Published on July 1, 2009
Balance Sheet Auditing : Balance Sheet Auditing CS 7-1 Agenda : Agenda Overall Objectives Analytical Review Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Prepaid Assets Other Current Assets Property, Plant and Equipment Other Long Term Assets Accounts Payable/Accruals Intercompany Accounts and Equity Reconciliations Overall Objectives : Overall Objectives Provide an understanding of the balance sheet accounts Provide an understanding of the relationships between balance sheet and income statement accounts Explain audit techniques for certain balance sheet accounts Explain the use of analytical procedures in auditing Analytical Procedures : Analytical Procedures What are analytical procedures? Variation Analysis Ratio Analysis Trend Analysis Why use analytical procedures? Typically, analytical procedures are a quick way to point out unusual trends or activity in account balances Analytical Procedures (cont) : Analytical Procedures (cont) Variation Analysis Used to note unusual variations between certain related accounts or to note variations between different time periods for one account Also used to note variances between budgeted and actual amounts What types of accounts are related? Sales and A/R, COGS and Inventory, PP&E and Depreciation, Gaming Revenues and Promotional Allowances, etc. Why are the relationships important? Analytical Procedures (cont) : Analytical Procedures (cont) Time Periods to Review Balance Sheet accounts are typically reviewed month to month or the most current month to the previous audited period, which is typically year end. Income Statement accounts are typically reviewed using the same month or period of time from one year to the next, especially in the hospitality industry. WHY? These accounts are also compared against budgeted amounts. Analytical Procedures (cont) : Analytical Procedures (cont) Ratio Analysis Use of ratios to analyze Types of ratios? Current Ratio Debt to Equity Inventory Turnover Gaming Specific Ratios Hold % RevPAR Average Daily Rate Occupancy % Metrics against dollar values (i.e. number of markers, fills per $1,000 in drop) Analytical Procedures (cont) : Analytical Procedures (cont) Trend Analysis Review of trends in accounts. This is part of variation analysis. Account balances climbing or declining at certain times of the year. Why would this happen? Earnings Management Bonuses Proper Accounting Other unusual items Detail Audit Testing : Detail Audit Testing Typically audit testing is done using samples or scopes. You also have to determine which accounts to test and which specific items in that accounts also. The detail testing is done in conjunction with analytical procedures, observations, inquiries and risk analysis to address all areas of concern. Detail Audit Testing (cont) : Detail Audit Testing (cont) Difference between materiality and scope/sample Materiality is the overall amount as to which the audit is measured and the threshold at which it is performed. Scope/sample is how many specific details/support you test for a balance. Detail Audit Testing (cont) : Detail Audit Testing (cont) Difference between materiality and scope/sample Scope/Sample Can be based on amounts over a dollar threshold, a statistical sample, a judgmental sample, an undetermined number of items to obtain a specific coverage of the account balance, or just a specific number of items (this can be based on risk or type of account or type of transactions) You must document the support for the sample as to why it was appropriate to sample and why the sample scope was adequate Cash : Cash Cash in Bank Cash on Hand Restricted Cash Chips/Tokens Hopper Loads Clearing Accounts Risks with Cash? Overstatement Unknown restrictions Theft True count Cash (cont) : Cash (cont) Standard Audit Procedures Trace amounts to reconciliations/support and to the general ledger Test bank reconciliations for cash in bank Agree to bank statement Test reconciling items Outstanding Checks Deposits in transit Accounting errors Agree cash on hand to cage accountability documentation and underlying support Agree hopper load and chip/token balances to count sheets Clearing Accounts Typically used to estimate revenue as all amounts are not counted each night Clearing accounts should “clear” the following day or next count, as the true revenue/cash numbers are available Agree the clearing account estimate to the supporting calculation and then the adjusting entry to the actual count documentation Cash (cont) : Cash (cont) Additional Procedures Discuss any restrictions with management Review bank agreements for restrictions Confirm balances with the bank (primarily performed by external audit firms Accounts Receivable : Accounts Receivable Standard Audit Procedures Trace amounts to reconciliations/support and to the general ledger Review A/R aged detail trial balances for large/unusual balances Typically we would review casino and hotel receivables based on materiality What is large/unusual? Discuss and document any large balances, as defined by materiality, that are over 180 days old with management Test the aging of the trial balance by selecting a sample of accounts receivables and tracing them to the original invoice/marker to ensure the aging is accurate in the trial balance Review the allowance for doubtful accounts support and calculations Again, typically for hotel and casino, based on materiality Ensure the schedules agree to the aged trial balances and the g/l Recalculate the schedules on a scope basis Discuss any changes in the schedules/calculations since the previous audit with management Discuss and document any known collectibility issues with management. Accounts Receivable (cont) : Accounts Receivable (cont) Additional Procedures Vouching subsequent receipts Confirmation of receivable balances Why is this difficult in the casino industry? Inventory : Inventory Standard Audit Procedures Trace amounts to reconciliations/support and to the general ledger Review the inventory system support for the material inventory accounts and ensure the balances agree to the inventory balance Typically F&B and Retail Discuss the accounting methodology for the PAR values of material inventory accounts, ensure the property follows corporate accounting policy and obtain detail support for the amounts Review the detail of “Other Inventory” if material and review invoice/payment support of any material items Inventory (cont) : Inventory (cont) Observation of inventory Sample counting Upstream/downstream testing Price Testing FIFO, LIFO Prepaid Assets : Prepaid Assets Standard Audit Procedures What is a prepaid asset? A prepaid asset is when the company pays for something in advance of incurring the expense What are some examples? Prepaid property taxes, prepaid gaming taxes, prepaid rent Trace amounts to reconciliations/support and to the general ledger Review a detail of all material prepaid accounts Obtain the detail invoice and payment support for a sample of the items and agree to the schedule Recalculate the amount that is “prepaid” and agree to the schedule Other Current Assets : Other Current Assets Standard Audit Procedures What are some examples? Deposits (due within one year) Review a detail of all material other asset accounts Trace amounts to reconciliations/support and to the general ledger Obtain the detail invoice and payment support for a sample of the items and agree to the schedule Ensure the amount is “current” or will be utilized within one year. Property, Plant and Equipment : Property, Plant and Equipment Standard Audit Procedures Review the rollforward of PP&E and Accumulated Depreciation from beginning of year to current audit date. Ensure the amounts tie to the g/l as of the previous year end and the amounts agree to the current g/l. Review the support for any retirement/sales of assets over a defined dollar limit. Agree the support to the fixed asset ledger and the recalculate the gain/loss and agree to the income statement. Agree change in depreciation to the depreciation expense line item. Perform a reasonableness test on the depreciation expense. Test of average amounts, average depreciable lives, ratio of depreciation to fixed asset balance. Property, Plant and Equipment (cont) : Property, Plant and Equipment (cont) Standard Audit Procedures Obtain a listing of asset additions from the beginning of the year to the current audit date. Ensure the amounts tie to the rollforward. Test the invoice/support and payment support for all additions over a defined scope. Ensure the amounts are properly capitalizable and are capitalized in the correct period. Review the Detail Fixed Assets listing for any unusual amounts. Review a sample of asset descriptions from the listing and ensure the asset is properly classified and the depreciable life is consistent with policy. Other Long-Term Assets : Other Long-Term Assets Standard Audit Procedures What are some examples? Deferred Charges, Chips/Tokens, Goodwill, Customer Lists, Other Intangible Assets Obtain the detail listing of these assets and test any material items. Trace amounts to reconciliations/support and to the general ledger Review the invoice/support and the payment support for any items above the defined dollar level. Ensure they still have “value” Accounts Payable/Accruals : Accounts Payable/Accruals Standard Audit Procedures Trace amounts to reconciliations/support and to the general ledger. Review the Aged Accounts Payable Trial Balance for unusual/large balances. What is large/unusual? Accounts Payable/Accruals (cont) : Accounts Payable/Accruals (cont) Obtain the check registers for all bank accounts from which A/P checks are written from the day after the balance sheet date you are auditing through the date of your fieldwork. Request and review the invoices and check copies (if available) for all checks over the predetermined dollar amount Ensure the expenses/assets were incurred/purchased and recorded in the proper period For all items relating to the period before the balance sheet date, the items should be in A/P or accruals, and therefore you can trace to those accounts. For all items relating to the period subsequent to the balance sheet date, the items should not be included in A/P or accruals, so ensure the amounts are not listed Accounts Payable/Accruals (cont) : Accounts Payable/Accruals (cont) Obtain a detail of all material accruals Typically the material accruals will be payroll and the related taxes, medical insurance, insurance claims, accrued taxes (other than payroll), accrued legal, chip/token liability, accrued player points Request support/calculations and review for reasonableness/accuracy. Review the trends for the accruals for spikes or valleys which could indicate issues. Intercompany and Equity Accounts : Intercompany and Equity Accounts Typically the audit team will ensure intercompany accounts eliminate in consolidation and review the process for the posting and reconciliation of intercompany accounts. Audit procedures for equity accounts include confirmation of balances, rollforward of equity, reviewing equity issuance documents and the recalculation/verification of “other comprehensive income.” Reconciliations : Reconciliations Review reconciliations for balance sheet accounts over a predetermined dollar amount. Agree the balances to both the detail and the general ledger. Test/verify any reconciling items over a predetermined dollar amount. Ensure the adjustments are posted timely. Ensure there are not significant unreconciled amounts listed in the reconciliation. The End : The End Any Questions?