prosody) Computational aspects of language are spared (morphosyntax, phonology). BUT: Very early research (e.g. Churchill 1972) and very recent research (e.g. Kjelgaard andamp; Tager-Flusberg, 2001; Roberts, Rice andamp; Tager-Flusberg, 2004) suggest this view is inaccurate: a large proportion of children with autism omit functional morphemes and especially verbal inflection in their spontaneous speech and in elicited production. What about complex syntax in autism? Tager-Flusberg (1981) suggests difficulties on actional passives The goal of this study: To investigate aspects of complex grammar in children with autism, that of passives and binding, compared to typically developing (TD) control children functioning at similar verbal or non-verbal mental age (MA). Participants 11 children clinically diagnosed with autism age = 6;6-16 (mean age = 11) non-verbal IQ: 40-103 (mean 67, SD=21.4); receptive vocabulary SS: 40-87 (mean 58, SD=16.8) Two groups of individually matched TD controls a. matched on non-verbal MA (KBIT 1); age = 4 – 7;8 (mean age = 6) b. individually matched on verbal MA (PPVT 3); age = 3;6 – 8 (mean age = 5) (only ‘average’ controls were used – SS ranging 90-109) Predictions for children with autism Passives: If grammar is not impaired in autism, children with this disorder will show either intact knowledge of both types of passives, or at least knowledge comparable to that of TD controls functioning at similar MA levels: difficulties with non-actional, but not actional passives. If their grammar is impaired, children with autism will show poor performance on all passives in comparison to TD controls functioning at similar MA levels. Binding: If only pragmatic, but not syntactic knowledge is affected in autism, children with this disorder will show difficulties interpreting personal but not reflexive pronouns. If syntax is also affected in autism, children may show difficulties interpreting reflexive pronouns, the pattern not evidenced in TD controls at any stage of language development. Acquisition of Passives in TD Actional passives (pushed, kissed) are mastered before non-actional passives (seen, loved) (Maratsos et al 1980, Gordon andamp; Chafetz, 1990; Hirsch andamp; Wexler, 2004). Explanation: According to Borer andamp; Wexler (1987), young children lack A-chains. Their seemingly good performance on actional passives is a result of a linguistic strategy of interpreting actional passives as adjectival, where no formation of A-chain is required. Acquisition of Binding in TD Reflexive pronouns are mastered before personal pronouns (‘Delay of Principle B Effect’). Explanation: There is a distinction between syntactic binding and coreference: children know the syntactic principle governing the distribution of reflexives, but may have difficulties executing non-syntactic (pragmatic) principles that govern coreference (Chien andamp; Wexler, 1990). Experiment II: Binding two choice picture task a. Name Pronoun: Bart’s dad is washing him. c. Control Possessive: Bart’s dad is petting a dog. b. Name Reflexive: Bart’s dad is washing himself. d. Control Name: Bart is petting a dog. (8 items in each condition) Conclusion Grammar IS impaired in autism. Results: Binding Main effect of sentence type: F(3,90) = 13.606, p andlt; .001 Main effect of group: F(2,30) = 8.049, p = .002 Interaction bet. sen.t type andamp; group: F(6,90)=5.818, pandlt;.001 Results: Passives Main effect of sentence type: F(5,150) = 38.061, p andlt; .001 Main effect of group: F(2,30) = 38.56, p andlt; .001 Interaction between sent. type andamp; group: F(10,150), p andlt; .001 This research is sponsored by the Anne and Paul Marcus Family Foundation and the Brain Development and Disorders Project at MIT. We thank all our participants and their families.

Related presentations


Other presentations created by Me_I

body language
15. 06. 2007
0 views

body language

Pregnant Man Delivers Baby Girl
06. 07. 2008
0 views

Pregnant Man Delivers Baby Girl

Pregnant Man delivers baby girl
04. 07. 2008
0 views

Pregnant Man delivers baby girl

Interview guide
22. 04. 2008
0 views

Interview guide

Price
17. 04. 2008
0 views

Price

valuation models
17. 04. 2008
0 views

valuation models

Stan Mcmillen
14. 04. 2008
0 views

Stan Mcmillen

ABch11
13. 04. 2008
0 views

ABch11

IPStrategy mozambique
10. 04. 2008
0 views

IPStrategy mozambique

magaddinometrans01
09. 04. 2008
0 views

magaddinometrans01

lecture7 07 time cmp
07. 04. 2008
0 views

lecture7 07 time cmp

Easter
09. 07. 2007
0 views

Easter

PHSC1013 Reactions
02. 01. 2008
0 views

PHSC1013 Reactions

Digestive System Disorders
26. 03. 2008
0 views

Digestive System Disorders

ABC on HIV AIDS
16. 06. 2007
0 views

ABC on HIV AIDS

plateau
09. 07. 2007
0 views

plateau

4 YCCC 1500 Competition K1IR
16. 06. 2007
0 views

4 YCCC 1500 Competition K1IR

2DShapes
16. 06. 2007
0 views

2DShapes

Analyzing Political Cartoons 1
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Analyzing Political Cartoons 1

kwanza
09. 07. 2007
0 views

kwanza

7 passions
16. 06. 2007
0 views

7 passions

GreekDrama
09. 07. 2007
0 views

GreekDrama

L9medicine
12. 10. 2007
0 views

L9medicine

Business opportunities 2005
18. 10. 2007
0 views

Business opportunities 2005

Rocio Guirao Diaz
03. 09. 2007
0 views

Rocio Guirao Diaz

Jorge Tellez Fuentes
22. 10. 2007
0 views

Jorge Tellez Fuentes

87 81
22. 10. 2007
0 views

87 81

Active Aging Steps
27. 11. 2007
0 views

Active Aging Steps

Yafei ECG poster final
15. 11. 2007
0 views

Yafei ECG poster final

NACAA Conference FSEP
29. 12. 2007
0 views

NACAA Conference FSEP

chem 101 chapter 6 slides
04. 01. 2008
0 views

chem 101 chapter 6 slides

comp intel
03. 10. 2007
0 views

comp intel

03n 0203 ts00002 LEACH
19. 11. 2007
0 views

03n 0203 ts00002 LEACH

mikelle
28. 12. 2007
0 views

mikelle

Dear God
03. 10. 2007
0 views

Dear God

Team Leader Training 12 11 06
09. 07. 2007
0 views

Team Leader Training 12 11 06

Schneider and Schmitt
09. 07. 2007
0 views

Schneider and Schmitt

paraguay
09. 07. 2007
0 views

paraguay

mowbjan06
09. 07. 2007
0 views

mowbjan06

mlk 2
09. 07. 2007
0 views

mlk 2

Mayan Cosmology
09. 07. 2007
0 views

Mayan Cosmology

GCSE ART D of Dead
09. 07. 2007
0 views

GCSE ART D of Dead

Enter the 2007 Art Comp1
09. 07. 2007
0 views

Enter the 2007 Art Comp1

cases
24. 02. 2008
0 views

cases

a032405
09. 10. 2007
0 views

a032405

sfa ch2
01. 01. 2008
0 views

sfa ch2

6 12USAITAsecondpanel
22. 10. 2007
0 views

6 12USAITAsecondpanel

Gatekeepers 6
11. 12. 2007
0 views

Gatekeepers 6

EU New Member States Brno NA
18. 03. 2008
0 views

EU New Member States Brno NA

Rym Kefi
05. 01. 2008
0 views

Rym Kefi

Chinese Dynasties
25. 03. 2008
0 views

Chinese Dynasties

2 4 Adams Hallam
07. 10. 2007
0 views

2 4 Adams Hallam

Wings of the Centennial
09. 07. 2007
0 views

Wings of the Centennial

Creating a User Group 2005
30. 03. 2008
0 views

Creating a User Group 2005

Observation
09. 07. 2007
0 views

Observation

usingmypyramidadult
04. 03. 2008
0 views

usingmypyramidadult

Stefan Stanciugelu
15. 10. 2007
0 views

Stefan Stanciugelu

carreira
19. 06. 2007
0 views

carreira

Capitalization Part 2
19. 06. 2007
0 views

Capitalization Part 2

Caceres 2007
19. 06. 2007
0 views

Caceres 2007

CHETEMPOFA
18. 06. 2007
0 views

CHETEMPOFA

cervantes
18. 06. 2007
0 views

cervantes

CEIS 23 06
18. 06. 2007
0 views

CEIS 23 06

cartoon classics
18. 06. 2007
0 views

cartoon classics

cardiac2
19. 06. 2007
0 views

cardiac2

hphennalect
09. 07. 2007
0 views

hphennalect

Current Presentation March06
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Current Presentation March06

cul 18
18. 06. 2007
0 views

cul 18

competitive rviews
18. 06. 2007
0 views

competitive rviews

company wbc
18. 06. 2007
0 views

company wbc

City Guide Mobile web en
18. 06. 2007
0 views

City Guide Mobile web en

MICROIII Aula11
14. 11. 2007
0 views

MICROIII Aula11

comunicado2
22. 10. 2007
0 views

comunicado2

Camilla Schreiner UiO
19. 06. 2007
0 views

Camilla Schreiner UiO

verb som laanord
27. 09. 2007
0 views

verb som laanord

LCWS05 gao 1
12. 10. 2007
0 views

LCWS05 gao 1

ambiguity
16. 06. 2007
0 views

ambiguity

all about burgers 1
16. 06. 2007
0 views

all about burgers 1

AGME 1
16. 06. 2007
0 views

AGME 1

Advanced ADO
16. 06. 2007
0 views

Advanced ADO

adolposter winkles
16. 06. 2007
0 views

adolposter winkles

AbrahamseOverviewAM
16. 06. 2007
0 views

AbrahamseOverviewAM

31 Presentation
16. 06. 2007
0 views

31 Presentation

303lec09
16. 06. 2007
0 views

303lec09

04 06 training
15. 06. 2007
0 views

04 06 training

Brian PM FINAL
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Brian PM FINAL

Berkeley ISSC Feb 07
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Berkeley ISSC Feb 07

Attraction
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Attraction

Asali
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Asali

April Showers
15. 06. 2007
0 views

April Showers

APA San Diego
15. 06. 2007
0 views

APA San Diego

ap05blogs
15. 06. 2007
0 views

ap05blogs

anastasatos
15. 06. 2007
0 views

anastasatos

Analyzing Political Cartoons
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Analyzing Political Cartoons

analyzing cartoons incent asia
15. 06. 2007
0 views

analyzing cartoons incent asia

africanamericanhumor
16. 06. 2007
0 views

africanamericanhumor

americanpoplanguage
15. 06. 2007
0 views

americanpoplanguage

mainmenu2007changes jml
06. 03. 2008
0 views

mainmenu2007changes jml

StephenAbram RecreatingServices3
10. 03. 2008
0 views

StephenAbram RecreatingServices3

Joanna Krupa
03. 09. 2007
0 views

Joanna Krupa

HowtheWestWasWon
19. 02. 2008
0 views

HowtheWestWasWon

accidental humor
16. 06. 2007
0 views

accidental humor

keyes
03. 01. 2008
0 views

keyes

VolkswagenCoaching
16. 11. 2007
0 views

VolkswagenCoaching

07 kauai1
26. 02. 2008
0 views

07 kauai1

Urban Waters and Ports html
30. 12. 2007
0 views

Urban Waters and Ports html

awakening
15. 06. 2007
0 views

awakening

RR11 NIA Hodes
03. 01. 2008
0 views

RR11 NIA Hodes

AAAR diesel1
29. 02. 2008
0 views

AAAR diesel1

RSS AnnualMtg3
29. 09. 2007
0 views

RSS AnnualMtg3

USTC
29. 11. 2007
0 views

USTC

ESS Adv Plan Present 4 18
09. 07. 2007
0 views

ESS Adv Plan Present 4 18

CMR0101
18. 06. 2007
0 views

CMR0101