Published on December 18, 2007
Slide1: SNOLAB Experimental Advisory Committee Barry Barish SNOLAB Workshop May 12-14, 2004 A New Opportunity: A New Opportunity To: The Scientific Community Re: A Request for Letters of Interest in Staging Experiments at SNOLAB Dear Colleagues, SNOLAB, an international facility for underground science, is being developed 2 km underground in INCO's Creighton mine near Sudbury Ontario, Canada. Establishing this facility provides us with new and exciting opportunities in underground science and we look forward to working with you to make SNOLAB a success. A New Opportunity: A New Opportunity The development of this underground facility and its associated surface facilities is funded by ~$50M from various resources in Canada and in the Province of Ontario. SNOLAB will be developed near the existing SNO experiment with a joint clean area encompassing the full facility. The establishment of SNOLAB will provide opportunities to carry out the best of the next generation of international underground experiments that will benefit from the depth and from laboratory cleanliness conditions similar to those demonstrated in the existing SNO laboratory. The 6000 meter-water-equivalent depth under a flat overburden results in excellent shielding from cosmic radiation and its progenies. SNOLAB will have the lowest muon flux among operating facilities. SNO Laboratory : SNO Laboratory 2000 m rock overburden Almost flat surface Surface support facilities Vertical access Main cavity ~10,000m3 Solar neutrino oscillation ! SNOLAB Concept: SNOLAB Concept SNO cavity New Experiment? Ladder Labs -- Machine shop, Low background Rectangular Hall 60x50x50 ft Phase 2 Cryogenic Hall Why New Labs Deep Underground?: Why New Labs Deep Underground? A clean, quiet and isolated setting is needed to study rare phenomena free from environmental background. Such a setting can be obtained only deep underground, where we can escape the rain of cosmic rays from outer space. Why do neutrinos have tiny masses and how do they transform into one another? Are the existence and stability of ordinary matter related to neutrino properties? Are there additional types of neutrinos? What is the mysterious dark matter and how much of it is neutrinos? What role do neutrinos play in the synthesis of the elements in the periodic table? Is there a deeper simplicity underlying the forces and particles we see? Underground Laboratories: Underground Laboratories Variation of the flux of cosmic-ray muons with overburden. Scientific Motivation: Scientific Motivation Neutrino Properties Solar Neutrinos Long Baseline Experiments Double Beta Decay Dark Matter Proton Decay Neutrinos, Solar Energy, and the Formation of the Elements One Depth Suits All?: One Depth Suits All? Cosmic rays create background events that mask the critical events being searched for. It takes two miles of rock to absorb the most energetic of the muons created by cosmic ray protons striking the earth's atmosphere At such great depths, the only backgrounds are made by neutrinos (which easily penetrate the whole earth but, by the same token, interact very seldom) and by local radioactivity in the rock itself Some experiments do not require the greatest depths, while for other experiments there is no option but depth and extreme cleanliness. The SNOLAB facility will provide new opportunities at deep depths and we seek a scientific program to take advantage of that unique feature Underground Laboratories: Underground Laboratories Variation of the flux of cosmic-ray muons with overburden. Kamioka Observatory: Kamioka Observatory KamLAND (operated by Tohoku Univ.) Super-Kamiokande 1000 m rock overburden The mine is no more active Support facilities on the surface XMASS R&D Tokyo Dark Matter exp Plot type GW detectors 20m×20m 100m×100m (Cryogenic) 100m To mine entrance (1.8km from SK) Underground Laboratories: Underground Laboratories Variation of the flux of cosmic-ray muons with overburden. INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory: INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory 1400 m rock overburden Flat cross-section Underground area 18 000 m2 Support facilities on the surface Gran Sasso Scientific Program: Gran Sasso Scientific Program Neutrinos from CERN (CNGS) OPERA ICARUS (600ton → 3000ton) (data taken at the surface) Neutrinos from the atmosphere MONOLITH not approved Neutrinos from the Sun GNO BOREXINO LENS proposal Em: 36tons, Pb: 2ktons Observe τ-decay Real time measurement of 7Be ν. It will start soon. Low energy solar neutrino exp with 30ton Ga. Gran Sasso Scientific Program: Gran Sasso Scientific Program Neutrinos from Supernovae LVD Double beta decay experiments Enriched Ge (Heidelberg-Moscow) Cryogenic techniques (Cuorecino, TeO2) The lab is also used for studies of geology and biology. Search for non baryonic dark matter Several complementary experiments Example: DAMA 100kg NaI detector Nuclear reactions (two accelerators, 40 and 400keV) Fusion reactions in the Sun Anomalous screening in metals (LUNA-2) 1kton liq scintillator detector Underground Laboratories: Underground Laboratories Variation of the flux of cosmic-ray muons with overburden. Proposed Multipurpose Underground Laboratory in the U.S. Proposed U.S. Underground Laboratory -- Present Context: Proposed U.S. Underground Laboratory -- Present Context Compelling case has been established for the broad range of science (physics, astrophysics, biology, geology and national security) at a deep underground laboratory. The case validated by a number of studies, including two National Research Council (NRC) reports a soon-to-be-released National Science and Technology Council report prepared by the Interagency Working Group on the Physics of the Universe. Proposals for Homestake mine, San Jacinto and Soudan NSF carried out a site review process and selected Homestake as the most promising site. Since that review, however, the pumps have been turned off at Homestake, and the mine is now flooding. Moreover, additional sites have been put forth. Proposed U.S. Underground Laboratory -- Process at NSF: Proposed U.S. Underground Laboratory -- Process at NSF The Directorate for Mathematical and Physical Sciences (MPS) has moved to put in place a deliberate process that has NSF working with the community to develop a course of action that will realize the scientific opportunities before us. In broad outline, NSF process consists of returned the submitted site proposals without prejudice informational meeting held at NSF to describe roadmap and to receive community feedback - 29 March 2004; work with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop mechanisms for selecting and jointly funding underground science experiments issue a series of up to three solicitations for planning grants beginning this spring. Underground science community is joining toward making one joint proposal to NSF for an underground laboratory Proposed U.S. Underground Laboratory -- Process at NSF: Proposed U.S. Underground Laboratory -- Process at NSF Concerning the solicitations the purpose of the first is to provide funds to one or more groups to develop detailed science modules reflecting the range of science opportunities noted above and to specify the associated infrastructure requirements. The second solicitation, issued at the same time, would fund several site development studies. The final solicitation, a year or more into the future, would provide funds to develop underground laboratory proposals combining site infrastructure with a suite of initial science experiments for NSF consideration. The third solicitation would only occur if MPS and its partners determined that timely construction of a major new facility is needed to realize the scientific opportunities.. Underground Laboratories: Underground Laboratories Variation of the flux of cosmic-ray muons with overburden. Slide22: SNOLAB EAC Membership Letters of Intent: Letters of Intent Experiment: COBRA Contact: Kai Zuber Scope: Double Beta Decay Workshop Presentation: Yes LOI: Received Experiment: Majorana Contact: Steve Elliott Scope: Double Beta Decay Workshop Presentation: Yes LOI: Received Experiment: GERDA Contact: Iris Abt Scope: Double Beta Decay Workshop Presentation: Yes LOI: Expected Experiment: EXO Contact: Giorgio Gratta Scope: Double Beta Decay Workshop Presentation: Yes LOI: Expected ---------------------------- Experiment: SNO with Scintillator Contact: Mark Chen Scope: Solar Neutrinos and Double Beta Decay Workshop Presentation: Yes ... with McDonald & Caccianiga LOI: Received Letters of Intent: Letters of Intent Experiment: Lithium Detector Contact: Anatoly Kopylov Scope: Solar Neutrinos Workshop Presentation: No LOI: Received Experiment: Noble Liquid Tracking Detector Contact: Bill Willis Scope: Solar Neutrinos Workshop Presentation: Yes LOI: Received Experiment: CLEAN Contact: Dan McKinsey Scope: Solar Neutrinos and Dark Matter Workshop Presentation: Yes LOI: Expected --------------------- Experiment: CDMS Contact: Dan Akerib Scope: Dark Matter Workshop Presentation: Yes LOI: Note from Dan Akerib Experiment: ZEPLIN Contact: Nigel Smith Scope: Dark Matter Workshop Presentation: Yes LOI: Expected Letters of Intent: Letters of Intent Experiment: PICASSO Contact: Viktor Zacek Scope: Dark Matter Workshop Presentation: Yes LOI: Expected Experiment: DRIFT Contact: Jeff Martoff Scope: Dark Matter Workshop Presentation: Yes LOI: No Experiment: DRIFT-III Contact: Neil Spooner Scope: Dark Matter Workshop Presentation: No LOI: Received Experiment: XENON Contact: Tom Shutt Scope: Dark Matter Workshop Presentation: Yes LOI: Received --------------------- Experiment: HALO Contact: Charles Duba Scope: Supernova Neutrinos Workshop Presentation: Yes LOI: No Goals: Dirac or Majorana particle?: Goals: Dirac or Majorana particle? Ettore Majorana Majorana : The neutrino is its own antiparticle Solar Neutrinos – The Future: Solar Neutrinos – The Future In the standard solar model the flux from the pp reaction is predicted to an accuracy of 1%. Further, the total flux is related directly to the measured solar optical luminosity. Such a copious and well-understood source of neutrinos is ideal for precisely determining the neutrino masses and mixings. It also affords a way to search for hypothesized sterile neutrinos as much as a million times lighter than those explored by present experiments, provided they mixed sufficiently with the active neutrinos. Unfortunately, the pp neutrinos have very low energies Dark Matter – Direct Searches: Dark Matter – Direct Searches EAC Goal: EAC Goal Work with SNOLAB and the community to develop the most promising program for the new laboratory taking into account: Science potential is the highest priority! The approved program must have significant discovery potential and strong collaborations to obtain funding The experiments should take advantage of the uniqueness of great depth at SNOLAB The program should be determined in the context of other plans worldwide. R&D toward proposals not yet mature should be accommodated where possible. EAC will provide strategic and technical guidance, in order to construct a deep underground laboratory expeditiously and in synergy with a world class research program.