Balancing Robot Seminar

Information about Balancing Robot Seminar

Published on January 7, 2008

Author: Joshua

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Gyrobot a Two Wheel Balancing Robot:  Gyrobot a Two Wheel Balancing Robot Larry Barello http://www.barello.net/Robots/Gyrobot How Balancing Works:  How Balancing Works Easier to balance high GC object. The Devil is in the details. Balanced Tilted Sense tilt and drive wheels to make robot erect. How Balancing Works:  How Balancing Works Restoring Torque =  * K  = Angular rate (deg/sec) K = some factor based upon robot mass & moment arm. How Balancing Works:  How Balancing Works Balance torque = M * g * sin(angle) M is moment arm (center of mass & distance from pivot). g = acceleration of gravity Angle is deviation from balance point Controlling Drive Torque:  Controlling Drive Torque As velocity increases, DC motors have less torque (back-EMF) Need to correct this so balance equation can work. Positive velocity feedback Drive = drive + Kv * velocity Kv = factor based upon motor specification. How to move:  The robot tilts in the direction of movement. How to move To move robot, need to adjust “balance angle” By adding an error to the angle, the robot will drive a little backwards, then forwards trying to maintain the “balance angle” Error can be simply a negative drive value. Tilt Sensor:  Tilt Sensor Gyroscope measures Rate Of Turn. Integrate for angle Gyroscopes drift Drift changes with temperature Tilt Sensor:  Tilt Sensor Accelerometers measure gravity. Affected by movement. Very accurate. Fusing Gyro and Tilt sensors:  Fusing Gyro and Tilt sensors Weighted Average Filter. Use fraction of error between tilt and gyro Add to integrated Gyro output. Results are fast & drift free The weighted average IIR filter technique can be used to smooth out any noisy signal. Fusing Gyro and Tilt sensors:  Fusing Gyro and Tilt sensors Weighted Average Filter. Tiltgyro = Sum(Gyro – Offset) Tiltaccel = sin-1(x/g) Tiltgyro = Tiltgyro + (Tiltaccel – Tiltgyro) * K Gyro Accelerometer  + + + - K Tilt Offset - K = weighting factor (1%) Alternate to Tilt Sensor:  Alternate to Tilt Sensor F = g * sin(theta) F = A * m A * M = g * sin(theta) Theta = sin-1(A * m/g) Presumably we can use the acceleration of the robot to infer the angle of tilt and correct for gyro drift. (Note: Moment arm not included, formulas must be wrong) m = mass A = Acceleration M/S2 g = Gravity F = force Motion Sensor:  Motion Sensor Encoders measure position and velocity of wheels. Dead reckoning can be derived from encoders and the robots position determined in X, Y and Theta. Current Status:  Current Status Motion control not implemented. Navigation disabled. Remote control (Radio link) not implemented. Using acceleration to correct tilt not tried. In short, it doesn’t do anything interesting yet. Additional reading:  Additional reading Robots & controls www.barello.net/Papers/Motion_Control Pendulum Joe http://leiwww.epfl.ch Data sheets http://www.systron.com/prodinfo/AQRS.html http://products.analog.com/products/info.asp?product=ADXL202

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